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Whilst collecting matter for my Folk-phrases of 
Four Counties (E. D, S. No. 73), I projected a Mid- 
land Counties Glossary, and noted thousands of 
words to that end. But the English Dialect Society's 
recent publications, and kindred books, render much 
of my work superfluous, save for purposes of com- 
parison. Little having been done, in the past, for 
Warwickshire, however — as we shall shortly see — 
I beg to submit this Word-book to interested persons. 

In 1865 Mr. Halliwell published a small duo. 

(5I ^y 4i inches), the full title of which is A Selection 

froTn an unpublished Glossary of Provincial Words 

in use in Warwickshire in the early part of the 

present century ; and added this note : 

*The noidcee of provincial words which are here printed 
are, I believe, to be implicitly relied upon for accuracy. 
They are selected from a manuscript glossary of Warwickshire 
provincialisms, by the late Thomas Sharp, the author of the 
Dissertation on the Coventry PageantSf 4to, 1825, collected by 
him during a residence of many years in that county, and 
completed early in the year 1839. Some of the illustrations 
curiously illustrate the phraseology of Shakespeare.' 


This little work was printed for the editor by 
Whittingham & Wilkins, at the Chiswick Press, 
Took 8 Court, Chancery Lane, and the impression 
was limited to twenty-Jive copies. On Nov. 18, 1865, 
Mr. Halliwell purposely destroyed fifteen copies, 
and preserved ten selected copies only. But he 
included the words, and others aft/Crwards communi- 
cated to him, m the various editions of his Dictionary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words. 

It is to be regretted that Sharp's Glossary was 
not published entire, for the manuscript, together 
with the unique collection of Warwickshire docu- 
ments^ known as the Staunton Collection^ perished in 
the calamitous fire which destroyed the Birmingham 
Free Library, Jan. 1 1 , 1 879. 

Mr. Halliwell's selection has been reprinted twice, 
in measure. Mr. Sam. Timmins, F.S.A., a Midland 
antiquary, contributed the words — with definitions 
en prdds — to the 'Notes and Queries' column of 
the BirminghoAra Weekly Post of June 10 and 17, 
1893 ; and adopted the same course in his History 
of Warwickshire (Stock's 'Popular County Histories'), 
wherein, too (pp. 221-30), he discourses briefly on 
Midland dialects and dialect works. I have given 
all Mr. Halliwell's words, many of his definitions, 
and most of his remarks in ftiU ; and within quota- 
tion marks wherever necessary. As not more than 
three of the examples are unknown to me, I have 
added any needful annotations to the remaining 


In 1861 Mr. John R. Wise published a work 
entitled Sh/ihipen\ his Birthplace aiid its Neighbour- 
hood, in which a short glossary (pp. 150-58) and 
a collection of 'provincialisms' (pp. 103-15) are 
given. Mr. Wise does not attach peculiar local 
importance to many of his words and phrases ; but 
I have quoted him in one or two instances where 
my own knowledge was deficient. 

In 1879 Mr.Wise presented a copy of Miss Jackson's 
Shropshire Word-hook to the Public Free Libraries 
of the city of Manchester — having written the 
following remai'ks on the title-page ; ' N. B. — Words 
to which the letter W, is affixed show that the 
words have been used in Warwickshire. John R. 
Wise.' Some of these words are common 'dictionary- 
words,' others I had obtained from oral relation ; 
but many of them have never been uttered in my 
hearing, so I recommend the particular volume to 
compilers and students, for these last examples are 
not included in my vocabulary. 

In 1876 the English Dialect Society published 
^o. 12) a valuable list of words, entitled Soufh 
Wartffickshii-e Provincialisms, collected and defined 
by Mrs. Frances. I have inserted withui quotation 
marks anything appropriated therefi'om. 

In 1S77 ■ George Kliot ' communicated cei-tain 
observations on the Warwickshire dialect to William 
Allinghara — of which more hereafter. Vide Intro- 

Halliwell's D-icdiiii'iry of Archaic and Provincial 


Wards (which has a paragraph or two on the Warw. 
dialect that I have abridged for my Introduction), 
and HoUoway's Dictionary of ProvincialismSy con- 
tain a few words — ^with which I am not acquainted, 
and therefore reject — assigned to Warwicltshire. 
It is possible that such words are obsolete, for 
I cannot verify them at present. 

I did not find the following work of use : perhaps 
another may be more fortunate. It is recommended 
by the E. D. S., and entitled A Letter: whearinpart 
of the JEntertainment vntoo the Queens Maiesty at 
KiUingworth Castl, in Warwick Sheer, in this 
Sommers Progress 1575, is signified. By Robert 
Laneham, 1575 (later editions 1784, 1821). 

In the reissue of Historic Warwickshire (1893), 
its editor, Mr. Joseph Hill, states that the author 
of the original edition, the late Mr. J. Tom Burgess, 
left a Warwickshire Glossary unfinished. The loca- 
tion of this MS. should concern the editors of the 


Dialect Dictionary, I think. 

This is all I know of works dealing with the folk- 
speech of Warwickshire. Journals and magazines 
occasionally record remarkable words; and a few 
such words, brought to light again by research, are 
included in the present volimie — the record being 
in every case duly acknowledged. 

Of my Vocabulary I may say that I have heard 
the words — some twelve excepted — spoken ; con- 
sequently I can fix the pronunciation of my day ; 
BXnA this is done with simple symbols, wherever 


a reader of a distant shire might be in doubt. 
Etymology is little touched upon ; this branch of 
the subject will be in the best of hands when appro- 
priate words are extracted for the forthcoming 
Dialect Dictionary. Where an etymon is suggested, 
it is identical, or nearly so, with the list-word, and 
serves to show that this was formerly no mere 
idiom. Many of the readings — mentioned as quoted 
in modem glossaries from Chaucer and other early 
writers— I had observed in the originals; but it 
seemed unjust to ignore entirely the worthy labours 
of previous workers. Moreover, I was spared the 
handling of bulky volumes, time after time, whilst 
copying, for which I am grateful. Here and there, 
I have doubtless included terms and expressions 
which are neither dialectical nor obsolescent. My 
excuse is that I found such words and phrases in 
other glossaries, too ; and feared that a reader might 
conclude that the forms are unknown or obsolete 
in Warwickshire. On the other hand, hundreds of 
words have been deliberately rejected — after mature 
consideration — as entirely unsuitable for a work 
dealing with folk-speech. 





1 ton 


'The diphthong ea is usually pixmouiicotl like ai or iiy, 
as malt, alt, plaUe, paise, valk, say, for meat, eat, pleaee, 
pease, weak, sea. 

The vowel o gives place to u, in iwiy, long, among; 
onre is pronouuced wonat ; and grun, fUn, anil pun. take 
the place ot grouwl, found, and i>ound. Shownd is also 
frequent for the imperative of nhim:. 

The letters a and o are often interchanged, aa drap, 
ip, yander, for drop, tikop, yonder ; and, per contra, 
hommer, rot, gonder, for hammer, rat. and gamier. 

The letter y is Bubstitubed for d in the words duke, deal, 
death, and dead ; whilst^mce is often pronounced dace. 

'The letter d ie added to words ending in ou>n, as 
drownded and gownd, for drownefl and gown. 

The letter e is Boiuetiraes converted into «, aa bally 
loften bolly], laft, &tob. for belly, left, and fettk. 

The nominative case and the accusative are perpetually 
confounded in such phrases aa "They ought to have spoken 
to we ; her told him 30 ; he told she so ; ub won't be hurt, 
will us]"' — Hal. Olona. 

[These remarks might be applied, with equal propiiety, 
the folk-speech of Glouc, Leic, Wore., and other Midland 



*The modem dialect of Warwickbhire contains a very 
large proportion of North-country words, more than might 
have been expected from its locality. They say yat for 
gate^ fenlfool, sheeam shame, weeat wheat y Yethard Edwardy 
Jeeams JaTtiea, leean lane, rooad road, wool wiU, pjraper 
paper, feeace/oca, oooat coat, &c.' — Hal Diet, ii. 1887, p. xxx. 

[Cf. also such words as ainoe (aince= awhile): anent: 
bittook : tsLsh : fiftut : fLssle : gid, gi'e, gin : jonnook : leem : 
like : while : whingel, &c.] 

From Letter to WiUiam Allingham, March 8, 1877. 
* ... I was bom and bred in Warwickshire, and heard the 
Leicestershire, North Staffordshire, and Derbyshire dialects 
during visits made in my childhood and youth. These 
last are represented (mildly) in AdaTn Bede, The War- 
wickshire talk is broader, and has characteristics which 
it shares with other Mercian districts.' — p. 303. 

'I have made a few notes which may perhaps be not 
unacceptable in the absence of more accomplished aid : 

' (i) The vowel always a double sound [this is rather too 
liberal a view], the y sometimes present, sometimes not ; 
either aal or yaal. Hither not heard except in o'moother, 
addressed to horses. 

'(2) Thov, never heard. Li general the second person 
singular not used in Warwickshire, except occasionally 
to young members of a family, and then always in the 
form of thee, i. e. 'ee. 

'For the emphatic nominative yo^ like the Lancashu*e. 

' For the accusative yer, without any sound of the r. 

' The demonstrative those never heard among the common 
people (unless when caught by infection from the parson, 

* Sdf pronounced sen. The / never heard in of, nor the 
n in in. 


'(3) Not year but *©ar. On the other hand, with the 
usual " compensation," head is pronounced yed. 
'{4) A gallows little chap as e'er ye see. 

* (5) Here's to you, maaster. Saam to you.' iii. pp. 304-5. 
— George Eliot* 8 life as related in her letters andjoumaisi 
arranged and edited by her husband, J. W. Cross. 3 vols, 
duo. 1885. 

In North-west Warwickshire the sound of er, ir, or, ur, 
in such words as her, fern, clerk, stetm ; shirt, skiH, dirt^ 
flirt; work, word ; turn, hurn^ church, &c., is replaced by 
that of are in share, or ere in there, and may be represented 
thus : her, fdm, oldrk, stdm ; shdrt, skdrt, ddrt, fldrt ; 
wdrk, werd; tSrn, bdrn, ohdrch. Heard is pronounced 
hdrd ; learn as Idrn ; and earth as drth. 

So popular is this sound that it replaces that of ' a' in such 
words as lane, bacon, baker, which become 16m, bdrcon, 
barker. In one instance it supersedes the long sound of 
the middle or Italian * a ' : father being spoken farther. 

As compensation, /air, tear, &c., are pronounced fur, tur ; 
e. g. ' It isn't fur (fair) of you to tur (tear) my f6r (fur).' 

The pronunciation of such words as hour, flower, tower, 
toum, in the same district, can be represented only in 
glossic, thus — a* (the rare sound between a in fat, and 
aa in 6aa-lamb) — ha', fla', ta', ta'n. 

Tabulated below are the parts of speech which differ 
from academic standards of to-day. There is no word 
which is peculiar to Warw. in the list, however. 

The Vocabulary contains further particulars in most 


CmsBes [crus-iz]. Crusts. 

Fisses [fis-iz]. Fists. 

PoeoB [pOHsiz]. Posts. 


A. An (but often ignored). 

The. Sometimes redundant : sometimes omitted (see €rh$s,). 

Badder. Worse. 

Baddest. Worst. 

Iiittler. Less. 

Littlest. Least. 

Worser. Worse (a double comparison X 

Worsest, Worstest. Worst (a double comparison^. 

Note. — More is redundant before the comparative degree, 
and most before the superlative — a style approved by old 

' His more braver daughter.' — Temp. i. a. 436. 

*Nor that I am more better 

Than Prospero.'— /bid. 19. 

' Your wisdom should show it-self more richer to signify this to 
his doctor.' — Hamlet^ iii. a. 391. 

^This was the most uukindest cut of all.' — Jul. Caescar, iii. 9. 188. 

*That after the most straitest sect of our religion I lived a 
Phnriaee.' — Acts xxvi. 5. 


As. Who, which, that 

E'er-a, Ever-a. Some, any. e. g. ' Shall you call e'er^ day 

thiswik?'(cf. (3^to5S.). 
E'er-iin, E'er-a-one, Ever-a-one. Either. 
Em. Them (see Gloss.). 
He. It 
Her. She. 
Hem. Hera 
Him. He ; it. 
Hisn [hizn]. Hia 
Me. Myself; L 
Ne'er-a, Never-a. Not any. 
Ne'er-an, Ne'er-a-one, Never-a-one. Neither. 


On it. Its ; as * I don't like the colour on it.' But perhaps 
this may be as well regarded as a mere change of preposi- 
tion. Vide On. 

Onm. Ours. 

Shisn [shizn]. Hers. 

Thfir. Var. pron. of * their.' 

Tham vd Theim. Theirs. 

Than. Var. pron. of * theirs.' 

That. Who. 

That there. That. 

Them. Those, they. 

Them here, Them there. Those. 

These here. These. ' These 'ere boots are a misfit.' 

They. These, those, e. g. 'Call they dogs in.' Recognized 
as an old plural of * the.' 

This. Inflected in the genitive, e. g. ' I like this's book best.' 
Or, is it an abbreviation of * this one's ' ? 

This here. This. 

Us. Our, me, we. 

We. Our, us, we have. * We got no money among we.' 

Ween* Our, ours (?), we have. * Ween bin to market, to-day.' 

What. Redundant after like, e. g. * She's like what he is.' 

Woom. Var. pron. of *whom' (in reading only: not heard 
in folk-speech). 

Yer [y&J. You, your. 

Y6. You. 

Yor. Your (? A. -Sax. eckver). 

Yonm, Yops, Yom. Youra * This knife's yors ' or * yOm.' 


A-oomin^ Coming, e. g. * Are you &-comin' ? ' 
A-dooin% Doing, e. g. * What are you &-dooin' ? * 
A-gooin% A-goin\ Going, e. g. * Tin &gooin' wum ' (home). 
Ain't. Is not, am not, are not, have not. 
Am, 'm. Are. e. g. * You'm a bad lad.* 


'An. Han, q, v. 

'n. Ilave. e. g. * You'n done it, now ! ' 

Arn't. Am not, are not, have not 

Bft&nty Baint, Be&nt, Bisn't. Am not, are not. 

Bin. Are, been, is. 

Bist. Art, are. 

Blow'dfp. andjjp. of 'blow.' 

BoBt, Boated, pret. of * burst ' (boated, pp.). *I bost (or ' bosted ') 

a button off my jacket, to-day.' 
Bote. Bought. 
Catch'd, p, and pp, of * catch.* 
Cop. Catch. 
Copp'd. Caught. 
Daint. Did not. 
Dare-no' [dare-n&J. Dare not. 
Didn't ought. Ought not 
Done,j>re^. of *do.' 
Draw'd, p, andpp, of * draw.' 
Drownded. Drowned. 
Druv, p. and pp, of * drive. ' 
Dussnt. Dare not 
Et, p. andj^. of * eat' 
Pote. Fought. 
Frit. Frightened. 
Gton, Gid, Gived. Gave. 
Gi'e. Give. 
Gie'B [giz]. Gives. 
Gin. Gave, * given,' or * have given.' 
Goo. Var. pron. of *go.' 
Grow'd,^. hnd pp. of *grow.' 
Grun,|>. and^. of 'grind.* 
Hadn't ought. Ought not. 
Hannot. Have not. 
Heerd. Var. pron. of 'heard.' 
Helt, p. and pp. of ' hold.' 


Hot, p, hndpp. of *hit.' 

Kep, p. tmdpp, of *keep.' 

Enow'd. Knew, known. 

Lep, pret. of * leap ' (and sb. * a leap '). 

ICaunt, May not, must not. 

Med, p, Bndpp, of 'make.' 

Mont. Must not. 

Fept. Peeped. 

Pnn. Pound. 

See, Seed, Sid. Saw. 

Sin, p. SLiidpp, of 'see.' 

Shewn vel Shown. Show. 

Shewnd vel Shownd, p, smdpp. of 'shew' or * show.* 

Shtdd. Var. pron. of 'should.' 

Slep, p, and pp. of 'sleep.' 

Sot, p, and pp, of ' sit/ 

Struv, p. and^. of 'strive.' 

Swep,i>. axidpp. of 'sweep.' 

Throw*d,jp. andj^. of 'throw.' 

Thruv, p, and pp, of ' thrive.' 

Took. Taken. 

tm. Will. Cf. WuU (or 'wool ' in Hal. 6^55. —Preface). 

W&. Was {vide Gloss, under Were). 

Wep, pret. of ' weep.' 

Were. (Seldom heai'd.) 

W6mt. Was not, were not. 

Wrote, p. and^. of ' write.' 

Willd. Var. pron. of 'would.' 

WtLnt. Will not. 



A-one-side, Aside, Asiden* Awry. ' You've put your bonnet 
on a-one-side.' 

The'. There. 

There. Var. pron. of ' there.' 


%ik I.I 

; T 


AtwOk In tv^ 

Most in 8«Miml ^i 

MosllikAk V«rrlil»lT. 'I slttJDI<^Mn«u>-«MMROV, most lifce.* 

Agldn [iKgm. *-fm\ Ai^unst. KkiiIi^ te. 
A]l-«lon9-<Mi von» AlOBi^on ^of V In CK^«i9ie«|iNiMe o£. 

At. Ta 

In. Of ; tck ^Tbts ImbIwI )!«4iMi$s in ^L«L "p«Ktainsio'2 t^ 

bftck kitelien.^ 
on; Off of; Off on. Fiviul 
On. Ot 
To. OL *I know to « n«tst.* 

A^nin Vgen, JHdn\ WlKen. 

AthoQt. Unless. 
Hot. Than. 

(See OsthSy SKpletxTOs, ^c in (rl»:^) 


Bakeb (A £.) Glossary of Northamptonshire Words and Phrases. 
11. 1854. 

Chamberlain (Mrs.) West Worcestershire Words. 1882. 
(KD. S. 36.) 

'EyjLSs{A.B.&S.)The Dialect of Leicestershire. 1881. (E.D.S. 31.) 

Frances (Mra) SotUh Warwickshire Provincialisms. 1876. 
(E. D. S. 12.) 

Halliwell (J. 0.) Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words. 
II. 1887. 

Halliwell (J. O.) Wanvickshire Glossary, 1865. 

Jackson (G. F.) Shropshire Word-Book. 1879, 

Lawson (Rev. Canon) Uptonror^Sevem Words. 1884. (E. D. S. 

Parker (Mrs.) Glossary of Words used in Oxfordshire. 1876, 
(E. D. S. 12.) 

Pabksr ( Supplement. 1881. (E. D. S. 32.) 

Poole (C. H.) Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words of 
Staffordshire. 1880. 

Robertson (J. D.) and Morton (Lord) Glossary of the Dialect and 
ArchaicWordsof the County of Gloucester. 1890. (E.D.S. 61.) 

Salisbury (J.) Glossary of Words and Phrases used in SE. Wor^ 
cestershire. 1893. (E. D. S. 72. 1894.) 

Wise (J. R.) Shakspere, his Birthplace and its NeigJibourhood. 


Fate, far, fault, fat, chinlL 

Me, met. 

Pine, pin. 

No, moove, nOr, not 

TQbe, tub, bulL 

Oil. Pound, Thin. 

N. B. — No mark of accent is used where the stress falls on 
a first syllable. 



▲. The 'indefinite article' takes the place of an, or is 
omitted. * Have opple I ' or * Have a opple ! * 

A, pron. He, she, it, they. *He (she, they) broke the 
winder.' Answer. * Did &? ' * The cat's stole yo'r mate 
(meat).' Ana. "As S?' Common, and noted by most 

' Quiddy, Nay, that a' did not. 
Boy, Tea, that a' did.'— Hen. V, ii. 3. 32 (and elsewhere in the same scene). 

' Nurse. And then my husband — God be with his soul I 
A.' was a merry man.' — Eom, and Jvl. i. 3. 39. 

'A% V. aux. (i) Have. Vide Adone, Awhile. (2) A common 
contraction of * have.' Vide Ha'. 

A, (i) prefix. At, in, on. Awum (at home). Abed. Atwo 
(in two). Afoot Apast (' He's just gone apast '). Atop. 
(2) It is also a prepositional prefix to nouns, adjectives, 
participles,and verbal nouns in-tTi^, as a-coming, a-dooing, 
a-gooing, a-ploughing, a-saying, a-shearing, a-talking, &o. 
Miss Jackson, Shrop. Word-hook, remarks that it repre- 
sents the A.-Sax. cety at, or on, used in composition for 
*in,* *on,' 'upon.' See Morris's Hist. Outlines of Eng. 
Accidence^ p. 178. 


'^ Abear— Acky 

(3) It is occasionally redundant, as 'He went on 
a-riding, although I shouted to him to stop.' 

Abear [&-ber^, v. a. Endure, tolerate. Glouc, N'hamp., 
Shrop., W. and SE. Wore. A.-Sax. abcdrariy tolerara 

Abed^ In bed. Common. 

' lagcK Yoa have not been abed, then? ' — OOdZo, iii. i. 33. 

Abided V. a. To like, endure, tolerate. N'hamp., Shrop., 
W. Wore 

* FalsL Never, never; she woald always say she conld not abide Master 
Shallow/ — 2 Hen. IV, iii. a. 217. 

* Host. I cannot abide swaggerers.* — lb, it 4. i i6u 

About^ prep, and adv. Engaged upon ; doing ; in hand. 
* We're about the fruit-picking this week.* * We've got 
the hay-making about.' Nliamp. 

Above-a-bit, adv. Extremely, to an excessive degree. ' He 
raved and stormed, above-a-bit ! ' Glouc, Oxf., Shrop., 
Staff., W. and SE. Wore 

Abroad [a-braud'], adv. Away, farther off. * Drive them 
chickens abroad.' Shrop. ? common. 

Accor'^ding, part. In proportion. 'Jack's the biggest, 
according,' i.e. in proportion to his age. Glouc., SR. 

Ackem [ak-un], 8&. Var. pron. of 'acorn.' Accharne, 
acharne, and accome, are early dictionary forms. 
Qlouc, Leic. (•hackren). Staff. (afoAom), Wore, Shrop. 
( + ach'ur\). 

'Hakems and ^ haael-notes 
k o^r frut to ye taWe ; )xat in forest growen.' 

WiUiam qfPaleme^ L 181 1 {circa 1350), ed. Skeat 

(in Shnp, Word-hk.), 

Ackeming, part. Gathering acorns. Is in common usa 
Acky [ak-e], sh. The game of Eoky, q. v. 

A-cock — Adone 3 

A-oook^ adv. To 'knock a man a-cock' is (i) to disable 
him, (2) to take him aback. 

AooB^ conj. Because. Leic. 

Acqnaint^ance, ab. A lover, sweetheart. Glouc, Shrop., 

Action, bb. The game of Baocare, q. y. 

Adam'8-ale, ab. Water. England. 

'To slake his thirst he took a drink 
Of Adam's ale from river's brink.* 

Bejfnard the Fox, Bartlett's Diet. Americanisms 
(quoted by Miss Baker, N*?iamp, Gloss,). 

Adam's-apple, sb. The protuberance in the anterior part 
of the neck, formed by the fore-part of the thyroid 
cartilage. It was an ancient superstitious or whimsical 
notion that a portion of the apple eaten by Adam in the 
Garden of Eden stuck in his throat and caused the lump, 
and that he transmitted this to his descendants. In 
surgery pomum adami. England. 

Adeal [a-deK, ft-jens ^^* or sb. A deal ; much, greatly. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

'These wormis, ne these moughtis, these mites 
Upon my parril fret them nevre adell.' 

Chaucer, Wife qf Bath's Prol, (quoted in N*hamp. Ghss.). 

'Be it ryght or wrong, these men among 

On women do complayne ; 
Afiyrmynge this, how that it is 

A labour spent in vaynoi 
To love them wele ; for never a dele 
They love a man agayne.' 

The Not'Broume Mayd, st. L (Percy's Rdiques). 

Adlan, Adland [ad-l&n], ab. The * headland ' or the border 
of land left at the ends of the furrows for turning the 
plough on. England, slightly varied. 

Adone [ft-dun'], v. a. and n. Have done, leave off. * Why 

B 2 

4 A-doors — Afore 

can't you adone shoutin' when I tell you ? ' The prefix 
is sometimes redundant, as ' When you've adone, p'r'aps 
I shall get a word in edgeways.' Midlands, and else- 

A-door8^ Of doors, indoors, as * Come out a-doors.' , ' Run 
in a-doors ' (redundant). Common. 

' But what, Sir, I beseech ye, was that paper Tour Lordship was so 
studiously employed in when ye came out a-doors?' — Beaum. and 
Fletch. Woman Pleased, iv. i (quoted in iThamp, Oloss.). 

AfeBxd\ part. Afraid, frightened, troubled. Chaucer, Cant, 
Tales, distinguishes afeard from afraid thus : 

'This wif was not aferde ne afhuide.' 

His wife was neither afeard nor afraid. 

And in Way's Prornptorium ParwZorum, * aferde or 
trobelid' is rendered turbatus perturbaivs. 'Abaschyd 
or aferde. Territvs, perterritus^' Id. * Will not the ladies 
be afeard of the lion 1 ' asks Snout the tinker, Mid, Nfa. 
Dr. iii. 1.28. See also Merch. Ven. ii. 7. 29. A.-Sax. afcered. 
It is in Wycl. Bible as afeerd. See the Glossary at the 
end of vol. iv. (reprint, 4- vol. ed. 1850). Midlands, and 

Affiront [tt-fipunt'], v. a. To offend. ' Don't mention money 
matters to the old man, or you'll afiront him.' Oxf. 

Afield^ adv. In the field ; in the open. * He's gone afield,' 
i. e. on the farmlands. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Afore^ prep, and adv. Before ; ahead ; previously, hitherto. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

(i) prep. 

'They him saluted, standing far afore.' 

Faery Queen, I. x. 49 (quoted in Shrop. IVord'bk.). 

Evans, Leic. Dial,, remarks that ' the Athanasian Creed 
preserves this form of the preposition, but it is almost 

Aforelong — Agate ■'> 

I obsolete.' Compare adv., Gomans ix. 23, 'which he had 
afore prepared unto glory.' 
(1) adv. ' Jock's gone on afore ' (ahead). 

'SiepK He Ehall Uato of my bottle; if he hnve never ilrtmk wine 
■fori! il will go near to remove liis fit.' — Temfi. ii. a. 79. 

ATorelong', udv. Erelong, before long. 

(home) aforelong.' 
Aftarolap, sb. An unexpected subsequent event, con- 

Bcquence, or]t; usually of aa unpleasant kind. 


'For he [Ihe dovil] oaa give «a iin nftewlnp when we least weene, 
that U, (uddenly retume unswnres to us, and then he gireth us an 

ftRercIap that orerthroweth us. '— Lntimer'a Sermons. 

I shall be 'urn 

Midlands, and elsewhere. 

'.S» that hit wns o nor? h.appo. 
And he was Bgnat of afterclappe." 

ifs, Doner, 236, f, 14 (quoted in Qloue. (Htat.), 

,th [sometimea Artarmath], xb. The aecond crop of 
grass ; the after pasturage or herbage after once mowing. 
Very common, and almost out of place in a dialect work. 
A,-Sax, after-rncBth. Vide Lattormath. 

Again [Sgen', ilgin'], (i) prep. Against; near or nest to, 

i opposite to, averse to, towards. 'I don't know anything 
agen "im.' 'Stand the broom agin the door.' 'lieave 
the bucket agen the pool.' 'That chap yonder, agin Jim 
Noakes.' ' Hold the book agen the light.' ' 1 was agen 
the journey altogether.' ' I shall get there agin night.' 
(1) adv., conj. By the time that ; when. ' Have my 
Bupper ready agen I get home I ' ' It'll be dark agen 
I see Tom.' 
(3) adv. At a future time. 'I ain't got it now, but 
111 gi'e it yer agen.' England. 
AgUo', adv. Going, fairly at work, aatir, agog. 'Jack's 
^^^H a-Ioitering, set him agate.' 'The men are all agate this 

6 Age — Aince-awhile 

morning.' 'What's agate down yonder?' Halliwell, 
Diet Archaic ami Prov, Words, states that *tO set the 
bells agate' and * to set a wheelbarrow agate' occur in 
Cotgrave, Dictionarie Fr. and Eng. Tang, in v. Brimbaler^ 
Broueter. England. 

Age, V. a. or n. To make one appear old, to make old ; to 
grow old. *Hi8 beard ages him.' 'That fall he had 
ages him.' *I age now.* Palsgrave has *I age or waxe 
olde.' 'Thought maketh men age apace.' — fTfiamp. 
Glots. England. 

Aggy Eggy v.a, and n. To incite, to provoke; to scold. 
' Don't egg the lad on, he wants to be quiet' ' 'Er aggs 
that poor mon till I wonder 'e don't do for 'er.' ' Agg ! 
agg ! agg ! I don't get any peace o' my life for yer dack.' 

Agoo^ adv. Var. pron. of ' ago.' Bk., N^Iiamp. 6/o«8., quotes 
the Bible of 1539 thus : 

' Hast thou not heard I have ordeyned such a thynge a great while 
agoo, and have prepared it from the begynynge ? ' — a Kings xix. 

*And yet not lowng agoo. 
Was prechares one or tooe.* 

Vox pop. Vox Dei, 1547-48 ^in ^'£. Wore Gfoss.). 

Ah ! interj. Of affirmation with the force of aye, yea, yes. 

* Is that you, Jack ? ' ' Ah ! ' Leic, Cf. Aw. 

Aim, (i) v. n. To throw. 'Don't you aim at me.' 

(2) V. n. To intend, attempt, endeavour, purpose. 

• I aim to go.* * I aim to do my best for him.' ' I aim 
and scheme, but nothing goes well.* Glouc, Wore. 

Aince-&whi]e\ adv. jSow and then, at intervals. Frances, 
& IFt/jir. Pi-ovincialknis. I am not famUiar with this 
form or pronunciation; but anve in a icftile is common 

Ain't— All along 7 

Ain't* Is not, am not, are not, have not. 'Jack ain't 
coming to-day.* 'I aint gooing to-day.' *Y6' ain't a 
good lad.* ' I ain't got a knife.' Common. 

Aisins [a-zinz], sb. pi. (i) The eaves of a house ; hence 
(2) the drops of water which fall therefrom. Shrop. 

Aither, pron. Either. A.-Sax. aiffer. Midlands. 

'Chese on aither hand, 
Whefclier the lever ware 
Sink or stille stande/ 

Sir Trisiremy p. 154 (in Hal. Did,). 

Aitredans [a-tre-danz], sb. Vide Hatredans. 

Akere [ft-ker'],2>Ar. Look here 1 Common. Vide Kere. 

AM, (i) adv. Tasting or smelling of. 'This pan is all 
onions.' ' What is this bottle all ? ' Glouc. 

(2) Wholly, completely, as * All to bits, rags, or shivers.' 
* All of a heap, dither, puther, tremble,' &c. Common. 

(3) P^^P' ^ spite of, despite. * I shall do it for all 
you.' N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

(4) intensive. * He's gone for good and all.' N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. 

(5) <^j' * A.11 the while ' =the whole time. Common. 

All about, phr. In a state of confusion. * We're all about, 
we've got the painters in the house.' Glouc, W. Wore. 

All about it, phr. The whole matter. * Yo'r Joe hot our 
Lizzie, an' 'er tank'd 'im agen wi' th' broom, an' that's 
all about it.' Up.-on-Sev., W. Wore. 

All along [&lung^, (i) adv. Always, throughout. 

'On thee, sweet wife, was all my song, 
Morn, evening, and all along.' 

Anat. Mdanch. 3, a, 4, i (quoted by Evans, Leic. Dial.), 

(2) phr.=: from the first. *'E's bin comin' all along.' 

8 All along of —Along 

All along of, on ; Along of, on [&lung^, prep. In con- 
sequence of, on account of, through. Leic, N'hamp., 
Shrop., Staff. 

*Henn. Tou, mistress, all this coil is loDgof you.' — ifid.^f&2>r.iii.9.339. 

<That I have no child hidur till 
Hit is al alonge on Gk>dde8 wille.' 

Cursor Mundi, MS. Trin. Coll. Cantab, (in HaL Diet.). 

Ail as is ; All as is, is this, phr. The sum total, the whole 
of the matter. * If yo' don't like it, yo' can lump it, and 
that's all as is.' 'AH as is, is this, I sid 'im tek th' 
opple myself.' Leic, N'hamp., Glouc, Shrop., Wore., and 

Ail one> Ail as one, phr. All the same, or quite the same. 
* It's all as one (or all one) to me, if you go or no.' 

* Quick. I warrant you all is one with her.' — Mer, Wiv. ii. a. 8i. 

The phrase in its earliest form, al o)ie is an, occurs in the 
Legend of St Marg. {circa 1 200), p. 5, Early Eng. Text 
Soc. Pubs. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Ail on end, phr. In confusion, disorder. * Don't call to- 
day, we're all on end.' Shrop. 

Alley [al-e], sh. A marble of alabaster, or white marble, 
sometimes called an 'alleytaw' when used for shooting. 
If streaked with red veins it is called a * blood-alley.' 
The imitations, made of painted clay in the potteries, are 
called * pot-alleys.' England. 

Alls [aulz], Goods and chattels. * " Come, pack up 
your alls and be off, " is a common form of dismissal to 
a labourer or workman.' — N^hamp. GHoss. Common. 

Along [ftlung'], adv. To send anything * along ' is to send 
it home, or to some place named, 'Shall I send the 
mutton alung now, ma'am ? ' Shrop. Word-hk. Common. 


Al'ys — Anent 9 

lAl'ys [aul-us], adv. Var. pron. of 'always.' Midlands, and 
Lm. Are. ' Yo' am a poor soul." 

Aminded [a- mind'- Id], jHiH. Disposed, inclined. ' Do as 
you're aminded.' GIouo. 

A'mOst', adv. Almost. Tm a'moet tired to death.' Stilop. 
Atitlq. {avMiBt), Oxf. (om««()^ SE. Wore, {atmmut). Hal, 
Diet, says, 'Amaoi^t. West.' 

Anclee, Anoler [ank-le, ank-ler], eh. Var. pron. of 'anklo.' 
■Tw^us ancleow.'— Abp,' .^ifric'a Vocal, lothcent. 'The 
word andfow continued in aae iu the English language 
till the 15th cent.' — Wright, Harly Vocahs. i. 44. Gtouc. 
{uTikley), N'hamp, (anclee), Oxf. and Wore, {an/dey), 
Shrop. {a-ncler). 

And) eaxl. or intensive. ' And I will ; ' • And it ia." Leic. 

And all, a<lv- Also, in addition. ' Bring your sister and 
alL' ' I'll give you five shillings a week, and your food 
and all.' Leic, S. Wore. 

AaJUx', adv. and prep. Near, close to. ' Yo' ain't anear 
when yer wanted.' ' He never came anear all day.' 
'Don't go anear him.' Leic., N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Anend', adv. On end, upright. ' There is also a very 
common expression of "viost anend," meaning "generally," 
"usually"; Wilbraham, in his Gtossai-y of CheahiTe 
Words, explains " anend," perpetually, evermore ; but 
this is a more intense signification than is attached to 
the word in Warwickshire.' — Hal. Gloes. Midlands, and 

Aaent', pr-ep. Opposite. Frances, S. Wane. ProfiTi. I have 

■ According lo Richard Paul WUIuktr, 
- et Wright's Vocals., • Aroliliisliop ' is *n on 

10 Anew— Any 

not heard the word in this sense : but anenst is in W, Wore. 
Wd8.f anant in SE, Wore. Wda., and aTiant, anensU 
anunst, in Up.^on-Sev. Wds. It is often used for * beside ' 
or *by/ e. g. 'He lives anent the church.* The Shrop. 
Word-hk. has anunstf anungst =o^^siie to, against. 

Anew^y adj. Enough. Common. 

'On kneis he &ucht, felle Inglishmen he slew; 
Till hym thar socht may fechtaris than anew.' 

Henry the Minstrd {circa 1461), Wallace, bk. i. 
Skeat, Spec. qfEng. Lit ri. L 324 (quoted 

in Shrcp, Word-Nc), 

'Thus acting, he had quickly girls anew, 
Who all beliey'd his high pzx>fe88ions true.' 

Deacon, On the Choice of a Wife, 184 1, p. 51 
(quoted in Leic. Dial.). 

Angry [ang-re], adj. Inflamed, threatening to become 
worse, as a wound. ' Rub a little ointment on that sore, 
it has an angry look.' Forby, VocaJ). East Angl., re- 
marks that * in the Prompt, Parv. " anger " is given as 
a synonym of "anguish," and rendered into Latin by 
angor' Common. 

Amgb-\ adv. a,nd prep. Near, close to, Cf.Anear. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. Hal. Diet, says, * Near Salop. Sometimes 
in the W. counties, we have anighst, near to.' 
A-njr^, adv. Nigh. Jer. xxiii. 23 (in Wyd.). 

Anldtcher [ank-it-cher], sb. Yar. pron. of 'handkerchief.' 
S.W OT0.(ankitcher\ Oxf. (hangkitcher [pron. ang'ichur']), 
S. War. (ankercher), Shrop. (handkercher [pron. ang^cur'- 

* Oliver. It you wiU know of me 

What man I am, and how, and why, and where 
This handkercher was stain'd.' — As Tou Like It, iv. 3. 97. 

Anty-tump, sb. An anthill. Glouc., Shrop., W. Wore. 
Any [rhymes * Fanny '], indef. pron. Any. Cf. Many. 

Anyhow — Arkst 1 1 

Anyhow, Anyhows, adv. In confusion ; disordered, upset. 
Sometimes ' All anyhow.' ' Nohow ' is used in the same 
sense. ' Tou should have seen the room ; it w^s anyhow.' 
Leic, N'hamp. 

Any more than, phr.=^i{ it was not that. 'I wouldn't 
'a' gone (to the fair), any more than I promised to buy 
Dick a trumpet' XJp.-on-Sev., and elsewhere in the 

Apem [a-pun], eb. Var. pron. of * apron.' Glouc, N'hamp., 
Oxf., Shrop. (appum), W. Wore, {appem), SE. Wore. 

'Chil in, Diooon, a deene apeme to take and set before me.' 

Oommer Ourton's Needle (quoted in Salop. Aniiq.). 

Apple-pie order, phr. Perfect order. England. 

'I am jnat in the order which some folks — though why 
I am sure I can't teU you — would caU apple-pie.' 

IngdcMry Legends, iii 65 (in Cent, Did.). 

April-Fool Day, April-Fools' Bay = The ist of Apnl. 

Are. Am. ' I are hungry.' Shrop. (colliery district). 

Arg, Argify, Argy [arg, argefi, arge], v. n. To argue, to 
discuss persistently. * You'd arg anylt^Hly out 0' their 
wits.' ' What argufies pride and ambition ? ' (Song by 
Dibdin). 'Don't argy so.' Olouc, SE. Wore, {arg, 
argufy)y Shrop. {argufy, argy), Oxf. (arg out). 

'He arg, as I did now, for credance again.' 

Heywood (1556) in Kares. 

ATt^g, paH. adj. Arguing. 

Arks, V. a. Ask. * Arks 'im wot the time is.' Vide Ax. 

Arkst, p. and pp. Asked. ' I arkst the way, but nobody 
could tell me.' * They was arkst in church '=:the banns 
of marriage were published. Vide Askings and Ast. 

1 2 Am —Article 

Am, V, a. Var. pi-on. of * earn.' Leic, Shi-op., Staff. 

'Fore he wyll drynke more on a dey 
Than thou cane lyghtly ame in twey.' 

MS, Ashmole, 6i, f. 936 (in Hal. Diet,). 

Arnins, sb. pL Earnings. This, and the preceding word, 
occasionally take an initial y in pronunciation. Midlands. 

Am't, (i) ^ An abbreviated conniption of the signs of the 
present and perfect tenses, with a negative both singular 
and pluraL " I ar'n't going to the fair, if you ar'n't." ' 
— N'Jiamp, GI088, 

(a) Have not. *I ar'n't got a penny in the world.' 
Hal. Diet says, * West Country.' 

Arrand [a-r&nd], sb. Yar. pron. of * errand.' Midlands. 

* One of the four and twenty qualities of a knave is to stay long at 
his arrand/ — Howell's Eng. Proverbsj p. a, ed. 1660 (in Hal. DicL). 

Arrant [a-rftnt], sb. Var. pron. of * errand.* Shrop., Wore. 

'Goe soule, the bodies guest, 
Upon a thankelesse arrant.' — Sir W. Raleigh, The Lye. 

iLpsy-versy, adv. Topsy-turvy, upside down. Hal. Warw. 
Gloss, says : ' Ben Jonson uses this queer term, possibly 
obtained in one of his visits to Warwickshire.' But this 
is stretching a point ; the word is, and has been common 
enough in the midlands, and elsewhere. Evans, Leic. 
Dial., quotes Hake, Newes out of Powles Churchyarde^ 
'And arsiversi turne each thing,' Sat. ii. 'Down came 
Tit, and away tumbled she arsy-versy' is in Hazlitt's 
Eng. Provei'bs. See also Rabelais (transL), cap. xi. 

Arter, adv. and prep. After. * Artemoon * = afternoon. 
In nursery rhyme Jack and Jill ; Ratcatcher* s Daughter^ 
song, &c. England. 

Article, sh. An expression of contempt for man, beast, or 
thing. Common. 

As — Assud-backuds 



Lb, ( I ) rel. pron. Who, which, thiit. ' A laJ as could kill 
a robin *d do anythink.' 

(a) prep. ' I'm gooin" to my uncle'H as next Sunday, 
if all's well.' 

(3) ct»y. ' I hear as James is dead.' As limv is used 
in the same sense. Throughout the midlands as usually 
replaces that. Moat glosaariste, too, remai-k its occurrence 
in such phrases aa ' Aa hot as hot,' ' As yellow aa yellow,' 
&c., but this form of correlation points to' the aubstan- 
iivm OS intensives rather than to a peculiar use of aa. 
Aahen-plant, eb. An ash sapling cut to serve as a light 
alking-stick or cane. Shi'op. 

Ashentree, ^b. The ash. Glouc, Leic, and elsewhere. 
' A^tititilriM.'. Afllietitroo, 
Pray buy these warta ot mo.' 

A Leic. Warl-charm. A pin ia stuck into the tree, &tld 
afterwards into a wart, and then into the tree again, 
where it remains a monument of the wart, which ia sure 
to perish. See Folidore Record, i. 234. 
Aside', adv. and prep. Beside. Common. 

lAoiden [fi-st'-dn], adv. Awry, askew, on one aide. 'That 
post's set asiden.' Sometimes used without the prefix, 
says N'hainp. Qloas., aa " How eiden your bonnet is." 

gldngfl, ab. pt. Publication of the banns of marriage. 
Shrop. {axins), St&S. (axings or csHnija). Common. 

Aflsud-baoltuda, adv. and adj. Hindbefore. Lit. ' arseward- 
backwarda.' 'He went out aasudbackuds,' i, e. bind- 
before in position to the speaker, ' That's an aasud- 
backuds form 0' diggin' taters.' SE. Wore., Glouc. 

14 Ast —Away with 

Ast, 2^' fi^<l PP' Asked. ' He sent for mo and ast me how 
I fared ... a toke me to him and ast how my suster 
dede, and I answeryd wyll, never better.' — Paston Letters 
(1454), i. 30a : Arber* s reprints, in Shrop. Wordr-hk, 

At, prep. To. ' What are yo' a-dooin' at the lad ? ' A.-Sax. 
cet, at, to. Leic, Shrop. Hal. Diet. Staff. Oloas (s of, 
to, with). 

A-that''n» A-that^'ns, adv. In that manner. Leic, Shrop., 
Staff, {athxitens), SE. Wore, (athxittena). 

A-this^'n, A-this^'ns, adv. In this way. 'Don't mow a- 
that'n, do it a-this'n.' Leic, N'hamp., Shrop., SE. Wore. 

Athout [&-thout^, conj. Without, unless. 'I shan't go, 
athout yo' do.* Glouc, Shrop. 

Attwoody 8&. A silly fellow, a simpleton, blockhead. 
Chaucer uses 'wood' for mad (Prol. 184), 'woodness' 
for madness, and * woodman' for a madvuin. Vide 
Qloss. to Urry's Chaucer. 

Atween^ pirep. Between. Common. 

*Attween two theevys nayled to a tre.* 

Lydgate's Minor PoemSf p. 363, in Hal. Did, 

A-two', adv. In two. Leic, N'hamp., Shrop. 

'And eke an axe to smyte the cord atvo/ — Chaucer, If tiler's Tale. 

Aunty [aunt-e], adj. Frisky, mettlesome. Vide Haunty. 

Aw, adv. Yes. Hal. Warw. Gloss. Cf. Ah ! 

A way, p/tr. A state of agitation or irritation. ' She's in 
such a way about it' N'hamp. 

Away-to-go, phr. Away with you, be off. • Now, then, 
away to go.' Shrop. 

Away with, v. a. To suffer, endure, put up with— generally 
used with a n^ative. Common. 

Awhile —Baocare 15 

'The new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot 
away with/ — laaiah L 13. 

In the ' Breeches ' Bible, says N'hamp. Gloaa., this is ren- 
dered ' I cannot suffer/ 

'Shallow. She never oould away with me. 

FalsL Never, never; she would always say she could not abide 
Master Shallow.'— a Hetu IV, iii. 3. aid. 

Awhile^ {\) v.n. To ' have while,' L e. have or spare time. 

* m attend to you when I can awhile.' Midlands. 

(2) conj. Whilst. ' Lay the cloth awhile I make the 
tea.' Shrop. 

(3) intensive. * Not yet awhile/ or 'just yet awhile.* 

Awkward [sometimes Okord], adj. Obstinate, pigheaded ; 
dangerous. 'He's an awkward man t^ reason with.' 
'A bull's a okurd brute to meddle with.' Shrop. and 

Ax, V. a. To ask. A.-Sax. axian. Common. Vide Arks. 

Ayzam-jayaam, adj. Equitable, fair-and-squai*e. ' Upright 
and down straight' is a phrase of like meaning. Glouc, 
Shrop. {fiamm^'asani = equal, as in weight, size, or 

Baalamb [ba-lam], sb. 'A juvenile epithet for a young 
lamb, so long as it is nourished by the mother : com- 
pounded of the cry of the sheep, and the appellative.' — 
N'hamp. Gloss. Common. 

Baant [ba-&it]. Am not; are not. 'I baant agooin'.' 

* Y6' baant right in yer yed (head).' N'hamp. Hal. Diet 
says, * Various dialects.' 

Baooa, Backy [bak-ft, bak-e], sb. Tobacco. Common. 

Baocare [bak-ft], ab. A boys* game. The players, at the 
call 'Baccare ' of their leader, leave sanctuary, and attempt 
to cross a certain space to another sanctuary. The space 


Bachelor's-button — Backward 

is gtiariled by o. boy who may make as many prisoners 
as he can, and these must mount guard with him. The 
guard has various tricks to induce the leader, or one 
of the party, to give the etarting word : e. g. ' What does 
your father smoke?' An unwary boy would instantly 
reply ' Bacca,' and so get one of his party caught, 

Wright, Diet. Ohaol. and Prov. Eng., has the word 
' baccare,' and his definition may throw some light on 
the origin of the term. He says, ' Supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of back (here, and found not unfrequently in 
our early dramatists,' Hal. Divt. quotes from the Gulden 
Aphroditie, 1577, thus: 'Both trumpe and drumme 
sounded nothing for their lai'um hut "Baccare, Baccare " : ' 
and says ' it would seem to have been taken from some 
old tune.' 

Baohelor's-button, sb. 'The Lychnis eylveetrie, a well-known 
flower, 80 called from its resemblance to a worked button, 
and supposed to possess a magical efiect on the fortunes 
of lovers.' — Hal. Gloss. N'hamp. Gloss, says, ' Applied 
indifferently to the double varieties of the Lychnis 
Uloica, Achillea Ptarmica, and Ranunculus bulhosa, all 
aptly so called from the resemblance which the numerous 
and closely set petals, whether of the pink Lychnis, the 
white Achillea, or the yellow or white Ranunculus, bear 
to a neatly-worked button.' Tiie Glour. Gloss., quoting 
Britten and Holland's Plant Names (E. D. See), says, 
' Hcahiosa urveiisia, L.j Sea. aucuta, L., Centaurea Sea., L.' 
According to the Shrop. Word-bk. the flower is Beliis 
perennis, the ' double-daiey ' of the gai-den. 

Back'ard, Baok'arder, Back'ardest [bakud-er-iat], adv. 
and adj. Backward, &:c. 'Shift the chair backud,' or 
' backuder.' ' It's a backud season,' or ' a backuder 

^^H lb, 

Backen— Backstone 17 

[I th&n Wt,' or 'the backudeat seation evor I know'd.' 
■ Hal. JHd. (backert), Leic, N'harap., Shrop. (backeter and 

Backen, v. a. To hinder, retard. ' Eacken the meat, it'll 
be done too soon.' 'Thia frost'll baoken the epring,' 

1649, Blith, Eng. Imprm. Impr. (1653^ 160 Yet wi 
that IJ11U mayiit lose a full half years growth l 
IHtl. (MuiTBy). 

rkfriend, sb. A piece of loose, irritating skin at the ba^ 
of a finger-nail. Midlands. Hal. Diet, aays, 'North 

Baokiog, ab. Small coal, ' eleck ' or ' elack.' ' Slack ' and 
'backing,' says Leic. Dial., are 'named from "slacking" 
or "backing" the more rapid burning of the larger coal,' 

Baokrapper, sh. A firework bo folded that the charges 
in the folds detonate in succeesion. Glouc. Gloss, has 

Backsetter, sb. ' A stick or piece of wood placed outside 
the back of a slaughtcied animal ; each end of the stick 
being inserted into a slit, for the purpose of keeping 
the hotly open and extended.' — N'Jiamp. Gloss. 

Backfltitch, sh. and v.a. 'A metbod of ornamenting wrist- 
bandB, collars of shirts, &c., by a particular mode of 
sewing in which the needle is always returned to the 
last stitch ; hence the name.' — N'hwmp. Gloss. ' She's 
going to do me a collar in backstitch.* ' Til backstitch 
that rizbun for you. if you like.' 

Backstone, guimi Bakestone, sh. ' An iron for baking 
eakes, generally hung over the fire. It would seem from 

kthe latter part of the compound that a stone was formerly 


18 Back up — Badger 

used for the purpose, though the practice has given way 
to the more convenient material, iron. A person is said 
to go '* like a cat upon a hot backstone " [" like a cat on 
a hot bake-stone " — Hazlitt, Eng. Proverbs]^ when tread- 
ing cautiously, and with apparent fear and uneasiness.' 
— Hal. Gloss. England. 

Back up, j)hr. To set, put, or get the back up^ is to 
provoke, or be provoked. Doubtless derived from the 
habit of the cat when angry. ITkamp. Oloss, quotes 
from St. Ronan*s Well : * Weel, Nelly, since my back is 
up, ye sail tak down the picture.' Common. 

Bady (i) adj. Difficult, hard. Common. 

* *' She's a good sort/* said the soldier, patting her reeking neck, as 
he slid to the ground ; ** but she's uncommon bad to steer when her 
monkey's up I Sound, you &av, and rising four year old. I wonder 
how she's bred." *— Whyte-Melville, SataneUoj chap. L 

If I remember aright, * A good one to follow, a bad one to beat,' is the 
refrain of one of this writer's hunting-songs. 

(2) adi\ Behindhand, in arrears. Tm a quarter bad 
in my rent.' Leic. 

(3) phr. / Not half bad,' or * not so bad ' = very good. 
* This pie's not half bad,' or * not so bad.' Shrop. 

Bad, Badly, adj. and adv. Sick, ill in health. Leic., Shrop., 

Badder. Comp. of ' bad.' 

'But as it 18, it may be better, and were it badder, it is not the 
worst'— AqiMiM, B. x. b. 

<]fr. Todd found baddest in Sir E. Sandys.'— Nares. 

'The baddMi amongst the cardinals is chosen pope/— Sir £. Sandys, 

nW4>4t (1) ^« A jobbing dealer in farm pro- 

fte.; as a * butter-badger,' or 'fowl- 
Iger,' according to N'hamp, Gloss.). 

Bag— Baigle 19 

Formerly the term was restricted to a dealer in com. 
LeiCy Staff., Wore, and elsewhere. 

'Bagers, such as bryngeth whete to towne, as well in trowys as 
otherwyse, by lasde and by waiir, in kepyng down of the market.* — 
Ordinanoe qf the Office qf Mayor qf Bristolf temp. Ed, IVy a. d. 1479, English 
QUds (Early Eng. Text. Soc.), (quoted in Shrcp, Word-hk.). 

(2) v.a. To tease, banter, harass, annoy, worry. A 
term suggested, possibly, by the ancient sport of baiting 
the badger. 

(3) V, a. or n. To chaffer, as the human badger does. 

Bag, v.a. To beg. In use in Glouc. and Wore, but in 
Warw. this pronimciation seems to be confined to the 
phrase * bags me ' = ' I beg,' used by boys when claiming 
the use of a superior plaything, or a favourable position. 
* Bags me that bat/ ' Bags me the top comer.' 

Bagy 8b. An animal's udder. SE. Wore. 

Bag and baggage, phr. * He went away bag and baggage ' 
- he went away, taking all his movable possessions. 
Possibly a military phrase. Common. 

* Touch. Come, shepherd, let us make an honourable retreat ; though 
not with bag and baggage, yet with scrip and scrippage.* — An You Like 
It, iii. 9. 170. 

Bag of moonshine^ phr. Illusion ; nonsense. ' It's all 
a bag of moonshine.' N'hamp. ? Midlands, and else- 

Baigle [ba-gl], sb. An opprobrious epithet applied to a 
depraved woman. Did Sir Toby Belch use this word 
as a euphemism for * bitch,' and attempt a pun, when 
he said : 

* She's a beagle, true-bred, and one that adores me.* — Tw. Nt. ii. 3. 19B. 

In Warw., Wore., and Glouc, beagle is usually pronounced 

c a 

:^o Baint — Baiter 

baigle. The Shrop. Ward-bL noted the word and quo- 

Baint [l^nt]. Am not, are not. Cf. Baant^ Beant, Bisn't. 

Baity ab. Workmen's luncheon. ' Ain't it time we 'ad our 
bit o' bait?' Glouc., Shrop., Up-on-Sev. 

Baker's-Dosen, 86. Thirteen. Common. 

' Serqua, a dozen HAinel j of egges, or, as we say, a baker's dozen, that 
is, thirteene to the dozen.' — Florio, World q/" WordeSj 1598. 

Balks [bauks], sb. pi. * The grass strips of ridges dividing 
ploughed lands in open common fields.' — Hal. Gloss. 
The Leic. Dial, says, * A ridge of land left unploughed 
between the furrows, or at the end of a field.' Shrop. 
Word'bk. adds, * the result of bad ploughing,' and quotes 
Prompt Parv. ' Balkyn or ouerskyppyn, oniiito.* Kay, 
who gives the proverb ' Make not balks of good ground,' 
has both these meanings. Latimer, Semi, vii, has * balks 
and stubble- way ' ; and agwi uses the word, but in the 
general sense of any ridge or uneven surface. ' He would 
not walk in by walks, where are many balks. Amongst 
many balkings is much stumbling.' — Id. The preacher 
was here alluding to the old proverb 'Many bywalks, 
many balks : many balks, much stumbling.' Vide Arber's 
reprint, p. 56. 

Baiter [ball-ter, bol-ter], v. n. * To cohere, or gather together ; 
e. g. when new-fallen snow collects on a horse's hoofs, so 
as to render it difficult for him to proceed safely, it is 
said to baiter. In like manner, if, in mixing flour with 
milk or other liquids, it forms into lumps, the same 
expression is used.' — Hal. Gloss. The N*kavip. Gloss, has 
* ball ' and ' bolter.' Holland (who lived at Coventry), in 
his translation of Pliny, has, when speaking of a goat's 

Bamboosle — Bark 21 

beard, ' Now by reason of dust getting among, it baltereth 
and elattereih into knobs and bals' (xiL 17). 

'. . . blood-bolter'd Bftnqiia' — Mo/cb. iv. i. 193. 

Bamboo''sle, v. a. and n. To deceive, confoand; to bilk. 

' 1703, CiBBKB, 8ke wm'dy de. n, L (1736) 34 Sham Proofs, that ahe pro- 
poa'd to bamboozle me with.' — New Eng, Diet (MaiTaY\ 

*Id, It. I. The old Rogae . . . knows how to bamboozle.' — Ibid. 

Bandy, bb. A knobbed or hooked stick used to strike the 
baU in the game of hockey or bandy. Midlands, and 

Bang, v. a. or n. To move or go with violent rapidity. 
'I banged along a good un.' Leic, M'hamp., and else- 

Bangles, s&. pi. * The larger pieces of wood in faggots. 
"Bangle, a large rough stick." — Ash's Eng. Dictj ed. 
1 775.' — Frances, S. Warw. Provin. Not known to me. 

Bansel [ban-sl], v. a. To beat; drive. 'Til hansel your 
hide.' * Bansel the dogs out.' Glouc, Staff, (baiicel or 

Banter, v. a. To beat down, as in price. Glouc, Shrop. 

Bar, (i) v.a. *To lay claim to, or make choice of. Used 
by boys at play, when they select a particular situation 
or placa' — HaL Oloss., Shrop. Word-hk. I have not heard 
the word in this sense. * I bar that bank,' would mean, 
' I forbid the use of that bank in the game,' not, * I claim 
that bank for myself.' 

(2) V a. To ignore, as of a bad hit or faulty start, 
as * We'll bar that' Shrop. 

Bark, (i) 6&. The rind of meat. It is used for the outside 
skin of an onion in Burrough's Method of Physick^ 1624. 
Leic, N'hamp. 

22 Barley— Baste 

(2) r. a. To bark the shins = to knock the skin off. 
Shrop. Common. 

' And peel'd all the bark off his shins.' 

Anderson's OmbtHtmd BattadSf p. 6a. 

Bttrley, phr. A grace- word used in play. Should a child 
cry ' Barley/ he or she is allowed a rest. See my Eng. 
FM-rhymeSy p. 338, footnote. Shrop. HaL Diet. 

Barm, sb. Yeast. Midlands. A.-Sax. beomi. 

" The foame, spume^ or flower of beer in fermentation.' — ^Walker, Diet, 

*And sometime make the drink to bear no barm.' 

A7*«. Dr. iL I. 38. 

B&rmy, adj. Half-wiUed. Staff. 

Bftmicles, 8l». pi. Spectacles. ' A metaphorical application 
of the instrument applied by farriers to the nose of 
a restive horse whilst being shod.* — JfThamp. Gtoes. The 
Shroix, Woni-hk. describes an instrument, like the figure 
of 8 in form, which is applied to the nose of a savage 
bull to subdue his violence. Common. ^BarniqueSj 
spectacles*' — FiH'tiA. de Berri in Wedg. 

Baaing [ba-nng], ^. The rind of cheescL Leic., Nliamp. 
(hizingX Staff., and elsewhere, as Hallamshire. 

A A hassock for kneeling on. covered with plaited 
bast ; bast-matting. ^ Having woollen yam, bass mat. or 
such like to bind them withal.' — Mortimer, ffti^Aaiicfry. 
*&ij^ incon^ct form of 6ii<!^«' says Latham's Jdknson^ 
1876, •is the inner bark of the Kme, TUia europaeoL* 

[bast], t\ fi. To flc^. thrash* beat. Common. 

* iVvMi. ^t}":!^. I think the meat want» that I hax^ 
AmL »/c5|r. In ^^x^i time* sir: what^s that? 

(2) r. .1. To tack * work * together slightly, with long 

Bat — Baulch 23 

stitches, so that the 'basting-thread' may be easily 
withdrawn when the finer sewing is finished. Common. 

* BenstL The body of your disooorae is sometime guarded with frag- 
ments, and the guards are but slightly basted on neither.' — Mitch Ado 
about Nothing, L i. 395. 

'With a thred basting my slevis.' — Romaunt of the Host, 104. 
'Bastyn clothys, subsuo {^Suhdo: CBih.),'— Prompt Parv. 

Bat, (1) s&. A heavy blow. Shrop., Staff., and elsewhere. 

(2) V. a. To beat with force, as to bat down uneven 
turf, soil, &;c. Shrop., Staff., and elsewhere. 

(3) To blink. 'What makes the child bat his eyes 
so ? ' Shrop., Staff., W. Wore, Up.-on-Sev. 

Batoh-oake, 86. A small cake made of the surplus dough 
after the batch of bread is moulded. Leic, Oxf., N'hamp. 
Frances, S. Warw. Provin., has * batchloaf.' Shrop. Word- 
bk. says, ' A small " ovenbottom " loaf made for immediate 

Batohingy sb. An unfledged bird. Frances, S. Warw. 

Bather [rhymes 'gather'], (i) v. a. To buffet with the 
wings, as a fowL *That new hen does bather the pullets.* 
(a) V. n. To rustle and flutter in the dust, whilst 
pruning the feathers, as birds do. Leic, Glouc, Wore. 

Bats, sb. pi. Lumps of slaty deposit found amongst coal. 
N'hamp., Shrop. (bass), Staff., and elsewhere. 

Batter, v. n. 'A term applied to walls built out of the 
upright, or gently sloping inwai-ds.' — Parker, Gloss, of 
Archit. 1845 (quoted in Leic. Dial,). N'hamp., SE. Wore., 
and elsewhere. Of. Batters. 

Batters, Railway or canal banks. Tamworth. 

Baoloh, adv. To fall ' baulch ' is to come fairly down on 
to the buttocks or stomach. ' The pony shied, an' I come 

24 Bauson — Bed of Beef 

down bauloh.' Leic. {bolbh, ab. and v. n.\ N'hamp. {balchf 
bolch = to fall suddenly and heavily). 

Bauson [bau-snj, sb. An overcorpulent person. Shrop., 
Staff. (bawseUy gorged). In Gloue. pronounced [bosun]. 

Beant [be-ftnt]. Am not, are not. Glouc, N'hamp. Cf. 
Baant, Baint, Bisn't. 

Bear» To play the, phr. To inflict heavy damage. * The 
frost has played the bear with the tater tops.' Leic, 
N'hamp. *To play Old Harry,' 'Old Gooseberry,' or 
'Old Boots,' are equivalent expressions noted in Leic, 
Dial, Common in Warw., and elsewhere. 

Boastings, Boistings [best-ings, hoistings], sb. The first 
milk given by the cow after calving. * Beasting-custard,' 
and ' beasting-pudding,' are delicacies made from it. 
A.-Sax. beost, byst^ bysting. The Anglo-Latin Lexicon, 
Harl. MS. 221, has *Beestynge.' Pynson, Diet (1499), 
and Wynkyn de Worde, Diet (151 8), have 'Bestnynge 
milke, colustrumJ The Shrop. Word-bk, says, 'It is of 
a peculiar richness and has the property of thickening 
when cooked, as ordinary milk does with the addition 
of eggs.' N'hamp. (beastingsy bisnings, bicenings), Glouc 
{boistins), Oxf. (boystins), Shrop. {beestings^ bwoistin^ 
bydinsjy Staff, {beestlings, beestings, bystins), Up.-on-Sev. 
{beastings or boistings), SE. Wore {bwystings). Common 
throughout England, slightly varied. Boistings is most 
common in Warw. 

Beoall^ V. a. To speak against a peraon, to abuse, to mis- 
call. ' She becalled me all she could lay her tongue to.' 

Bed of Beef, sb. ' The flank ; in the living animal the 
intestines lie on it as on a bed — hence its name.' — Shrop. 
Word'bk. Common. But cf. N'hamp. Gloss., where it 

Bedlam — Beetle 





is said to he a butcher's t«nn for the round and white of 
beef when out together (sU). 

Bedlam, eb. A boys' game. One party have a start, and, 
when the leader cries 'Bedlam,' the other party follow, 
and attempt to make prisoners. Any prisoner is con- 
ducted to a ' den,' on the outer line of which his captor 
must stand. Should one of the captive's friends dash 
through the den unchecked, crying, ' Eeluaae Bedlam,' the 
captive may make off again. Should the would-be releaser 
be caught in the attempt, he and hia comrade must 
remain in the den. The game goes on until all are 
caught, and then the other party take their 'outing.' 
One player may guard any number of captives. Common, 
hut not in the glossaries. 

Bedwind [bed-wind], ah. Small bindweed, Convolvvlti« 
an'tjuiia. Olouc. Gloua.. quoting Enrj. Plant Names, 
says. ' C. sejiium.' 

Bee-Bkep, sb, A beehive. N'hamp. (bee-skip). In some 
parts of Wore, I think, the term is applied to a. mov- 
able thatch for a beehive. 

ses ! bees ! bring your honor- A boys' game. A green- 
horn is elected ' queen bee,' and is told to cry the title 
of the game as a foi-mula, when the other players have 
gathered honey. Each player usually fills his mouth 
with water, which he dlschargea on the unfortunate 
'queen bee,' when the formula is spoken. 

Beetle, ab. A heavy, iroa-bound mallet, used for driving iron 
wedges into wood, for the purpose of splitting it. ' Be- 
tylle, maUe'U«.'~Pr<yinpt. Pant, A.-Sax. byti, a mallet. 
Qlouo. (pron. bitl), Oxf., Shrop., Wore., and elsewhere. 
' TheM goes tho wedgo where the beetle drires it.'— Bay, Pronrbi. 
■ Ftitil. If I do, flilip me with a thw e-man beetle.'— a Ihn. IV. i. a. ajg. 

26 Beetle-headed — Belting 

Beetle-headed [be-tl-yed-id], adj. Wooden-headed, stupid. 
SE. Wore. 

Being as^ conj. Seeing that ; since. W. Wore. 

* Why didna ye come to live i* this country, bein' as Mrs. Poy8er*8 
your aunt too ?' — Adam Bede (quoted in Leic. Dial,). 

Belike^ adv. Perhaps, most likely. 

*■ Tliys sediciouse man [Inaioh] goeth also forthe, sayinge . . . Thy 
wyne is myngeled wyth water. Here he medeleth with vinteners, 
be like ther were bruers in those dayes, as ther be nowe.' — Latimer, 
Sermon iii, p. 36 (quoted in Shrop. Word^hk.). 

Bellooky v. 71. To bellow, roar, shout. Midlands. 

Belly-band [belle-bun], s6. (1 ) A cart-saddle girth. Common. 
(2) The long loop on a kite face to which the flying-string 
is attached. (3) An infant's ' binder.* 

Bellyftdy ah. More than enough W. Wore, and common. 

^Lear, Rumble thy bellyful I Spit, fire I spout, rain ! ' — K.Lear, iii. a. 14. 

Bellysy Bellus [bel-iss, bel-us], sh, Var. pron. of * bellows.' 
Shrop. (bdiss). Sometimes bdlisses in Warw. Also blow- 
bdlu8 and blow-bdliss, as in Shrop. Word-bk. 

Bellytimber, sb. Victuals. Leic. 

Bellyyengeanoe» ab. Sour ' drink,' as cider, beer, &c. Leic, 
Shrop. (weak beer). 

Belong', V. n. Belong ; used conversely. ' Do you belong 
this horse ? ' Leic, N'hamp. 

Belt, v.a. To thrash, chastise. Leic, Shrop., and else- 

^ Hell spark, scabbed dark ! an thou bark, 1 sail belt thee.' 

Montgomery, The FlyHng (in N*hamp. Qloas.). 

Belt, Pelt, V. n. To hurry, to rush. N'hamp. {pelting^ 
bustling, hurrying). 

Btlting^ d&. A thrashing, beating. ^Strapping,' 'hiding,' 
' leathering/ are synonymous terms : ' the belt or strap,' 

Bennet — Best-bib-and-tucker 27 

says Leic. Dial.j 'being, metaphorically at least, the 
instrument of punishment, the hide or leather the 
material of whidi it is made/ 

Bennet [ben-ut], ^6. The peewit, or bastard plover. Sutton 

Berrin, sh. A funeral, lit. * burying.' Early authorities 
occur in Carr's Craven Dial.y Hartshome's Salop. Antiq,, 
and Hunter's Hallainahire Gloss. Oxf., M'hamp., Shrop. 

*A berrin, a benin, 
A good fat herrin.* 
ChiJdren*8 game-rhyme at a mockfunerai^ Wane, 

So universal is this form that it was introduced into 
Rice's nigger song, Jivi Crow : 

'Jim Crow's sister 
Went to a berrin, 
Popt round the comer 
An' stole a penny herrin'.' 

' Beryng ' is in King Alysaunder, 4624. 

Besom [be-zum], 86. An opprobrious epithet applied to 
a female. Glouc. Used in the children's game * Please, 
old woman, will you come out ? ' Warw. 

' Please, old woman, will you come out, 
And help us out with our dancing? 

(SAe keeps siknce, or says * No,*) 
If you won't come out, you shan't come out, 
You nasty, dirty besom : ' &c 

Bessy, sh. A man who meddles in woman's affairs. Glouc. 
Vide MoUyooddle and Pollydoddle. 

Best, (i) phr. ' I'll give you best at running ' = I'll allow 
your superiority. Glouc, and elsewhere. 

(a) v. a. To get the better of a person, to cheat. Glouc, 
Oxf., Staff., Up.-on-Sev. 

Be8t-bib-and-taeker, phr. Metaphorical for holiday clothes. 
N'hamp., and common. 

28 Bested — BiUery-ducks 

Bested, part, adj. Cheated, overreached ; beaten at any 
game. Shrop. 

Better, adv. Moi*e. 'Better nur a mile/ * Better than 
ten minutes to twelve ' = between ten and fifteen minutes 
to the hour. Common. 

BettermoBty adj. Superior, the best. Common. % if dial. 

Betty, ah. The hedge-sparrow. Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Betweenwhilesy adv. At odd times, whenever convenient. 
'I shall have to finish knitting this stocking between- 
whiles.' Oxf. 

Bibleback, sh. A person with broad, rounded shoulders. 
' Here comes old bibleback I ' The metaphor is from the 
appearance of the ponderous family Bible. 

Biddle, ah. Var. pron. of * beadle.' 0. E. hydd. 

Bide, V. n. To remain. * Bide where you be a bit.' — Frances, 
S, Warw. Provin. A.-Sax. hidan^ to dwelL Common. 
? if dial. 

*Pi8anio, Then not in Britain must you bide.' — Cynib, iii. 4. 138. 

Bif, ah. Var. pron. of ' beef.' Shrop., SE. Wore. 

Big, adj. * Almost univei'sally used by the lower orders in 
Warwickshire for great.* — Hal. Oloaa. Common. Cf. 
GUmc. Oloaa. * big,' as a vh. 

Bilk, V. a. To cheat. Common. Also a ah. in Glouc. Oloaa. 

*• 169a LuTTBELL, Bri^. ReL (1857) iL 412, Beleiving the persons therein 
would bilk the coachman.' — New Eng. Diet (Murray). 

BiUB9ah.pI. Bank-notes: aU kinds of paper money. N'hamp. 

*Ped. For I have biUs for money by exchange.' 

Taming qf the Shrew, iv. 9. 89. 

Billery-ducks, Bilious or melancholic attacks; pos- 
sibly corrupted from * biliary ducts.' Vide BooBles and 

Billy Button — Bits-and-bobs 



[ Billy Button, 8^. Rtig^f»lRuhm,Lychtiisjlus-vucuU. Soiuo- 
times called the ' cuckoo-flower.' The white variety la 
caWoA ' cheese-cup ' at Erdington. In other villages the 
red specimens are called ' red riding-hoods,' and the white 
' white riding-hoods ' ; but the common term is Billy 
3in. Are, been, is. ' Bin you agooin' "i ' ' No, I 'a' bin I ' 

'And winking Mirybuils bogin 
To Ope their goldun eyea : 
With everything tliut pretty bin. 
My lady sweet, nriso.*— Song in Cymb. ii.3. 
Hal. IHct. says, ' been, are, were, is. Var. dial.' 
Birds in the Bosh. A game at marbles, in which one 
pl&yei' holds any number of marblea in his clasped hands, 
saying, ' Birds in the bush, how manyT The other player 
guesses, and wins the lot, if he guess aright. If not, he 
must pay the number of marbles he ia out in the reckon- 
ing. The guesser then becomes crier, 
BisQings, nh. ' The first milk drawn from a cow who has 
justcalved.' Also called 'cherry-curds.' Frances, S. tTurw. 
Provifl. Vide Boaatinga. 
Bisnt. Am not, art not (not common), are not. ' Vo' bisn't 
gooin' up the road, bist?" 'No, I bisn't' (or'bainf). 
N'hamp, {hesn't = art not). Hal. Diet, {bmon = art not. 
West Country). Cf. Baant, Balnt, Beant 
I Biet. Art (beest), are. ' How bist thee 1 ' Not so common 
as 'How bin yer?' Glouc, N'hamp., and elsewhere. 
Hal. Diet, eays, ' West Country.' A.-Sax. beo, Iryst. 
BiBOS [bi-aua], adj. Boisterous ; as ' A bisus wind." Near 
I Bits-and-bobs, sh.jA. Odd B-Ei.nd- ends. 'Gather up your 
bits-and-bobs, and let me lay the tea.' 

30 Bittook — Blind-man'8-holiday 

Bittook, 86. A bit. Frances, S, Warw. Provin. 

Black-a-topy sb. The blackcap, Curruca airicapUla, 

Blaokbaty sb. The blackbeetle, or cockroach. W. Wore, 
and elsewhere. 

BlaokiOy sb. A blackbird. Frances, S, Warw. Provin, 

BlackstarOy Blacksteer, 8b. The starling. Qlouc, Wore., 
and elsewhere. Sometimes used without the prefix 
* black,' as in Shrop. 

Blame it ! A mild imprecation. N'hamp., Staff., and else- 

Blaring [rhymes * staring'], (i) 86. Loud talking; violent 
crying. N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

(2) part. adj. Roving, wandering. * Blaring and star- 
ing ' = aimlessly or wildly wandering and gazing. As 
an adj. it is used for * glaring,' e.g. * Come in out of the 
blaring hot sun.' 

Blarty V. a, and n. To cry or holloa vociferously ; to blab^ 
or tell tales. Leic. (blaat and blart\ N'hamp., Staff., 

Blather [rhymes 'gather'], 86. (i) A bladder. Midlands, and 
elsewhere. (2) Idle talk. 

* There 's nothing gain'd by being witty ; fame 
Gathers but wind to blather up a name.' 

Beaum. and Fletch. i. a (in Hal. DieL). 

Brockett, N. Count. Gloss., says that * a person who says 

much to little purpose is called a blathering-hash.' 
Blenchy 86. A glimpse. Hal. Gloss. 
Blether [rhymes * tether'], v. n. To cry, blubber. Leic, 

N'hamp. {blother), Shrop. (blather), and elsewhere. 
Blind-man's-holiday, phr. Closing twilight. When it is 

too dark to see to work. Common. 

* FeridtOf vacancy from labour ; rest from worke ; blindman's holyday.' 
— Florio (in Hal. Diet). 

BUzzy — Blush 31 

Blizzy» sb. A blaze, a blast, a flai*e of fire. A.-Sax. blym, 
a blaze. Common. 

BlobchopSy (i) sb. A newsmonger, tattler. In Hacket's 
Life of Abp. Williams^ * blobtales/ a plural form, is used 
in the same sense : ' These blobtales could find no other 
news to keep their tongues in motion* (ii. 67). 
(2) V. a. and n. To divulge a secret. Common. 

* Blabbe, wreyare of oownselle.' — Prompt. Parv. 
'Never can blab.' — Ven, and Adon, st. ai. 1. ia6. 

Blobmouthed, adj. Talkative. Glouc , Wore. 
Blook-omamentSy sb. pi. Butcher's scraps. 

Blow [rhymes *how*], sb. The blossom of fruit trees. 
A.-Sax. llowarit to bloom. England. 

Blow it ! A common exclamation of vexation. 

Blow upy V. a. To scold. Sometimes used substantively, 
as in ' blowing-up.' ' I gave him a good blowing-up.' 

Blowsy [blou-ze], adj. Disordered, untidy ; usually said 
of a woman. Leic, N'hamp. North Cotintry, and East 
Anglia, too. 

Blue, adj. Disconcerted ; discontented ; downcast. * You're 
looking very blue ; what's the matter ? ' England. 

Blof^, adj. Pufied, swelled. ' My hands are as blufiy as 
blufiy.' — Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Blunder, v. n. To make a noise. Frances, S.Wai'w. Provin. 

Blunt, sb. Money. Common. 

* iSia, J. H. Vaux, Flash Diet, Bluni, money. 1833, Scott, in Lockhart 
(1839), vii. 99, I will remit the blunt immediately.' — New Eng. Diet. 

Blush, (i) sb. Resemblance, appearance. Hal. Oloss. 

(2) phr. At the first blush = at first sight; without 

3 2 Bob-a-lantem — 

consideration, e. g. 'At the first blush I thought the 
fellow was sane enough/ N*hamp. 

Bob-a-lantem [Bob-^-lan'-tun], ab. A turnip lantern. 

Bobby, 86. A robin. Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Bob'owler or Bob Bowler [boulder]. The tigermoth. 
' Hod-bow-lud ' in SE. Wore. ; ' Bob-owlet' at Up.-on-Sev. 

BodgOy V. a. (0 ^^ prod, or pierce with a pointed 

(2) To repair or mend clumsily, to botch. Shakespeare 
uses bodged for bungled. Common. 

' York. With this, we charg'd again ; but, out, alas ! 
We bodg'd again.' — 3 Hen, FT, i. 4. 18. 

'Because it foUoweth in the same place, nor will it be a bodge in 
this, I cannot omit the consequence of this disheartening leyeller.' — 
Whitlock, Manners o/the Englishf p. 437. 

Bodger, sb. A mender of old clothes ; an indifferent tailor. 

'The warmest burgess wears a bodger's coat. 
And fashion gains less interest than a yote.* 

Grabbe, The Barougn. 

Boffle, V, a. To thwart, counteract, impede; lit. ^baffle.' 

* This long grass boffles my feet.* * When I start to jump, 
keep still, or else you'll boffle me.' Leic, N'hamp., Oxf., 
Glouc. (to woiry, perplex, annoy), Shrop., Wore. 

Bogie [bo-ge], sb. A spectre, bugbear ; when preceded by 
'old* the devil is intended. Welsh bwgan^ hobgobUn, 
bugbear. Shrop. (boogie)^ Glouc. (bugaboo [and huggan 
too, I think, as in Shrop. and Herefords.]), and elsewhere. 
Vide Bug. 

*King Ed. For Warwick was a bug that fear'd us all.' 

3 Hen. Vlf Y. a. a. 

Boiling, sb. (i) The whole of a family, class, or kind. 

* I don't much care about the Taylors, Frank's the best 
of the boiling.* England. 

Boistings — Bought 33 

(2) A quantity sufficient for boiling at one time, as 
* a boiling of cabbage, clothes/ &c. 

BoistingBy sb. L q. BeastingSy q. v. 

Boltin [boltn], 86. A bundle of straw tied with a wisp of 
the same. Oxf. {bolton\ Qlouc, Shrop. (batting botUin, 
boUiriy bautin). Wore. {baowtin)y and elsewhere. 

Book of hard names, 6&. An account book. SE. Wore. 

Booze, V. a,y v. n., and sb. To drink, to tipple ; the liquor 

'Hail ^e holi monkes wiss )ur corrin 
late & rape ifiUed of ale & wine 
depe cun )e bouse y* is al jure care.' 

Hari, MSS, (before Chaucer), 913, f. 5 b 
(quoted in N^ham^, CHass,), 

Boosed, p, and 2>P- Fuddled, intoxicated. Boozing, 
part. adj. Tippling. England. 

Bom days, sb. life. ^ I never heard such a tale in all my 
bom days.' Common. 

B088, sb. A hassock. Shrop. HaL Diet. 

Boss-eyed, adj. Having an eye which protrudes slightly, 
and is defective in sight and of control. The term is also 
loosely applied to any squinting eye. W. Wore. 

Bossock, sb. i. q. Boss, q. v. W. Wore. 
Best, {i)v. a. and n. Var. pron. of * burst.' 

' Bettor a belly bost 
Than a good thing lost' — Provin. Saw. 

(a) eacd. ' * Bost it f ' Common. 

B6te. Bought. * I bote a couple o' ducks isterd'y (yester- 

Bought [baut], adj. pec. * I can't eat bought bread, gi'e me 


34 Bout — Breezer 

Bout, sb. In ploughing or sowing, one farrow up and one 
down; hence a thorough turn at anything. England. 
In the Midlands it also signifies an attack of illness. 

Bowl [boul], ab. A child's hoop. Leic, Shrop. 

Bosom [b5-zum], sb. Var. pron. of ' bosom.' Shrop. 

Brandy-snap, ab. A thin, crisp gingerbread of oval form. 

Bran-faced, adj. Freckle-faced. 'Be off, yo* bran-faced 
madam.' Near Warwick. 

Brass, ab. (i) ' A common appellation for copper money,' 
says Hal. Oloaa. ; but now the term is broadly used for 
money of any kind. 

* Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses.' — 
Matt. X. 9. 

* PistoL Brass, cur ! 
Thou damned and luxurious mountain goat, 
Offer'st me brass ? * — Hen, V, iv. 4. 19. 

(2) Effrontery. A common saying is, ^There's encjugh 
brass in her face to make a skimmer,' or ^ She's had the 
brassen [aic] skimmer rubbed over her face.' 

' Ber. Can any face of brass hold longer out ? ' 

Lovers Lah. Lost, v. a. 396. 

Brassy, adj. Bold, impudent. ^A brassy madam.' 

Bravely, adv. Vastly well, in good health. 'How's the 
missis?' *0, she's [dooin'] bravely.' Sometimes the adj. 
Brave is used, * O, she is brave.' 

Bread-and-oheese, ab. The young leaves and shoots of 
hawthorn, eaten by children and so termed. Shrop. 

Breed-and-seed, phr. ' Birth and parentage and relation- 
ship. " I know the breed and seed of him." ' — Hal. Oloaa. 

Breezer, ab. The fundament. Cant. 


Brevit — Brummagem 35 

Brerit, (i) v, n. To pry, to search, to 'nose' about as 
a dog does. 

(z) To rummage. ' I shall have to brevit all tbro' my 
things for that mitten.' 

(3} 8b, ' That dog (wench) is a brevit.' 

(4) pttrt. adj. Kummaging, aniffing, prying. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 
Brief, Of^*. Prevalent, rife. Generally applied to disordei-s 
of an epidemic description. ' Tlje fever's brief just now.' 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Brooilo, eft. Var, pron. of ■ brocoli.* SE. Wore. 

Brown- ahellers, el). }}l. Hazel nuts, fully ripe, and ready to 
drop out of the husks. Shrop. {Jtrovm-dteders). 

Browey [brou-ze], adj. Ruddy faced. Glouc. 

Bmok, ah. A brook, SE, Wore, Shrop. A.-Sax, hroc. 

Brommagem [bram-ij-um], sb. and «<(;. Counterfeit, sham, 
paltry, worthless. From tho place- pronunciation of 
'Birmingham,' where sham groats were made in the 
i7tb cent.; and, later, imitations of valuable articles 
in plat«d wore, &c. 

' 1691, O. HiEOE, A'nc Slalt Eag. 335 Bromieham, purtiuulorlj'' nottti 
a few j^enn ago, for llie coualorfeit groats mndo hons, and from honce 
dinpened all tiTor tlie Kingdom.'— A'ci* Bag. Did. (Murmy). 

An earlier reference from the same dictionary supplies 
a usage, whieb may or may not be regarded as con- 

' 1637, Cat. Dom. SI. Pajiere 105 Those swords which he ... . pro- 
Icnda tn Ih> bladea of liis owne makeing are nil bromeilgham blades 
ft forraine blades.' 

Button, the early historian of Birmingham, thought 

36 Brushinir-hook — Buffer 

Bromwicham was the ancient name, and that 'Brum- 
magem' was an easy transition. He had found that 
spelling in old documents (in point of fact there are 
more than 150 spellings recorded); and, as West Brom/- 
wichj Gaatle Broviwicky and Little Bromwich are in the 
neighbourhood, he derived the form from broortiy wich, 
and ham. But the Dom. Bk. form is Bermingehit ; and 
it is now generally allowed to mean the home of the 
Beormingas, a tribe, the chief of which was named Beorm, 
Kemble, Saocons in England, 1876, i. 457, mentions this 
tribe, and gives its ' Marks ' as Banning in Kent, and 
Birmingham in Warwickshire. 

Zeic. Dial, says of Brummagem : * It is simply 
Birmingham with the r transposed, and the g pro- 
nounced soft. Cf. Bagehot^ Altrincham, &c. The old 
spelling of the name always introduces an e after the g 
to indicate the soft g.* 

'Full twenty years and more have passed 

Since I left Brummagem : 
But I set out for home at last 

To good old Brummagem. 
But ev'ry place is altered so, 

There's hardly a single place I know; 
And it fills my heart with grief and woe. 
For I can't find Brummagem.' - -^* 

First verse of an old song (ctrca 1828). 

BruBhing-hook, sb. A sickle-shaped hook on a long 
handle, for cutting tall hedges. Cf. Slashing-hook. 
Shrop., Up -on-Sev. {brush hook), 

Buokle to, V. n. To set to work in downright earnest. 

Budge, V. a. and n. To move off. ' Come now, you 
budge I * — Frances, 8. Wanv. Provin, ? if dial, or obsoles. 

BuSBbr, sb. A dolt, blockhead ; or a man past his prime ; 

Bug — Bullyrag 37 

iu ibis last eense usually preceded by " old,' as an in- 
teneive. 'The old buffer.' Leic, N'hamp., Shrop. (=the 
master of & household), and elsewhere. 
I Bug, nh. (i) Fright, alarm (Welsh Inig, a bugbear). 'To 
take biig'=:to take fright, 'very generally applied to 
a startlish horse.' — Hal, Gloss. Leic. Vide Bogle. 
' Hrr. The bug which yoa would fright me with I seek.' 

Winla'i TW*, iu, a, 93. 
' So y' tbou shalt not nedu U> bo afmyiid for any bugges by night, nor 
fcr orrowe that flyetll by daje."— Pa. xo. lCovenlale"8 Trana.l, now 
nutnber^d xci. 5. 

The N'hamp. Qloss. says 'to take offence'; but, in 
Warw., this last defiues the phrase 'to take pug,' q. v. 
Cf. Bogla. 

(2) A clot of discoloured mucus from the nose. Some 
call this a ■ crow.' 

t BsUace [bQl-fis], e&. 'Awild plum. Halliwell Bays,"Not 
the eloe." ' — Glouc. Gloss. It is not necessarily a wild 
pluD) : 'bullaces,' i.e. plums about the size of a pigeon's 
egg, and of a mingled yellow and red hue, are cultivated 
for market. Ainsworth, 7'/i€'snitfiw{i76i), has 'Abullace, 
Prunuvi fylventre.' It is pi-obablc, therefore, that the 
fruit had not been introduced into orchards and gardens 

iBflll-head, Biilljhead, eb. A tadpole. Leic, N'hamp., 

•A frog (id) ttrat a BuUhi'ml, then a Frogtail, then n Frog.' 

Holme, Aavl. Arm. bk. ii. ch, liv. p. 335, 

Hal. Dkt. marks it Chesh. The last form is not in the 
glossaries, but it ia the most common in Warw- 
BoUyrag. v. a. To bant«v, to tease, to exasperate ; to acold 
abusively. England. The Supplement to tho Oxf. Gloss. 
bae ' bullrag.' 

38 Bum - - Bunk 

Bum, 86. Contraction of * bum-bailiff/ a sheriff's officer. 
* Bum-bayley ' is also used : the old form * bayley ' for 
bailiff being retained in Warw. as elsewhere. Shrop. 
The plural in Warw. is * baylisses.' 

Bumble-bee, 86. *The apia-terrestris or any other large, 
thick-bodied bee.' — N'hamp. Oloss. Possibly derived 
from Bombus, the generic name of the humble-bees. 

Bumble-footed, adj. Having a bumble-foot, i. e. a thick, 
clumsy foot that moves without pliability. Leic, 
N*hamp., Shrop., Wore. Hal. Diet, says, * E. Country.* 
The Olouc. Olo88. says, * Club-footed.' 

Bumble-puppy [b-ptipe], A game at ninepins — not nine- 
holes, as Halliwell and Wright have it in their dictionaries. 
The missile used is a two-pound weight of metal, or 
a similar disk ; and this must be pitched, not bowled at 
the pins. 

Bumptious [bum-shus], adj. Arrogant, conceited. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

Bundle, 86. A large, fat woman. 

Bunfire, 86. Var. pron. of * bonfire.* 

Bunk, Bunk-eyed, (i) adj. Squinting and half closed 
of eye. 

'Bunk-eye, Squint-eye, went to the fair, 
Bought two horses, and one was a mare, 
One was blind, and the other couldn't see, , 
Bunk-eye, Squint-eye, one, two, three I' 

Warw. Sireel-rhyme. 

(a) V. n. and 86. To make off, to bolt ; a retreat, de- 
parture, as * ril bunk,' or * Til do a bunk.' The Leic. 
6lo88. has the word as a v. n., and says, ' almost always 
used in the imperative, ^' budge I be off I apage ! " ' 

Bunny — Butterfly-shooter 3 9 

Bunny, bb. Child's name for a rabbit ^ Bun I Bun I ' calls 
the animal to its food, or for a caress. Common. 

But [rhymes ' fur'], ab. The sweetbread of a calf. Glouc, 
Shrop., Staff. 

Burial, sb. A burial, funeral. ' The parson read the burial- 
service grand.' 

Bum daylight, phr. To light candles, &c., before there is 
a need : a figure for waste of time. Common. 

^Mer, Come, we bum daylight, ho.' — Rom, and Jul i. 4. 43. 

' Mrs. Ford, We bum daylight : — here, read, read.' — Merry Wives, ii. i. 54. 

Bum-mark, (t) 8&. Iron letters, fitted to a wooden handle, 
which when made hot are used for marking stock of all 
kinds ; the mark so made. Common. 
(2) V. a. * Bummark that spade handle.' Shrop. 

Burnt his Angers, phr. Equivalent to saying that a person 
has been unsuccessful in a speculation. N'hamp., and 

Burrow [bur5 and bur&]^ (i) ab. A sheltered place. 

(2) adj. Sheltered. * It is very burrow here in the 
winter.' Midlands. 

Bury [ber-ej, ab. A heap of roots or potatoes covered up, 
for later use, with straw-lined earth. Glouc, SE. Wore, 

BuBsocky ab. A gross, fat, vulgar female. In HoUoway's 
Diet Provincialiania, the word is inserted as peculiar to 
Warw. ; but the N'Jiamp. Oloaa. notes it, and it is in 
W. Wore. Worda. Vide * Bossuer ' in Cotgrave, 

But just, phr. Only just. * He's but just gone.' * We're 
but just in time.' Cf. Just now. 

Butterfly-shooter, ab, A volunteer, a member of a rifie- 

40 Buttermilk-can — Cade 

Buttermilk-oan, sb. The long-tailed tit. Eham. and 
Midland Inst. Archae, Trane.^ Nov, 24, 1875. 

Butter-my-eye, sb. A butterfly. 

Butty, (i) 86. A fellow-workman, mate or comrade. 

(a) V, n. To work in company. * I butty with Jackson.' 
In S, Warw. Provin. it is said to mean an assistant, too. 
A * butty-gang ' is a fellowship of workmen. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

Buzzaok, sb. A donkey. Glouc, Shrop. {bussock), and 

By-by, sb. (i) A nurse's song, lullaby. 

(2) Sleep ; in baby-talk, e. g. * Go to by-by.' 

By gum ! A mild oath. 

By now, adv. By this time. Common. 

By rights, adv. Properly, justly. * You ought by rights 
to put them seeds in now.' * 'E belongs the very cottage 
'e pays rent for, by rights.' Leic. 

By then, adv. By the time that. * Have my supper ready 
by then I get home.' Leic. 

Caddie [cadi], v. a. or n. To trifle ; to pet, to fondle. 
* Don't caddie with that sewing any longer.' *You 
caddie that child too much.' In OIovjC. Oloss. 'caddie,' 
sb. = a mess, a muddle. 
Caddling, part. Midlands. 

C&de, {i) sb. or adj. A pet, a fondling; tame, &c. * Hie 
ricus^ a Kod-lomb' is in a Pict. Voc. {circa 1475) in 
Wright's Vocabs. 

* He brought his cade Iamb with him to mass.' 

Sheldon, Mirades qf Antichrist, p. 924. 

(2) V. a. To pet, bring up tenderly. England. 

Caded — Cakey 41 

Caded, part, adj. Petted, as ' a caded child.' ' She always 
caded her children up so/ England. 

Cadge, V. a. or n. To beg. Midlands. 

Cadger [caj-ur], ab. A beggar. Midlands. (Not so else- 
where : in Scotland, a packman or huckster ; in Chesh. 
a carrier ; in Heref. an itinerant dealer whose wares are 
carried in a cart, &c.) 

Cadlocky ab. Charlock, Sinapis arvenais. Midlands. 

Cag, V. n. To cank, chatter, gossip. Leic. In W. Wore. 

Caggy, Ceggy, adj. Left-handed. * The caghand ' = the 
left hand. 

Cag-magy sb. Tough, worthless, or unwholesome meat ; the 
flesh of an animal that has died a natural death. A ' cag- 
butcher ' is a tradesman that deals in such meat. In the 
North Country, a tough, old goose is called a ^ cagmag.' 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Cake's all doughy phr. Expressive of mischance or dis- 
appointment. Midlands. 

' O, dear, O ! 

My cake 's all dough [i. e. sad, heavy] 
And how to make it better 
I do not know.' 

Wano. Fotk-rhyme (a variant is in the SE. Wore Olo88.f p. 77). 

' Qremio. My cake is dough : but I'll in among the rest ; 
Out of hope of aU but my share of the feabt/ 

Taming of (he ShreWj v. i. 146. 

Cftkey, adj. Weak of intellect ; silly. Shrop. Cf. Half- 
baked. * Put in with the bread, and pull'd out with the 
cakes,' is a folk-phrase, spoken of a half-witted or simple 

42 Calflick — Cant 

Calflioky Cowlioky Cow's-lick, sb. A lock of hair on the 
forehead, which will not lie flat. Common. 

Call [rhymes *fall'], (i) ab. Need, reason, occasion, neces- 
sity, compulsion. * You've no call to buy the stuff unless 
you like.' England. 

' For there's nobody no caU to break anything, if they'U only go the 
right way to work.' — Adam BedCf ch. zx (quoted in Leic. Dial.). 

(2) V. a. To miscall, Call names ; vituperate, abuse. 
' He began to call me all he could lay his tongue to ; ' or 
*I'eerd'er call the mon shameful.' Leic, Olouc, Staff., 
Shrop. To ' call one out of name,' a phrase meaning to 
call one by an incorrect name, is given in S. Warw, 
Provin.^ and is in use in other parts. 

Call together, phr. To mend slightly. ^ Just call the holes 
together.' — N'kavip. Oloss. 

Call words. To calves, ' Mog, mog, mog ! ' 
To chickens, * Chick, chick, chick ! ' Common. 
To cows, * Coop, coop, coop I ' S. Wore., and elsewhere. 
To ducks, * Dill, dill, dill ! ' Shrop., and elsewhere. 
To geese, * Gag, gag, gag I ' Glouc, 
In Shrop. * hoo-lag ; ' in Glouc. * hi-lag,' means * go away/ 
Vide Wagoners' Words. 

Cambrel, i. q. Gambrel, q. v. Leic 

Cank, Cenky {i)v.n. To prate, to gossip. Geese say * kenk ! 
kenk! kenk!' 
(2) s&. A gossip, a tell-tale. Midlands. 

Canker, sb, A toadstool. Glouc. Hal. Diet says, * West 
of England.' 

Cant, V. n. To gossip, caiTy tales, slander. 

sb. (i) A tattler, talebearer. (2) Gossip, tattle. Glouc, 
Shrop., Wore. 

Canting — Catching 43 

lOantiiiff, adj. Saucy, pert (Rugby). S. Wariu. Pivvin. 
lap, r. a. To excel, surpass. EDgland. 

i. 1 will cap thot proverb with "There is flattery in friend- 
ffm. V, iii. 7- 139. 

I Cap-it. A game at pitcliback. One player makes a back : 
the other players pitcli over twice backwards and for- 
wards. Then tbe lirst leaper places a cap on tho back 
of the player ' down,' whilst going over (should he fail, 
he himself is forced to be ' down '), and the last leaper 
takes it from tbe back (or failing to do eo, is ' down '). 
The first leaper now puts tbe cap lightly on the front 
of his own head, so that it may fall in so favourable 
a position — when he pitches — that he may take it in his 
teeth, and cast it over hia head, across the back of the 
one down, to taw. Should it fall hetweeii- the leaper 
and the one down, the former must make the back. 
If not, another player leaps, &c. 

Carney, v. a. To wheedle. ' I got no money to buy sucks : 
Carney yer dad.' Qlouc. Gloss, (oameying, part. 

Otupot, pkr. To ' have one on the carpet ' is to reprove or 
reprimand. Common. 
I Carry on, p/i r. To behave improperly. ' C'arrjings-on' = 
improper conduct. Common, 

Case-hardened, ^7*^. U(/y. Incorrigible. Bailey'8i>ic(., 1737, 
defines it 'obdurate; hardened in impiety.' Common. 

Casnalty [kaz-l-ty], adj. (i) Feeble, shaky, infirm. ' He's 
getting very old and casualty now.' Midlands. 

1(2) Uncertain, doubtful, as 'casualty weather.' Mid- 

Catching, udj. Uncertain ; said of the weather. l/p.-on-Sev. 
Wile, says, ' Showery.' Shrr^}}- Gloev. says, 'It is called 

44 Cat's-cradle — Chancet 

catchiu' time when, in a wet season, they catch every 
minute of favourable weather for field work/ Midlands. 

Cat's-oradle. 'A childish amusement, played by two 
persons with a piece of string joined at the ends, and 
variously disposed on the fingers and thumbs of both 
hands of one of the players ; then taken off in a different 
form with both hands by the other ; and so transferred 
alternately firom one player to the other/ — N'hamp. Gloss. 

Catch it, phr. To receive a scolding, thrashing, or other 
punishment. Midlands. 

*A. You'll catch it when you get 'um. 
B. What for? 

A. Breaking the bottle and spilling the rum, and kissing your 
sweetheart all the way 'um (home).' — FoUe-rhyme, 

Collar is used in the same sense. ' You'll collar.' 

Caterpnller [cat-ur-pttl-ur], 86. Var. pron. of * catapult.' 

Cats'-tailSy sb. The catkins of the hazel tree. N'hamp. 

Causey [cau-ze], sb. pi. A raised footpath ; a causeway. 

Certain-surOy adj. Perfectly confident ; sure. Oxf. {sartin- 
sure), and elsewhere. 

Cess! eaxl. Addressed to a dog to dii*ect or incite it to 
the scent. The Olouc. Oloss. says, to call dogs ' to their 
food ' : and Hal. Diet, agrees ; applying the term to the 
South of England. 

Chabble vel Chobble, v. a. and sb. To chew; a chew. 
* 'Ow yo' do chobble at them nuts.' * Wot a opple, gi'e us 
a chobble.* 

Chackle, v. n. To cackle, as a hen. SE. Wore. 
Chance-childy sb. An illegitimate child. Shrop. 
Chancet [chanst], sb. A chance. ' Gi'e us a chancet.' 

Clianey — Cheer 45 

Chaney, sb. and adj. China. Oxf., Shrop., SK Wore, and 
elsewhere. Cf. Chiney. 

Chapelmaster, ab. The chief ruler of the meeting-house. 
Frances, S. Warw. Prouin. 

Ch&vkSf ab. pi. Charcoal. GIouc. 

Charky, adj. Dry, sunbaked. SE. Wore. 

Chfirm, ab. (i) The intermingled and confused song of all 
the morning birds. 

' I cherme as brydes do whan they make a noyse a great nomber 
togyther.'— Palsgrave. 

' Charm of earliest birds.' — Parad. Lcat, bk. iy, I. 641 

(quoted in Shrop. Qloss.). 

{%) A murmuring noise ; a hum as of many voices. 
' What a charm them childem mek in school.' Midlands. 

Ch&rwicky ab. Charlock, Sinapia arvenaia. 

Chats, Bits of dead wood ; small sticks used for fuel. 
Ray gives ' Love of lads and fire of chats is soon in and 
soon out,' as a Derbyshire proverb. Midlands. In Staff. 
Oloaa. = * small coal, twig.' 
Chatting, part. Gathering chats. 

Chatterpie, ab. A chatterbox. Glouc. Common. 

Chaun, ab. A crack in the earth, floor, or wall. Glouc, 
SE. Wore. 

Cheapen [che-pn], v. a. To ask the price of anything : 
properly, to bargain. A.-Sax. ceaptan^ negotiari. Prompt. 

'To bargen, chepe, bye and sell, marchander,* — Palsgrave (in Shnp. 

Chad, adj. *Full to the brim with eating' (Rugby). 
Frances, 8. Warw. Provin. 

Cheer, ab. Var. pron. of * chair.' Oxf., Shrop., SE. 

46 Cheeses — Chin-congh 

Gheeaes [che-ziz], sb, pi. The ' frait ' of the common mallow. 

' Children often amnse themBelves with gathering and eating the 
unripe seed-vessels [of the mallow] which they call cheeses ; they are 
insipid but not unwholesome/ — Flowers of the Fidd, by C. A. Johns, 
4th ed., p. 114. French children say LespeHts/romageons, 

Cftielp, Chilp, v.n. To chirp; to chatter. 'Chilp, chilp, 
chilp, like a cock-sparrer up i' th' air.' Leic, N'hamp. 

Cftiep, adj. Var. pron. of * cheap.* Leic, N'hamp., SE. Wore. 
{choyjye and chup). 

Cherry-ourdSy sb. i. q. Bianings, q.v. Glonc, N'hamp., 
Oxf. {churry-curds). 

Chewer, ab. A narrow passage or road between two houses. 
Hal. OI088. Glouc. (chur and chure), HaL Diet has 'chore.' 

ChibbalSy eb. pi. Onions grown from bulbs ; scallions. Oxf., 
Glouc, Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Chibble, v. n. To chip, crumble. ' This putty's beginning 
to chibbla' Leic. 

Childem, ab. pi. Children. Common. 

' And play as chyldeme done in strete.' — Early Eng. Miacd. iii. p. 10 ; 
Warton Club Pubs., 1855 (quoted in Shrop. Word-bk.). 

Chilly V. a. To take the chill off; to warm slightly. ' Chill 
that milk.' Midlands. 

Chimblyy ab. Vai*. pron. of * chimney.* Common. * Chim- 
berley,' * chimdy,' and * chimley,* are other forms. 

Chin-oough[c-cuff],8&. Whooping-cough. N'hamp., Shrop., 
and elsewhere. 

' Find a briar growing in the ground at both ends, pass the child 

under and over it nine times, for three mornings, before sunrise, 

repeating : 

<* Under the briar, and over the briar, 

1 wish to leave the chincough here." 

The briar must be cut, and made into the form of a cross, and worn 
on the breast.'— Poole, Customty Legends, and SupentiHona qf Staff., p. 37. 

Chiney — Christmas 47 

Chiney [chi-ne], sb. Var. pron. of * china* Vide Chaney. 
Ohip, V. n. To bud. ' The hedges are beginning to chip.' 
Chip-in-porridge, phr. N'hamp. 

' Like a chip in porridge, neither good nor harm.' — Hazlitt, Eng, 
Procerbif 1889. 

Chip out, V. n, and ab. To ' fall out/ quarrel. * Jack and 
me 'ad a bit of a chip out last night.' * What did you 
chip out about?' Leic, N'hamp. 

Chisel [chizlj, v. a. To cheat. Leic. 

Chits, 6&. pi. *The sprouts which shoot from potatoes, 
wheat, &C., when germination has commenced.' — SE.Worc. 

Chive, sb. The stave of a barrel. 

Chock, t;. a. To chuck, cast : hence the game of ^ chock ' 
or * chockhole,' in which the players attempt to pitch the 
marbles into a hole. Any ^ remaindei'S ' — that is, marbles 
undeposited by one player at a cast — become the pro- 
perty of the other player. Midlands. 

Chock-ftill, adj. As full as possible; completely full. 
N'hamp., SK Wore, Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Choice, adj. (i) Dainty, fastidious. 'The cat won't eat 
this meat, she's a choice madam,' or ' choice-mouthed.' 

(2) Fond and careful. ' Be careful with that ornament, 
the master's very choice on it.' Shrop. 

Chop-gos, sb. A boor, a man rough and uncouth of 
manner. From ' chop ' and * gos ' =gorse. * As rough as 
gos chopped off the common ' is a Warw. folk-phrase. 

Christmas, sb. The evergreens used in Christmas decora- 
tions. England. 

48 Chuck — Clappers 

Chuck, sb. ' A cut of beef extending from the horns (sic) 
to the ribs, including the shoulder piece.' — Shrop. Gloss. 

Chucky-pigy sb. A young pig. 

Chuf^ (i) ^6. Bread; sometimes, but not often, used 
broadly for food. 

(2) V. n. To eat. * Jist y5' wait afore yd' begin to 

Chunder, Chunter, v. n. To mutter, grumble. Shrop. 
(ckunder), Staff, (chunter, to scold, &c.). 

Clack, sb. (1) Iteration, idle talk. (2) A contemptuous 
epithet for a woman's tongue. Common. Olouc. Oloss, 
(clack, noise). 

Clam, Clem, v. a. and n. To starve, famish. 

'My intrails 
Were clamm'd with keeping a perpetual fast.' 

Massinger, Roman Ador^ ii. a (ist half 17th cent.), 

in Narea* CRoss, 

Bailey, Diet 1782, has * dammed^ starved with hunger.' 

* What, will he clem me and my followers ? ' 

Ben Jonson, P:>eta8ter, i. a. 

' You been like Smithwick either clem'd or bossten ' is 
a Chesh. proverb. See Ray, Hazlitt, and Wilbraham's 
Chesh. Oloss. 1820, pp. 21-26. Common. The SE.Worc. 
Gloss, has ' clommed.' 

Clap-gate, sb. ' A gate which shuts on either of two posts 
joined with bars to a third post, so that only one person 
can pass through at a time.' — Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Clappers, d). pi. Two, and sometimes three tongues of 
wood fitted on to a handle, used to scare birds from 
crops. The outer tongues work on a hinge, and the bird 
boy, striking them against the fixed tongue, makes a 
clapping sound to discomfit the birds, and utters his 

Clat — Clemancing 49 

monotonous verse. See my Erig. Folk-rhymes^ pp. 3 1 9-2 1 . 
Glouc, N'hamp. (crackers and dockers), Staff., Shrop. 

Clat, V. n. To tattle, tell tales (Rugby). Frances, 8, Warw. 
Provin, N'hamp., Sbrop., and elsewhere. 

86. (i) Clatter. * Stop your clat.' (2) Applied specially 
to the droppings of cattle, e. g. * Mind ! or you'll tread 
i' that cow-clat.' Midlands. 

Claws, Clees, Clays [clauz, clez, claz], sh, pi. The respec- 
tive parts of a cloven foot. 'Claw or cle of a beste, 
Ungvla' — Prompt. Parv. Minsheu (ed. 1617, p. 97) 
refers to the * cleyes of Crabbes, Scorpions/ &c. Shrop., 
Up.-on-Sev. [day). 

Clay-dabber, sh. A brickmaker's lad. 

' Clay-dabber Dick, 
Three fardens a-wik (week), 
Three lifctle devils 
To carry one brick/ — Wano. Fdk'-rhyme, 

Clean [den], adv. Wholly, entirely, quite. Common. 

'For al his fyve wittes had clone hym forsake/ 

Chaucer, Hist. Beryn (quoted in N*hamp. Oloss.), 

*Iago, It is clean out of the way/ — Othello, i. 3. 3661 

*Tliat clean throughout his soil proud Ootswold cannot show/ 

Drayton, Poly, xiv (in Leic. Dial.). 

'Clean gone like the boy's eye, and that went into his head' 
(i. e. he squinted). — Mid. FoVc-phrase. 

Clefty ^6. A portion of a log cleft for burning. N'hamp. 
Frances, S. Warw. Provin.^ simply says, * A log of wood.* 

Clemanoingy part. adj. Soliciting goodies and pence on 
the night of St. Clement's Day, Nov. 23rd. 

'Clemancing, clemancing, year by year. 
Apples and pears are very good cheer; 
One for Peter, two for Paul, 
And three for the man that made us all. 


50 Clem-gutted — Clouter-headed 

Up with your stocking, and down with your shoe ; 

If you've got no apples, money '11 do. 

Clement was a good old man, 

For his sake pray give us some ; 

None of the worst, but some of the best. 

I pray God 'send your soul to rest.* 

FoUc-rhyme, near Tamworth. 

At Aston-juocta-BirmiTighavi, and in the neighbourhood, 
the first line runs : * Come Clement's, come Clement's, 
come once a year.' For variants of the rhyme in 
other counties, see my Eng, Folk-rhymes, pp. 227,-26. 

Clem-guttedy adj. Thin, miserable-looking, pinched in 
appearance. Shrop. (clemgut, sh, and adj.). 

Clicketingy part. adj. Making that sort of noise which 
a clicket or hasp does when the door or gate is shaken 
by the wind. 

Clinking, adj. Admirable, splendid, worthy. * Ain't these 
a clinkin' pair o' trousers ? ' Vulg. 

Clock, 8h. The ball of seeds of the dandelion. Children 
disperse the ball by blowing off the downy seeds, and 
pretend to determine the time of day, each puff answering 
to one hour ; hence the name. England. 

Clommer, v. n. To clamp, or tread heavily. Leic, Shrop. 
(cloitteHng, paH. adj.). 

Close, 8h. A field. Frances, 8. Warw. Provin. The 
N^hximp. OI088. preserves the plural * dosen ' = small 
inclosures or fields. Shrop. Olosa. says, *A small field 
near the house.' Staff. 1 if dial. 

Clothing-boots, sb. pi. Cloth or button boots that reach to 
the calf of the leg. Sutton Coldfield. 

Clouter-headed [c-yedid], adj. 'Thick-headed,' stupid, 
deficient in understanding. N'hamp. 

Clozam — Codger 6 1 

Clozaniy V. a. To grab, to clutch, to appropriate. * Let's 
clozam them opples.* The Shrop. Gloss, has 'closem' 
[pron. kluzum], v. a., to grasp in a close embrace. 

Coal-hod [c61-od], sb. Any utensil that differs in shape 
from the * scoop ' or * scuttle/ for holding coal. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

Cob, (i) sb. A blow. Staff, (a heap, a blow ; to throw). 

(2) V. a. To beat, actually or figuratively ; to surpass. 
Shrop. Common. 

'That cobs DoUy, and DoUy cobb'd the devil.'—lfid. Folk-phraae, 

Cobbler, sb. The fruit of the horse-chestnut tree. 

Cobblers, sb. The well-known game of striking one dried 
'cobbler,' threaded on a string, against that of an 
opponent, to try their respective strength. Vide Eng. 
Folk-rhymes, pp. 354-55- 

Cock-sure, adj. Overcertain, overconfident. 

'When the DeuyU had once broughte Christe to the crosse, he 
thought aU cocke sure.* — Latimer, Sermon on the PlougherSf 1549 (quoted 
in SE, Wore. Gloss.). 

* Gads, We steal as in a castle, cock-sure.* — i Hen. /F, ii. 1. 95. 

Cod, Coddy, sb. Friend, companion. It is always prefixed 
to a surname, as Cod Bennett, Cod Jackson, &c. ; and 
possibly may be a diminutive of codlin, an old term of 

Codge, v. a. or 71. To cobble, mend clumsily. Leic, 
N'hamp., Staff. In Warw. it is often used in conjunction 
with ^ modge,' as ' Don't codge and modge at that coat 
any longer.' 

Codger, 86. A miser. Frances, S. Warw, Provin. In 
other parts of the county, preceded by *old' as an 
intensive, it signifies an eccentric. 

E 7, 

5^ Cold-crowdings — Come your ways 

Cold-crowdings, sb. pL Bad times. More common in 
Glouc. *Ther'll be cold-crowdings, if bread gets much 

Collar^ phr. i. q. Catoh it, q. v. 

Colly, (i) 86. The soot which gathers outside pots, pans, &c. 

(2) V. a. To blacken. Midlands. Hartshome, Salop. 

Antiq.i gives early references from the Oeste of King 

Horn, V. 1071-72, and 1097-8. Shakespeare uses ' collied ' 

as an adj. and part. : 

* Lys. Briof as the lightning in the collied night.' — Mid, Nfs. Dr. i. 1. 145. 

* Oth. And passion having my best judgment collied.* — Othello, ii. 3. aoB. 

Come, (i) Iprep. At, on, or by. 

* She's been here but a year come Michaelmas.' — Adam Bede^ ch. xxxi. 
(quoted in Leic, Died,). 

(2) present ten^e for the past. * I come yesterday.* 

^ Thursday that was the ix Day of Aprill, I com to Agnebelleto . . . 
the same nyght I com to Cambery.' — Torkington's PUgrimagt, 1517. 

(3) eoccl. * Come ! come ! ' = * Haste I ' or ' Mend your 
manners ! ' Common. 

Come-back^ sh. The guinea-fowl, in allusion to its cry. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Come on', v. n. To grow, to improve. ' The plants come 
on nicely.' Shrop. It is frequently used of women 

Come to see, phr. Expressing courtship, as *Your Jim 
comes to see our Polly.' N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Come youp ways, phr. Come here : usually addressed to 
children, in an encouraging tone. Sometimes ' Come his 

'Pol, Look to 't, I charge you ; como your ways.' — HanCet, i. 3. 135. 

Comical — Courted-cards 53 

* Ways ' is probably a relic of the old genitive. See 
Trail, & Cress, iii. a. 44, * Come youi* ways, come your 
ways;' and As You Like It, iv. i. 192, *Ay, go your 
ways, go your ways/ Shrop., Wore, and elsewhere. 

Comical^ adj. Queer tempered. 'He's in a comical 
humour.' N'hamp., Up.-on-Sev. ( = unwell). 

Conk, sb. The nose. Vulg. SE. Wore, and elsewhere. 

Conquers [conk-urz], sh. pi. Feats of daring. ' Let's go 
and play at conkers : ' i. e. deeds which conquer some of 
the players. 

Contrairy [cun-trer'-e], adj. Obstinate, cross-tempered : lit. 

Cop, V. a. To catch. * Cop that frog/ Staff. 

Corkle, sh. The core of an apple. Hal. Diet, has ' corke.' 
Vide Boork. 

Coming, part. adj. Begging com for Frummety (q. v.) on 
St. Thomas' Day, Dec. 21. 

Cdmiflh, sh. A cornice. 

' Cornice or Cornish is the top and overseeling moulding on the top 
of a piece of Wainscot' — Acad, Armoryy bk. iii. ch. iii. p. loo (quoted in 
Shrop, Gloss.), 

Cotch, V. a. To catch. 

Cotohed, p. and pp. Caught. Oxf. 

Couch, Couch-grass [ktlch], sb. Triticum repens, L., or any 
grass of similar habit. Glouc Vide Squitch. 

Could [ctid], V. n. and a. To be able. * I used to could.* 
Also used with the negative. *He used to couldn't.* 

Courted-cards [corted-cai-ds], sb. pi. The * court' or 
'picture' cards of a pack, taken collectively. Shrop. 
Vide Faoed-oards. 

54 Ctoventry-blue — Ck> verslut 

Ck)Tentry-blu6. 'Thread principally used for purposes of 
embroidery, of a vivid blue, very popular in the time 
of Elizabeth. It was produced from a kind of indigo/ 
— Beck, Draper's Diet 

* I have heard say that ^e chiefe trade of Coventry 
was heretofore in making blue threde, and then the town 
was riche, even upon that trade, in manner only; and 
now our threde comes all from beyonde sea; therefore 
that trade is now decaied, and thereby the town like- 
wise/ — A Covipendious and hri^ Examination of 
certayne ordinary coTnplaynts of divers of our Country- 
men in these our days: a blackletter tract, published 
in 1581 by W[illiam] S[tafford] — long attributed to 

* Jenkm, She gare me a shirt coU&r wroaght over with no counterfeit 
Otorge. What, was it gold ? 
Jtnkin, Nay, 'twas better than gold. 
Owrge. What was it ? 
Jenkin, Right Coventry-blue.'— 7%« Pinner of Wak^flddy 1599. 

'He is true 

' Coventry was formerly famous for dyeing a blue that 
would neither change its colour, nor could it be dis- 
charged by washing. Therefore, the epithets of Coventry- 
blue and true blue were figuratively used to signify 
persons who would not change their party or principles 
on any consideration.' — Grose, Provin. Gloss. Fuller 
mentions the distich in his Worthies. 

Coverlid [cuv-ur-lid], sb. A coverlet, or bedquilt. N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. *4 coverlids' for the servants' rooms 
appears in the Inventory of Skipton Castle, Yorks., 157 a. 

Goverslut [cuv-ur-slutj, sb. A long apron used to hide an 
untidy dress. N'hamp., Shrop. 


Cowcumber — Coxy '>!> 

Cowcumber, bh. A cucumber. This was tht form of tlie 

word dear to Betsy Prig. Halliwell says this form 

occurs in Hollybaud'a D-ictiiynarte, 1593- N'bamp., 

Shrop., SE. Wore. Often pronounced ' cowcummer.' 

I Oowge [couj], V. a. To pilfer, or rather to appropriate 

forcibly. ' Let's go and cowge tboir marleys.' 
i Oovlady [cou-la-de], sb. The ladybird, or "Ludycow, q. v, 
Hal Glotf*. Couimon. 
Cow-lesoh [cou-lech], eb. A cow-doctor, a hedge- farrier. 
Glouc, N'bamp., Shrop., Up.-on-Sev. 

■Thntigh thera are manj* pretenders to the nrt of farriering and oow- 
leoohing, yet mail}- of thpm are very ignorant, eapeclallj in tho 
eountry,' — Mortimor'a Hub(«iii(ib ■,'". Liithniu . 

Cow-leg, V. n. To pitch a back with one leg only, the 

other remaining on the ground. 
Cows and Calves, eb. pi. (1) 'Tho flower of the Aruiii 

7)ianUatavt. They are also called in Warw., but leea 

properly, bulls and cows, and lords and lailies.' — Hal. 

OloKe. N'hamp. The Glontt. says, 'The dark-coloured 

one.1 are called India, the light cjwa.' Shrop. 
(2) Children sometimes rub their moist hands after 

play, and work up little rolls of dirt-charged moisture. 

These they term ' cows and calves." Glouc. 
CoW'Bh&m, eb. The dung of a cow. Holland, in his 

traofilation of PUny, uses the term bulls' -eheme (iL 327). 

Hal. GI08S, Loic. 
■ Shorn is the Dung of Oion and Cows.'— ^enrf. Armor)], bt. ii. oh. ix. 

P- 173 (quoted in Shrop. Glait.). 

CowBlnps, «6. pi. Var. pron. of ' cowslips.' SE. Wore. 
I Coxy, adj. Conceited, arrogant, supercilious. Leic. (coxy 
and cocky), N'hamp. ( = touchy). SE, Wore, (cockeey). 
' When lie cnmca to church, he aitB an' shakes bis head, au' looks as 

56 Cos — Cranch 

flour an' as coxy when we're a-singin', as I should like to fetch him 
a rap acfoss the jowL' — Adam Bede (quoted in Lac* Dial. . 

CoB» conj. Var. proD. of * because.' SE Wore. * Coz for 
why/ meaning 'why so,' is a common phrase in the 

Craby Crabstick, sb. A morose, disagreeable person. 

Crab-vaijiSy sb. The juice (lit. yerjuice) of crab apples, 
said to be good for sprains. Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Crack, In a, pkr. Quickly, instantly; in a jifiy, trice, 
twink, flash. England. 

Crack, r. n. To boast, brag. The Prompt. Parv. gives 
'crakyng or boste, jaetancicu N'hamp., SE Wore 
(crackr^Py v, a. : and in Warw.), and elsewhere. 

Crackling, sb. The rind of pork when roasted. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

Craitchety, adj. i.q. Creachy, q.v. Leic (cratchdty), 
N'hamp. (cratchalty)^ Shrop. {craitcky). 

Crake, (i) sb. A grumbling stata * AllUs on the crake.' 
(2) V. n. and a. To murmur, to grumble. 

'And Craken a^eyn >e clergie — Crabbede wordes.' 

Pien the FUncman, Text A, pass. zi. L 65, ed. Skeat 

V quoted in Shrop. (Hon.). 

Crame, sb. Var. pron. of ' cream/ England. 

'And a fewe Cruddes and Craym.' 

Piers (he Plowman, Text A, pass. viL 1. 969 
(quoted in Shrop. CRoes.). 

Cranch, v. a. or n. To crunch : ' to make that sort of noise 
which is occasioned by eating a hard apple, or crushing 
any hard substance with the teeth; or breaking under 
the feet pieces of sand or any similar matter thrown 

Crane — Criss-cross-cushion 5 r 

upon the floor.' — Hal. GI088. Staff, (to eat apples). Vide 

Crane, 8h, A sway-bar, hanging-bar; on which the pot- 
hooks hang. 

Crap, (i) sb, Var. pron. of * crop.' England. 
(2) V, n. To discharge excrement. 

Cratch, sb. (i) A hayrack. In all the early dictionaries. 

(2) The rack-like tailboard of a cart or wagon. Glouc, 
SE. Wore. Staff, (a pannier). 

(3) A rack suspended from the kitchen ceiling, where 
the * flitches ' are kept, or firearms placed, &c. Shrop. 

Crater, sb. Var. pron. of * creature.' Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Creachy vd Craichy [cre-che, cra-chej, adj. Creaky, infirm, 
unsteady. *A craichy o'd mon.' 'That cheer is a 
creachy article.' Glouc. (crailcy), Leic. {creachy\ Staff. 
(creachy), SE. Wore, (craichy), W. Wore, (craikey). Vide 

Creepers, sb. pi. Head-lice. Oxf. Vide Dicks. 

Creep up one's sleeye, phr. Signifying to attempt to 
obtain a favour by coaxing or wheedling. N*hamp., and 

CriekB, sb. pi. (i) Winding paths through or beside allot- 
menta and grazing grounds. 

(2) The grounds so traversed. EUsewhere, as Staff. 

Crink, Crinklin% sb. A very small sweet summer apple. 
Oxf. (crinkliTC), Wore, (crinks), Shrop. 

CriB8-oro68-oa8hion, sb. 'A sort of seat made by two 
persons taking hold of their own and each other's wrists, 
thus forming a square with their hands, so as to enable 
them to carry a child thereon.' — N'havip. Oloss. 

5 8 Croak — Cubbed 

Croak, v. n. To die. 

Crofflingy jxxrt adj. Infirm, decrepit, as *A croffing old 
man/ or * He just goes croffling about.' Leic. 

Croodle, v. n, (i) To crouch for warmth. England. 
(2) To bend or stoop down, to cower. 

Crostering, adj. Boasting. *He*8 a crostering fellow' 
(Rugby). — Frances, S. Warw. Prauin, Cf. Gtoster. 

Crow [croj, sh. A sway-bar, pot-hanger. The term is more 
properly applied to a perforated plate of metal, the stave 
of which works within a socket beside the hob of a grate ; 
and is used for supporting pots and the like over the fire, 
or sufficiently near to it to keep the contents hot. 

Crows, sh. jpl, A common term for rooks in the midlands. 
CruddlOy V. a. or n. To curdle. 

'Comes the breme winter 
Drerily shooting his stormy dart, 
Which cruddles the blood, and pricks the harte.* 

Spenser, Shep, Cal. Feb. 1. 43 (quoted in W, Wore Qhss,), 

Cruddled, part, adj. Curdled. 

Crudded, Cruddid, pp. Curded. Job x. 10; Ps. 
Ixvii. 16; cxviii. 70; Wisd. vii. 2 (in Wycl.). 

CrudSy ab. pi. Curds. These words were ever interchange- 
able. * Cruds of my Ike, mattes.' — Palsgrave : and other 
early dictionaries. * Crudde, coagulum,* — Prompt Parv. 

Crumbs, To pick up one's, phr. To thrive^ N'hamp., and 

Crusher, sb. A glass or metal rod with a button-like end 
for crushing the sugar in toddy. 

Crusses [crus-iz], sb, pi. Crusts. Midlands. 

Cubbed, Cubbed up, p. and pp. From v. a. Cub, to confine 

Cuburt — Cut up 59 

as in a cub (penthouse, hutch, &c.), cramped, confined. 

'Cubbed in a cabin, on a mattress laid.' 

Dxyden (quoted in N*hamp. CRoaa,). 

Cuburty 8b, Var. pron. of * cupboard.' Shrop. 

Cuck [cook], sb. A well-known game in which one child 
hides, and then cries ' Cuck ' or ' Cuckoo,' when the 
other players attempt to discover the hiding-place. 

Cuokoo-flower, sb. Lychnis floscuculi, N'hamp. Oloss, 
says, *Redflowered campion, Lychnis dioica,' Olouc. 
0los8.y ' Cardamine pratensis,' 

Cuckoo-malty sb. Malt made in the summer, that is, 
after the arrival of the cuckoo. ^ Cuckoo-lanib, a late 
yeaned lamb/— Hal. Oloss. This last is in N^hamp, 

Cufi; sb. Var. pron. of * cough.' 

Cnllings [culins], sb, pi. Refuse, residue after selection, as 
of com or farm-stock. 

* Cullynge or owte schesynge, SeperaciOf Segregacio,* — Prompi, Parv. 

'Those that are big'st of bone I stiU reserve for breed, 
Mj cullings I put off, or for the chapman feed.' 

Drayton, Nymph, vi. p. 1496. 

Cum, sb. and v. a, Var. pron. of ' comb.' SE. Wore, (coovi). 

Cunger [cung-ur], sb. A cucumber. N'hamp. {conger and 
congoes). Hal. Diet. 

Cnnny-thumby phr. To shoot with a ' cunny-thumb ' is to 
discharge a marble with the thumb released from far 
beneath the forefinger (Lat. cuneus, a wedge). SE. 

Curchey [cur-chej, sb. A curtsy. Leic, Shrop. 

Out up, phr. Depressed by trouble ; grieved ; spirit-broken. 
N'hamp., Shrop. Hartshome, Salop. Antiq. 

60 Cut-and-come-again — Daggle 

Cut-and-come-again, />^r- Expressing 'take a share and 
come again freely for more/ England. 

Cup ! [cup and coop], eoxl. Lit. * come up ! ' a call to cows 
at milking time. 'Come up' is used to horses to en- 
courage their speed. England. 

Dabbly [dab-le], adj. Showery, damp, dirty, as *dabbly 
weather/ Up.-on-Sev. Cf. Daggly. 

Daby sb. A small quantity, as 'a dab of money/ Leic, 
Shrop., Glouc. (dabbit). 'Dibs and dabs ' = paltry 
portions of anjrthing. Cf. Dibs. 

Dabhand, sb. A dabster, a skilled hand, one adept at 
anything. Common. 

Dabs, 8b, pL Bits. ' My hands is just like dabs of ice.* — 
N*hamp. Oloas. 

Dabwashy sb, A small, intermediate washing of clothes 
between the lai-ge periodical washings. Oxf., N'hamp., 

Daddy-roughy sb. (i) The stickleback. (2) Hayrif^ q. v. 

Dadacky [dad-&-ke], adj. Natureless, sapless, decayed, as 
'A dadacky log of wood.' More common in Glouc. 
Glouc. (daddocky)^ W. Wore, (daddaky = inferior, mid- 
dling), Shrop. {daddwik^ sb, = dry, rotten wood, &c.), Up.- 
on-Sev. {dadock, s6., dadacky): Hal. Diet (daducky). 

Dagy sb. Dew. ' There's been a nice flop of dag.' — Frances, 
S, Warw. Provin. 

Dagy Daggle, v, a. and n. To trail in the dirt ; to bemire, 
to draggle. Common. 

' I daggle or I dagge a thing with myer, le croUe' — Palsgrave. 

Daggle, v.a. To cut off the wool round a sheep's tail 

Daggly — Denial 61 

Oxf. {dag). 'Daglocks' are the bits of wool cut off. 
Leic, N'hamp., Shrop. (dagglelocks). 

Daggly» adj. Wet, showery, as *a daggly day.' Shrop. 
Cf. Dabbly. 

Dain t. Did not, as * I or You dain't black the boots/ 

Dale, sb. Var. pron. of *deal' (pine), as *This is a nice 
piece o' dale.' 

Damas [dam-Sa], sb. The damson, or damask plum. 

Damp, V. n. To drizzle. Leic, Glouc. 

Damping [damp-in*], adj. Showery, drizzling, as * It's 
dampin' weather to-day.' 

Danger, No, phr. =Noi at all likely, nothing of the kind. 
Shrop. * No fear ' is used in the same sense. 

Dareno' [dare-nft]. Dare not. *I dareno' do it.' Cf. 

Deadly, adj. and adv. Exceeding, exceedingly, as * deadly 
clever.' * Black snails be out deadly ' (in a bad sense). — 
N'hamp. Gloss. W. Wore, (clever, active, excellent), 
Up.-on-Sev. (accomplished, having great power). Frances, 
S. Warw. Provin., gives 'He's a deadly man for going 
to church ' = He is a thorough churchgoer. 

Deaf-ears, sb. pi. The valves of an animal's heart. Shrop. 

DeaAiut, sb. A nut without a kernel. Common. 

Deck, sb. A pack of cards. England. 

*G?o. The king was slily finger d from the deck.'— 3 Hen, VI, v. i. 44. 

Deef [def], adj. Deaf. Palsgrave spells the word * deefe.' 

Denial [de-m^-Sl], sb. Detriment, hindrance, di*awback, 
disadvantage, trial, injury. * It's a great denial to him 
to be shut up in the house so long.' Midlands. 

62 Dern — Ding-dong 

Bern, v, a. To darn, as a stocking. SE. Wore. 

< Rentraire ... to draw, deame, or sow vp a rent in a garment.* — Gotgr. 

Desperate, i. q. Deadly, q. v. Up.-on-Sev. 

Devil's Nightcap, eb. Hedge-parsley. Erdington. 

Devil's Oatmeal, sb. Cow-parsnip. Near Tamworth. 

Dew-spreader [sometimes ju-spred-nr], ab. A splay-footed 
person. Cf. Splawger, Splodger. 

Dibs, ab. pi. Little lots : particulaily of money. * He 

pays me in such dibs, I don't care for his custom.' 

* Dibs ' was once a slang term for money generally. Cf. 


'For that one of their drummers, and one Sergeant Matcham, 
Had "bruah'd with the dibg," and they never could catch 'em.' 

* The Dead Drummer * : Ingoidsby Legends, 

DickB. i. q. Creepers, q. v. 

Dicky, adj. Doubtful, as *a dicky chance.' Up.-on-Sev. 
(middling in health) ; and in Warw. too. 

Didn't ought. Ought not. *You didn't ought to throw 
stones.* Oxf. Common. 

Digester [de-jes'-tur?, di-jes'-tur], sb. Digestion. Prances, 
8. Warw. Provin. 

Dilling, ab. The last and weakest of a brood or litter ; and, 
sometimes of a family, in which sense it has almost the 
power of * darling ' or * fondling.' England. 

^The youngest and the last, and lesser than the other, 
Saint Helen's name doth beare, the dilling of her mother.' 

' Drayton, Poify. 

Ding-dong, adv. Hard and fast, in right earnest, as bells 
go ; commonly spoken of a hand-to-hand fight. Common. 

' And thus they went to it, ding-dong.' — Robin Hood <md the Bamger. 

It sometimes signifies ' slap-dash,' ' slap-bang,' * neck or 
nothing.' *Here goes ding-dong for a dumpling,* is 
a Warw. phrase, probably derived from the old sport of 

Dinge — Dither 63 

bobbing Mrith the mouth for balm dumplings immersed 
in hot water. 

[dinj], (i) sb. A dent. Shrop. 
(a) V. a. To dint. Shrop. 

Ding&rt, v. a. To swing a person's buttocks against an 
obstacle, or jolt him astride the knee, &c. Vide Leic. 
Gloss, under * Boss.' 

* Tommy, Tommy Dingfart, 
Bom in a muck-cart, 
Christen'd in a wheelbarrow, 
Gee I Wo ! Wup I *— TTorw. Folk-rhyme, 

I>ink, DinkBy v. a. To dance a baby in one's arms. Oxf., 
SE. Wore, Up.-on-Sev. 

'Dinks-a, dinks-a-dolly, 
What shall mammy do fo* 'e ? (* for thee ' : sound of 
* o * in no() 
But sit in a lap, 
And giye un a pap. 
And dinks-a, dinks-a-dolly/— Gtouc FoUe-rhyme. 

Dirty Dan% ab. Treacle : lit. * Daniel.' Vulg. 

Ditched, part (i) Begrimed or deeply insinuated with 
dirt. Leic, N'hamp. 

(2) Ingrained. Thus a fabric the prevailing colour of 
which is, say, blue, but proves on close examination to 
contain an occasional thread of, say, dark grey, is said 
to be * ditched with grey.' Hence the verb dich (which is 
rarely heard) may be made to mean to dye, imbue, ingrain. 

' Much good dich thy good heart, Apemantis I ' — Timon of Athens, i. a. 74. 

Dither [dith-urj, v.n. To shake or tremble with cold. 

* Dy derying for cold ' occurs in Prompt Parv, ; and Cot- 
grave has * to didder with cold, friller^ frisonner, gre- 
loiter.' The word is sometimes substantively used, as 

* all of a dither.' 

64 Ditless — Do up 

The Dithers. The shivers. v. 

Dithering, sb. A shivering, trembling ; ''and is used 
adjectively, as * a dithering fit.' Common. 

Ditless, 86. ' A portable wooden stopper for the mouth of 
an oven.' — HaL Olosa, Wise, ShaJcspere, his Birthplace^ 
&c.y mentions this word, and *stopless,' as still in use 
near Stratford-on-Avon ; and quotes the poet thus : 

* Sorrow concealed, like an oven stopp'd, 
Doth bum the heart to cinders where it is.' 

Tit Andron, ii. 4. 36. 

N'hamp. {dittle and ditless). 

Do, or To-do, sb, (i) Bustle, confusion, bother, trouble. 
'There was a fine to-do at Dick Field's last night, his 
little Joe had set Langley's rick afii-e : my ! it was a do.' 
N'hamp. * How-d'ye-do ? ' is a common equivalent. 

(2) Entertainment, festivity. 'They had a fine "do" 
or "to-do" when young Hartop came of age.' Wore, 
Shrop., and elsewhere 

Do for, v.a. (i) To wait upon, and provide for. *I can 
let three nice rooms, and do for you as well.' 

(2) To make an end of, actually or figuratively, as 
* Don't yo' goo a-soldiering, the blacks '11 soon do for you.' 
' You talk mighty big, but the schoolmaster's the man 
to do for you.' N'hamp. The Leic, Dial, quotes the 
traditional epitaph on a short-lived infant : 

'Since I so soon was to he done for 
I wonder what I was hegun for.' 

Do out, V, a. To clean out, as * Do out the pigsty, Matthew I ' 
Leic, N'hamp. 

Do up, v,a. To repair, trim, arrange, as *I must do up 
these tenements ; ' or, * Why don't she do up her bonnet 1' 

Do with — Dolledger 

^ To put I 

'itb : conseut to purchase or 

suld do w 

it, if so be ye n 

V CqU[.ted in J>(c. Ghiia.). 

[In] Dock, out nettle, jth.r. ' A saying or charm. It is 
believed that a person severely stung with a nettle wUl 
obtain relief fi'om rubbing the part with dock-leaves, 
repeating the above words three times.' — Hal, Gluna, 
Common thioughout England. For metncal charuis, 
see my Emj. Folk-r/ii/mefi, pp. 131-32. 

'Nettle in dooke mit. now this, now that, Pnndjuw, 
Now fuule tall her fur Clij wo' that i^ara.' 

JVoi;ni and Cnaiadt, lib. iv, line 461 ^iii Urry'g Chaurtr, ijai). 

The Gluss. says, ' Or. as we say now, '■ In Duck out Nettle," 
spoken of inconstant and lickle persons, chiefly in love.' 
There is a similar use of the phrase, quoted in Hal. I>ict. : 

' UnoerlBiDO uertjiinr. never liive» to settle. 
But heerc, tlitre, Hvorywhere ; id dock out nettle.' 

THj-Ior, MoUo, i6aa. 

Docker me ! exii. As, ' Docker me if I do I ' Vulg. 
Dodderet, »b. A pollard tree. Hal Diet. Leio (dodderil), 

N'h&mp. ■ Dodihjd, as trees. DecoTiuitua, miculus (muti- 

lus. P.},' in Way's Pt'ompt. Parv. 
Doddering, mij. Tottering, pottering ; aH ■ A doddering old 

man.' N'bamp., Sbrop. 
Dogger, 8&. A mallet or bat, comprising a flexible handle, 

fitted to a heavy cylindrical end, used in a game differing 
I from knar and npnU, in that a oue-iioaed tipcat is used 
I instead of a ball. 

Dolledge [dol-ij], v. a. To beat, to buffet. 
Dolledger, «6. A large heavy marble or alley used to drive 

an opponent's marble to a considerable distance. 

I^^^B an oppon 


66 Dollop — Douse 

Dollop [dol-up], d), A lump or large piece of anything, 
IU8 * A dollop of dumpling/ Midlands, and elsewhere. The 
Shrop. Gloaa, spells the word dullop^ but pronounces 
it [dolup], and allies it to the Welsh * talp,' a mass, a lump. 

Dolly-douceyy 66. A doll. Wore. 

DoUy-pegy «6. A *maid' or washing implement which 
has pegs or lengthy projections at its base, instead of 
the common clublike end. It is used with a twisting 
motion, in order to cleanse the clothes effectually. Vide 
Maid and Peggy. SE. Wore. (doUy, ab. and vb.), Shrop. 

Done, pret of * do.' ' I done my washin' at th' beginnin* o' 
th' wik.' 

Donkey, sb. A foui*square block on which mai'bles are 
placed to be shot at. The term is also applied to a board 
pierced at intervals — each hole having a number above 
it — at which marbles are discharged, in the hope of their 
passing through some hole of high value. The numbers 
represent the marbles that the holder of the donkey must 
pay if the shooter be successful. The shooter loses his 
marbles that strike the donkey without passing thi*ough 
a hole. 

Donkey-bite, sb. A small tract of rough grazing-ground. 

Donny, sb. The hand. A word used only to children. 
Staff., Wore. 

Don't spare, phr. * Come, 'ave a bit moore ; don't spare.' 
SE. Wore, and elsewhere. 

Door [rhymes * poor '], sb. A door. 

Double, sb. A body-napkin. SE. Wore. 

Douse [douce], v. a. To plunge anything into a liquid, to 
souse ; or to dash liquid over or against anything. Leic, 

Dout — Dribblings 67 

Doaty V. a. To * do out/ or extinguish. England. 

* First in the inteUect it douts the light, 
Darkens the house, dims th' understanding's sight.' 

Sylvest. Tobacco bcUter^dy p. io6 (in Narks' Close,), 

Cf. Shakespeare's Hen, V, iv. z. ii, and Hanilet^ iv. 7. 
1 90, for a better example : 

^lAwr, Adieu, my lord ! 

I have a speech of fire, that fain would blaze. 
But that this folly douts it/ 

Bowk [douk], V, n, and a. To * duck ' or bow the head, with 
or without moving the body. * I douke under the water.* 
*Thi8 hound can douke under water lyke a ducke.* 
* I dowke, I stowpe lowe as a frere doth.' — Palsgr. * Dowk 
your head, or else the branches will catch you.' England. 

* M. May. Curtsie . . . douke you and crouche at euery worde.' 

Roister Doistery act j. sc. iiij. p. a6 (quoted in Shrop, Gloss.). 

Dowl [doul], ab. The downy particles of feathers; the 
plumage of goslings before the feathers ; the fluff that 
wears off fabrics ; any fluff-like substance. 

* Arid, One dowle that *s in my plume.* — Temp, in, 3. 65. 

* The woolbearing trees in iGihiopia, which Virgil speaks of, and the 
Eriophori Arhores in Theophrastus, are not such trees as have wool or 
dowl upon the outside of them . . .' — Humane Industry : or a Hist, of most 
Manual Arts, 1661, p. 93. 

Cole, Lat Diet, interprets * young dowl' by * lanugo.' 

Downy [doun-e], adj. Crafty. Vulg. Shrop. 
Dratchell [dratch-1], ^6. A slattern. Cf. Drotchell. 

* She'll be a poor dratchell by then she's thirty.' — Adam Bede, ch. xx 
(quoted in Leic. Dial,), 

Drawed [draud], p. and pp. of * draw.' Midlands. 

Drench. Vide Drink. 

Dribblings, The residue, or droppings of any liquid. 

F 2 

68 Drink— Dub 

Brmk vd Drenoh, sb, (i) A draught administered to 
a beast through a medium called a ' drenching-hom.' 

' Drenches : Drinkes or Mashes giren to Horses to cleanse them/ 

Acad, Armory, hk. iii. ch. iii. p. 89 (quoted in Shrcp, GI088.), 

(i) Fermented liquor. 

* Fairy. And sometime made the drink to bear no barm.' 

Mid, Nt'8, Dr. a, I. 3a 

(3) V. a. * Drench,' to administer the draught. N*hamp., 

Drop put, V, n. To fall out, to quarrel. Midlands. 

Dropped off, phr. Gone to sleep. ^Little Polly's had 
a bad night, but she's just dropped off.' N'hamp. 

Drotchecks [drotch-x], ab. A slattern, a Drotohell, q. v. 

Brotchell [drotch-1], sb. A slattern, sloven. 

Protohelling, part. 'I sid 'er go drotchelling past.' 

Brevier [dro-ve-ur], sb, A drover. Shrop. 

Brownded, part, adj. Drowned. This is not a modem 

'O'er head and ears he planged in, 
The bottom faire he sounded ; 
Then rising up, he cried amain. 
Help, helpe, or else I'm drownded.* 

The Baffled Knight (Percy, Reiiqueei), 

Drummil [druml], sb. (i) A worn-out horse. 

(2) A dullard, or sluggard. Shrop. Cf. Shakespeare's 
'drumble,' Merry TTives, iii. 3. 157. Vide I>uminiL 

Dmv, p. and pp. of drive. *I druv 'im theer myself.' 
'They've jest druv over from the faim.' N'hamp., 

Dnb, V, a. To blunt. You'll dub the point o' that knife 
against the bricks.' Oxf., Olouc. {dubbedy blunted), 

Duberaome — Dumble €9 

N'hamp. {•hihlifd and duhhy, blunt«d, obtusuly pointe^l)) 
Sbrop. (iluhbit, blunt), SE. Wore, {ihthbhi, blunt). 

aiij. Dubilable, doubtful. Glouc, N'lmmp. 

I I>fibersome, 

^H Hal. Dkf. 

laek, Duckstoae, "h. A atone used in a game played thus. 
One boy places bis duck on a brick, or larger stone, or 
in a hole, and the other players endeavour to knock it 
off or out with their ducks. Should either miaa, he must 
l)e careful in picking up his atone again, lest the 
guardian of the stationary stone tick (touch) him before 
he can return to the mark from which the atones are 
thrown. Should he be touched, he must replace the 
other guardian, and place bis on'n duck to be thrown 
aL If the duck he misplaced, the playera may, with 
impunity, pick up their stones ; for no one may be 
ticked until the stone is restored by its owner to the 
proper poaition. Cf. Leic. Dial., N'hamp. Gloss., Hart- 
shoiiie's Atlop. Antiq., and S. E. Wore. Gloss, {quack). 

Another game is played by two companions when on 
a walk. Each one chooses a stone, and A casta hia 
ahead. B throws at it, endeavouring to split it. If he 
be not successful, A then picks up hia own duck, and 
casts it at that of B : and so on, ud lib. 

For the use of the word ' duck ' in the game of ' water- 
skimming,' consult my Emj. Fo/k-rhynies, pp. 355-56- 

Duokfoot, I', n. or a. To measure a distance by placing 
the feet side by side, one after the other. 

Duek&oBt, s6. A alight frost. N'hamp., Shrop. But often 
jocularly used for a wet night. Wore. 

lyaS, gb. Var. pron, of ' dough.' Shrop. 

Dumble, ai», 'A small wood in a valley or hollow." — Hal. 
Olois. In Leic. Diul.='a dingle, dell.' Cf. 'dimbles,' 

1^^ Olois. In 

70 Dummil — Dtisn't 

Dryden's Poly, ii. 190; and 'dimble/ B. Jonson's Sad 
Shepherd, ii. 2. 

Dummil [duml], sh. A dullard or sluggard. Glouc. 
(dummle, adj. dull, stupid, heavy: *aB dummle as a 
donkey'), SE. Wore, {bb, a useless article, *a stupid 
. child '). Vide Drtunmil. 

BummockSy sb, pi. (1) Legitimate blows given in certain 
games. Hal. Diet, (duvivwck, a blow or stroke. East). 
(2) Inferior marbles, *pots.' 

Dummy, sb. A candle. Vulg. 

Bunchy ab. A blow, usually *in the ribs,' from another's 
elbow. SE. Wore. 

Dunoh-dumplingy sb. A dumpling of plain flour and 
water, usually eaten with salt. Glouc. Hal. Diet. 
Sometimes called a * dunny-dumpling.' 

Bunchedy p. and pp. Knocked, thrashed. * I, or I have, 
dunched him well.* Shrop. (as a part adj.). 

Bunchingy sb. A beating, thrashing. 

* Dunchyn or bunchyn, Tundo/ — Prompt. Parv. 

Bungil [dun-jil], sb. A dungeon. 

^ Down Peck Lane I walked alone, 

To find out Brummagem ; 
There was the dungil down and gone — 
What, no rogues in Brummagem ? * — Old Song. 

Bunnekin [dun-e-kin], 86. A privy, jakes. 

Burgey [durg-e], (i) 86. A dwarf. {A.-Sa,x. dweorg.) Hal. 
Diet, has durgan. The OIova:. Gloss, applies this last 
term to an undersized horse in a large team. 

(2) adj. Dwarfish, as * A durgey little man.' Shrop. 

Bnsn't. Dare not. ' I or You dusn't do it.' Cf. Barano*. 

Ee — Egg 71 

Ee. Becomes short i in beef, deep, peel, sheep, seeds, &c., 
which ai-e pronounced 6i/, dipy pily ship, side, 

Eames [emz], sb. pL Hames, i. e. the supports of iron or 
wood which hold the traces to the collar of a draught- 
horse. S. Warw, Provin. Glouc, Shrop., Leic. (hames). 
Vide * Homes * in Hal. Diet 

'The haumos of a draught horse's collar, les atielles.* — Cotgrave. 

Earthy v, a. To turn up the ground. S. Warw. Provin, 

Earwagy sK The earwig. Vide Brriwig. 

Easens [e-zinz], sb. pi. The eaves of a house. HaL Oloss. 
Leic (easiiigs), Shrop. (easings). 

Eaten. Ate, or have eaten. * I eaten th' opple.' 

Eoky. A game. A flat, smooth stone, called the *ecky- 
stone,' or * duck,' is placed on the foot of a player, and he 
kicks it as far as he can. He and his companions run 
and hide, whilst the guardian of the stone goes — without 
looking behind him — to fetch it and place it in a small 
shallow hole made for the purpose. He then seeks the 

hidden players. Should he see one, he calls * I ecky ' 

mentioning the boy's name — and rushes to place his foot 
on the stone: for, should the one discovered reach the 
place before him, and kick away the stone, he must 
begin over again. Any player may steal to the stone, 
and kick it away during the absence of the guardian, 
and so release any players previously taken. Should 
the guardian succeed in finding and outrunning all the 
other players, a new game is started, the first lad taken 
becoming guardian. The guardian must not carry his 
stone with him when searching. I am informed that 
this game is not of twenty years' standing in Warw. 

f V. a. To instigate, to incite. 'Ill egging makes ill 

72 Egg-hot — Etherins 

begging/ is in Ray's Proverbs ; and Florio has * Aizzare, 
to eg on, to set on.' Elngland. 

'He shall have friends and felowes at hande, 
To egge him forward unto unhappiness.' 

The Ship qf Fooles^ p. 123 b 'viSoB) 
(quoted in N*hamp, Qloss.), 

Egg-hoty sb. Egg-flip. Glouc, Oxf., W. Wore. 

Elbow-greasey sb. Persevering labour of the arms ; long- 
continued hard rubbing. * That table wants something 
more than furniture polish — elbow-grease.' Common. 

Eleben [e-leb'n], adj. Eleven. N'hamp. 

*Bm, per, pron. Them. Survival of an ancient form. 

* A man hadde twey sones, and the yonger of hem seido to the fadir, 
" Fadir, gave me the porcioun of catel that falleth to me." * — Wycliffe. 

* Pros. Now created 

The creatures that were mine, I say, or changed 'em, 
Or else new form'd 'em.* — Temp. i. 2. 81. 

Empty V. a. To empty. Glouc, N'hamp., W. Wore, (emp)^ 
Up.-on-Sev. (emp), SE. Wore, (evipt). 

Enew [e-nu'], adv. or adj. Enough. Staff, (enow), SE. Wore. 
{enow), W. Wore, (enew and enow). Vide Anew. 

Erriwig [er-e-wig], sb. The earwig. Oxf., Wore., Shrop. 

Ess, sb. pi. Ashes. Staff, (esses = the ashes of turf), 
W. Wore, Shrop., and elsewhere. A.-Sax. cesce^ ashes. 

Essholey sb. The ashpit in front of a kitchen grate. 
Shrop., W. Wore. 

Ety p. and pp. of * eat.' ' I et, or I've et, th' cake.* 

Etherins [eth-er-inz], sb. pi. 'Rods (or pliant boughs) 
twisted on the top of a newly cut hedge, to keep the 
stakes firm.' — Hal. Oloss. The N'hamp. Gloss, says, 
* A.-Sax. ether or edor, sepes ; under " etherings." * Shrop. 

Ettles — Eyes 79 

Gloss, has *etherings,' too, remarking *A.-Sax. edor^ what 
bounds, or defends ; e^er, a hedge/ England. 

EttleSy «6. pi. Nettles. Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Eve, adj. Even. 

Even withy phr. Used in unfriendly spirit, and equivalent 
to * requite.' N*hamp., and elsewhere. 

* Qeop, I will be eyen with thee, doubt it not.* — Ant and deop. iii. 7. i. 

' Upsides with ' and * level with ' are like phrases. Vide 
liovel with. 

Ever, intens, * Will you have ever a piece of bread-and- 
butter ? ' * E'er a ' [pron. er-&] is the corrupt form : and 
' e'er un * =* ever a one,' i. e. either one. Common. Vide 

Ever 8O9 phr. On any account; on any consideration. 
* I wouldn't go down that lane at night, was it ever so.' 

Every-hands-whiley phr. Whenever necessary, possible, 
or convenient ; every now and then. * Mind and see to 
the chickens every -hands- while 1 ' — N'hamp. Olo88.{o{ten). 

Expect^ V. To infer, suppose, conclude. ' I expect you're 
pretty tired.* Leic, Shrop. 

Ext&y adj. and sb. Var. pron. of * extra.* SE. Wore., and 

Eyeable, adj. Pleasing to the eye ; sightly. Staff., W. Wore, 

Eyepiece, (i) v. a. To scrutinize. 'Just eyepiece this sewing 
over, and see if the stitching*s done well.' 

(2) sb. That portion of a slaughtered pig's head which 
contains the orbit. 

Eyesy sb. pi. * Holes in bread and in cheese, caused, in the 
former case, by the fermentation set up by the yeast; 

74 Faced-cards — Faggot 

and in the latter, by defective management in the process 
of cheese-making.' 

' Bad cheese, That is ... . White and dry, the Butter of it being in 
the Market when it is making ; ^i.e. the skim-milk only left for cheese) 
too Salt, full of Eyes, not weil prest, but hoven and swelling.' — Acad, 
Armoiy, bk. iii. ch. y. p. 244 (in Shr(<p. Olosa,). 

* Bread with eyes, 
Cheese without eyes, 
And wine that leap up to the eyes' (are good things). 

Hazlitt, Eng. Prwerb8f i88a. 

Faced-cardfiy sb. pi. The * court' or * picture-cards ' of a 
pack. Shrop. Vide Courted-oards. 

Fad, (1) s6. A fastidious person. A freak, caprice, whim ; 
as, ' He is such a fad,' or ' It was a mere fad.' Sometimes 

* fid-fad.' 

(2) V, n. To trifle. Common. 

Faddy, adj. Particular ; fanciful ; fussy. Common. 

FaddlOy (i) sb, A person who is overcareful about trifles. 

* What a faddle you are ! ' 

(2) V, a, or 71. To indulge, humour, pet; to trifle. 

* Don't faddle the child so.' * You do faddle with that 
work.' Midlands. 

Faddle after, v. a. To pay particular attention to a person 
or thing ; to be concerned about. * It's a pity yo' ain't 
got sumat better to do than faddle after them pigeons.' 

Faddlingy paH, adj. Trifling. Midlands. 

Faggot [fagit], sb, (1) A degrading and contemptuous epi- 
thet applied to a female. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

(2) A small, highly seasoned baked cake of liver, lights, 
&c, from a pig, covered with portions of the *kell' of 
the animal. Midlands. Sometimes called 'a savoury- 
duck ' in N W. Warw. 

Pall— Fatoh 75 

Fan, 86. A woman's short veil. Glouc. When this word 
occurs in old works, it usually means a kind of ruff, or 
band for the neck — sometimes called a * falling-band.' 

Fall, (i) ab. Autumn. 'Fall o' the leaf is a common 
phrase of like meaning. 

(2) V. a. To fell. * We must fall that tree.' Midlands. 

Falling-weather, phr. Showery weather. Common. 

Famelled [famld], part. adj. Famished, starving. Frances, 
S. Wai'w, Provin. Oxf., Glouc, and Up.-on-Sfev. (famviel, 
V. n, to famish). 

Fanteague [fan- teg'], sb, A fit of passion; a pet; a 'tan- 
trum.' Glouc, Leic, N'hamp. {fantigue\ Shrop. (fanteag), 
W. Wore (fanteaguea), 

Farden, 86. Var. pron. of * farthing.' 

*A bow behind, and a bow before, 
And a heau be [? booby] in the garden, 
I wouldn't part 
With my sweetheart 
For twopence ha'p'ny farden.' — Wano. FoUc-rhyme, 

Fftrry [rhymes 'many'], v.n, or a, and 86. Var. pron. of 
* farrow.' To bring forth pigs ; a litter of pigs. SE. Wore 

Fftsh, V. a. To trouble. 

*He do fash himself so/ — Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Fast, adj. Rude, forward. 'She's a fast young wench.' 

Fast-sure, adj. Perfectly sure ; certain. * Certain-sure ' is 
used in the same sense. 

'I could be fast sure that pictur was drawed for her i' thy new 
Bible/ — Adam Bede (quoted in Leic. Dial.), 

Fatoh, V. a. To fetch. 

^Many wedous with wepyng tears 
Cam to fach ther makys away.* — Chevy Chasey L 134. 

76 Fat-head— Fend 

Fat^heacU sb, A dullard, dolt. W. Wore, and elsewhere. 
The ac^;. is * fat-headed.' 

Father-in-Churoh. The 'best man*; he that gives away 
the bride. Oxf., and elsewhere. 

Father-law. A father-in-law. Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Fatting, part. Fattening, feeding. * We're fatting a goose 
agin Christmas.' 

Fault, V. a. To find a flaw or fault in any work. N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. 

'Can ye fault it?'— S. Wane. Pnmn. 

Fant, 66. Fault, error, defect. Common. 

* Fawte or defawte, D^ectua* — Prompt. Part, 

Fauty, adj. Defective. Common. 

'And if they (the byshoppes) be found necligente or fauty in theyr 
duties, oute with them.' — Latimer, Serm, ii. p. 66 (quoted in Shrop, Oloaa.), 

* Fawty or defawty, D^edivu^* — Prompt, Paro, 

F&Tor, ab. Var. pron. of * fever.* 

Favour, v, a. To resemble in feature. England. 

'Methinks that this young Lord Chamont 
Favours my mother.' — Ben Jonson, Com is AUe/dj iii. i 

(quoted in N'hamp. (Ttost.). 

Shakespeai'e used the word substantively : 

*0?w. The boy is fair. 

Of female favour.* — As You Like It, iv. 3. 87. 

Featore [fe-chur], v. a. To resemble in feature ; to favour. 
Glouc, N'hamp., Shrop., W. Wore. 

* Ye feature him, on'y ye're darker.' — Adam Beds, oh. xzxviii (quoted 
in Leie. Dial). 

Feed, v. n. To grow fat or corpulent. Hal. Oloss. 

Feelth [felth], sb. Feeling, sensation. * I ain't got no feelth 
in my 'ands, they'm frozen.' Leic, N'hamp., Wore, (felth). 

Ftod, v.n. and a. To provide for; work for; make shift. 

Ferret — Fettle 77 

* I'd make a ahift, and fend indoor and out to give you more liberty/ 
— Adam Bede (quoted in Leic, Qloas.). 

Ferret [ferit], v, n. To ,pry closely, to search out narrowly. 
(From ' ferret/ the animal.) Common. 

Pet, V. a. To fetch. Hal. Gloss. Used for * fetched ' in old 
editions of the Bible, 2 Sam. ix. 5; Acts xxviii. 13, fee: 
but Butterworth, Concord., says it appears after 1769 
only by misprint. 

*Then fayntinge in a deadlye swoune, 
And with a deepe-fette sigh 
That burst her gentle hearte in twayne, 
Fayre Christabelle did dye.' 

Sir Catdine, 11. 900-4 (P®rcy, Rel.), 

Shakespeare uses it for * fetched/ derived : 

* K. Hen. On, on, you noblest English I 
Whose blood is fet ftom fathers of war-proof.* — Hen. V, iii. i. 17. 

(Some editions read ' set.') N*hamp., Shrop. Hal. Diet. 

Fetchy v.a. To give, to deliver. * Fetch him a whack 
across the back.' Glouc, N'hamp., W. Wore. 

Fettle, {i)v.a. To put in order or condition, set to rights ; 
to prepare, arrange. 'I'll go and fettle the horses ' = feed, 
bed down, &c. 

^Cap. Fettle your fine joints 'gainst Thursday next, 
To go with Paris to Saint Peter's Church, 
Or I wiU drag thee on a hurdle thither.' 

Rom. Mid Jul. iii. 5. 154. 

(Some editions read ' settle.') 

'Then John bent up his long bende-bow, 
And fettled him to shoot.' — Rob. Hood and Ouyo/Gia. I. 66. 

And, again: 

*To see how these yeomen together they fought 
Two howres of a summers day : 
Yett neither Robin Hood nor Sir Guy 
Them fettled to flye away.' — Id. 1. 152. 

(2) sb. Condition, order, repair, state. ' These houses 
are in good fettle.' ' In fine fettle ' = in good health. Eng. 


Fiddle, Fiddle-de-dee, Fiddlestick, O fiddle ! Expressions 
of contempt or scorn, more or less ; levity, &c. Common. 

Fiddle-faddle, (i) sb. 

(2) v.n. To trifle, to dawdle. Shrop. 

Fiddling, adj. Trifling ; idling, dawdling. *A fiddling 
thing.' * Yd've got sich a fiddlin' way o' workin'.' 

*I fydell, I trifle with my handeH.' — Palsgrave. 

Fidgle [fijl], V. n. i. q. Fissle, q. v. 

Field, sb. Parish. Leic. N'hamp. Glossarist states she 
was informed that this sense of the word prevails in 

♦That bit lies in Alkerton field/— Prances, S. Wane. Provin. 

Fierce, adj. Bright, sharp ; applied to babies. (Also heard 
in Cambs.) Frances, S. Warw. Provin. Leic. 

Fift, adj. Fifth. 

♦King Henry the Fift, too famous to Hue long.' 

I Hen. KJ, L I. 6 (ed. 1633). 

' Adnepas^ fifte sune ; AdneptiA, fifte dohter.' 

Suppl. Ab. ^Ifric's Vocab. loth or nth cent, 
(in Wright's Vocabs. i. 51). 

Figanes [fig-er'-iz], sb. pi. Showy or fantastic adornments. 
*A bow under 'er chin, another atop uv 'er bonit, an' 
a 'ankicher all th' colours o' the rainbow, with a big 
'air broach stuck in it — she was in fine figanes, I can 
tell yer.' Shrop. 

Filbeard, sb. Var. pron. of * filbert.' (So in Eng. DifA. Soc, 
Tusser, p. 75.) * Hie fvilus, a fylberd-ti*ee,' occurs in 
a KoTiiinaley 14th cent., in Wright's Vocabs. i. 229, with 
the following note : — * The Latin should be JUlta. Fil- 
berde-tree, jMlis. — Prcynipt. Parv.* Glouc, Wore, 

ild — First-beginning 79 

Fild, «6. Var. pron. of ' field.' 

' I haue walked thys Lento in the brode filde of scripture and vsed 
my libertie/ — Latimer, Sermon vii. p. i8a (Arbor's reprints}. 

*I will never se my captayne fyht on a fylde, 
And stande my-selffe, and looke on.' 

Ancient BaUad of Chevy Chaee, 1. 95. 

A.-Sax. feldy fild, a field, pasture, plain. Midlands, and 

FilOf sb. A cheat, deceiver. Common. 

*Sorful becom that fals file.'— Cursor Mundi MS, 

Oliphant, The Old and Middle EnglUh, 1878, p. 366, 
says : ' Fde^ akin to the Dutch vuil, means a worthless 
person ; we may still often hear a man called '* a cunning 
old file." In 1. ^499 of the Havelok we read, " Here him 
rore J;at fule (foul) file." * 

Filets [f i-lets], sb. pL Var. pron. of * violets ' Wore, (fire- 

Fill-horsey sb. Vide TlUer. 

Findless, Fondless [find-less, fund-less], sb. Anything 
found by accident ; treasure-trove. SE. Wore. (Jiiidlets)^ 
and elsewhere. 

Find of, phr. To feel. * I find of this weak ankle in frosty 
weather.' Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Finger-stall, sb, A covering — usually a finger cut from 
a glove — for a sore finger or thumb. Ainsworth, Thesau- 
rus^ has, * The finger of a glove or finger-stall, digitale,* 
The word is much older, doubtless. 

Fippenoe. Five pence. 

'That can set his three along in a row, 
And that is fipenny mon-oU I trow.' 

Apollo Shroving, 1627, p. 49 (quoted in N'hamp. Gloss,), 

First-beginning, pleon, * I was a poor hand with the scythe 

80 Pish -Flannel 

at the first-beginning, but Td mow an acre agen any- 
body now/ Shrop., and ekewhere. 

Fish ! (i) excL Expressive of contempt, disparagement. 
Not used as the old oath * 'Od*s fish.' It is a euphemism, 
I believe, for a slang term for pudenda, * Fish I to it.' 

(2) phr. *I won't make fish of one and fowl of 
another ' = I will make no favourite. N'hamp. 

Fisses [fis-iz],, Var. pron. of * fists.' N'hamp., Shrop. 
Hal. Did. says, * Various dialects.' 

Fissle [fisl], V, n. To fidget. To * fissle and scawt ' = to 
fidget and kick^ as a restless bedfellow (near Warwick). 
Hal. Diet, which assigns the word to the North Country. 
Glouc. (fistle). Vide Soawt. 

Fitches [fich-iz], sb.pL Vetches. In all the glossaries ; but 
scarcely dial, or obsoles. It is in the Bible, A. V. : Isa. 
xxviii. 25, 27 ; and again in Ezek. iv. 9. 

Fither [rhymes * hither'], v. n. To scratch or fidget with 
the fingers. Up.-on-Sev. (* feet ' or * fingers '). 

Fithers [fith-ftz], sb. pi. Var. pron. of * feathers.' Shrop. 

Fits and Girds, phr. Fits and starts. Shrop., SE. Wore. 

' By fits and girds, as an ague takes a goose.' — Ray's iVorerbs. 

Fittle [fitl], «6. Victuals. Shrop., Wore Not so common 
in Warw. as Vittle, q. v. 

Fizgig, 8b. A wild, flirting girl (actually a wanton). N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. Hence, any toy for an hour — ^temporary 
plaything. Bailey, DiH.^ says, * A gadding, idle Gossip.' 

Flabbergast [flab-ft-gast], v. a. To astonish, bewilder, amaze. 
N'hamp. (fiabbergaated), and common. 

Flacky, adj. Sloppy. Frances, S. Warw. Po\>mn, 

Flannel, sb. (1) A flannel undervest. 
(2) A pikelet (cake). Slang. 

Flannen — Plothery 81 

FUxmen [flan-in], ab. Var. pron. of ^ flannel.' England. 
Said to be from the Welsh gwlanen^ of gwlan, wooL 

HaBh, (i) adj. Proud. Staff. 

(a) V. a. To pride or plume one's self. 'Don't yo' 
flash yerself so with yer noo boots.' 

Flase [flaz], v. n. To blaze ; to flare, as straw or shavings 
do when ignited. Leic, N'hamp. Hal. IHct. 

Flem, ab. A fleam or lancet for bleeding beasts. SE. Wore. 

Flewy adj. Shallow. Hal. Oloaa. Leic, N'hamp. ( = shallow ; 

Flioket [flick-it], (i) v. n. To flutter, flicker, waver, as a 
ribbon or streamer does. 

(2) ab. A fluctuation. 'Her dress was a flicket of 
rags.' The Olouc. Gloaa. has * flickets, or flickuts, 86. pl.^ 
little pieces.' 

Fljgged [fligd], adj. Fledged. Leic, N'hamp., Shrop., and 

^Flygge as bryddis, matwruB vokUilis.* — Prompt. Parv. 
' Flyggenesse of byrdes, plumevste.* — Palsgrave. 

Flimp, adj. 1 var. pron. of * Ump.' * A flimp collar.' 
Glouc (v. n. to limp), Leic. 

Flommftoky, adj. Slatternly. Shrop. 

Flommaking [flom-&-kin], part. adj. Untidy, slatternly. 
'A flommaking hussy.' 'She goes flommaking about.' 

Flomm&z, ab, A slattern; an ill -dressed, untidy female. 
N 'hamp. 

Floor (rhymes *poor'), ab. Yax. pron. of 'floor.' Shrop. 
(and flur), SE. Wore. (flur). 

Flothery» adj. and ab. Idle; nonsense, as 'flothery talk/ 
or * a lot of flothery.' 


82 Flummack — Forecast 

Fltimm&ok, sb. i. q. Flommaz, q. v. N'faamp. 

Flmnmux, v. a. To perplex, bewilder. Hal. Diet 

Flump, (i) «6. A heavy, lumpy fall. * He went down such 
a flump.' Midlands, and elsewhere. 
(2) adv. * He fell down flump.' 

Plur, 86. Var. pron. of * flower.' Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Flushy adj. Full-feathered, fledged. * Young birds are said 
to be flush when they are able to leave the nest.' — Hal. 
6I088. Midlands. 

Peg, sb. Bough grass. Leic, N'hamp., Glouc. (a kind of 
grass which grows in boggy ground). 

Folks, sb. pL Friends. * They're very great folks.' Mid- 

Fooley-addlum, 86. A fool (fool and addle). ' That Will 
Hodge is a regular fooley-addlum.' A stupid person is 
said to be ' a fool above the shoulders,' in folk-phrase. 

Foot, 86. An ale- warmer; sometimes called a 'slipper.' 
Vide Hooter. 

Footing, 86. * " To pay footing " is to pay a fine or forfeit 
on first doing anything, and foot-ale is the fine spent 
in beer on a workman's first entering a new place of 
employment.' — Hal. Oloss. 

Footstitoh, 86. A footstep. 'I wun't walk another foot- 

For [sound of or in * horrid '], prep. Var. pron. of * for.' 

F5r all, ^6p. or co^j*. Despite, in spite of ; notwithstanding. 
' I shall go across the field if I like, for all you.' 


Fdreoast, (i) 86. Forethought. Common. 

' Forecast is better than workhard.' — Ray's ProverbB. 

Foredraft — Fother 88 

(2) V. a. or 71. To plan beforehand ; to contrive. 

* To forecast, prospicvre, prouideref praecognoscere/ 

Baret, Alvearie (quoted in Bible Word-bk), 

* He shall forecast his devices against the strongholds/ — Daniel x. 24. 

? if dial, or obsoles. 

Foredrafty Fordrough [for-druf], ab, A private way through 
the homelands of a dwelling-house ; but which, by open- 
ing broadly on to a public road, has the appearance of 
a lane or by-way. The last form of the word is probably 
the better ; * drough/ through. 

For goody For good and all, pkr. Finally, entirely. 
'He's gone for good and all '= gone, bag and baggage. 

* Unless she resoliied to keep me for good and all, she would do the 
little gentleman more harm than good/ — Fortunes of MoU Flanders, 179a 
(in Nares). 

Fornicating, adj. False, treacherous, deceitful. 'Don't 
yd' 'a' nuthin' to do wi' Charley Styles, 'e's a fornicatin* 
'ound (hound).' Shrop. {fornicate = to tell lies; to invent 

Forrad [for-&d], adj. Var. pron. of 'forward.' N'hamp., 
and elsewhere, Shrop. (forrai), SE. Wore, (v, a. to forward, 

Forradish, ' rather advanced,' is common, too. 

F5rty-legs, sb. The common millepede, JiUus terrestris. 
Shrop. More often ' Hundred-legs.* 

For why, phr. For what reason. * I don't see for why he 
should do it.* Glouc, Staff., and elsewhere. Vu^e Co». 

Fdte» p. and pp. of * fight.' * They fote 'isterday * (yester- 
day). SR "Wore. (fowl). 

Fother [foth-ur], (i) v. a. To feed cattle. Common. 

(2) sb. Fodder ; usually dry food, such as hay, chaff, 

6 2 

84 Pour-o'-olock — Fridge out 

&c. 'Alitudo, ioihxxr'—A.'Sax. Vocab. 8th cent, (in 
Wright's Vocaba. ii. loo). 

Pour-o*-olook, sb. The afternoon meal of working-men. 
N'hamp., Shrop., Up.-on-Sev. Hal. Diet. 

Fonsty, adj. Var. pron. of * fusty ; ' ill-smelling, unclean. 
Glouc, Shrop. Cf. FrouBty. 

Frail [fral], sb. A workman's satchel made of * rush/ or 
some similar material. Formerly a receptacle for figs, 
raisins, &c. 

* Frayle of frute, pakUa, carica,* — PrompL Parv, 
*Frayle for fygges, coIku, cabache.' — Palsgrave. 

Sometimes called * Frailbasket/ or * Flagbasket.' Glouc, 
Shrop., SE. Wore. 

Framiy, (i) sb. A passion, state of anger. 'In a fine 

(2) adj. Passionate, irritable, hasty. N'hamp., Staff., 
W. Wore, Shrop., and Up.-on-Sev. (frangy, restive, as 
a horse). Hal. Diet 

* But I dare say ye wama franzy, for ye look as if ye'd ne'er been 
angered i' your life.*— Adam Bede (quoted in Leie, Diai.). 

Fresh, adj. Drunk, but not incapable. Midlands. Vide 

Fresh-liquor, 86. Unsalted pig's-lard. Qlouo., Wore. 

Fretohet [frech-it], adj. Peevish, irritable, fretful. Shrop., 
and elsewhere. 

Fretting-frook, sb. A figurative garment which is supposed 
to clothe a troubled female. 'She's got her fretting- 
frock on.* 

Fridge out, v. n. or a. To fray, as cloth does ; to fray any 
fabric. ' This braid is beginning to fridge out.' Leic. 

Priggling — Frousty 

I Adam 

^^^^ a deal 
^^^P nice o 


part. adj. TriHing, inBignificant, 'Don't waste 
any more time Iriggting at that knot.' iet'c. Dial, quotes 
AUnni Bale thus: 'Those little friggling things take 
a deal of time.' GIouc, N'hamp. {frig<jle=U} be tediously 
nice over trifles), 

\ig [ A working 'thing,' trifle, toy. 
(Actually memln-um virile ; see note on the word estr^e, 
Rabdais, bk. iii, cb. xxvii.) 

Frigambob, ai. ' Anything dancing up and down ; jerking 
from side to side ; moving about rapidly,' — Leic, Dial. 
'Frigabob.' Vuh Prigmajig. 

r<h. A piece of fat attached to the entrails of a pig. 
It ia puckered like a frill ; hence the name. Shrop., and 
elHewhere. Vide Uudsin. 

Wt, p. and pp. of ' fright.' Frighted, frightened. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. Strop, {frttten, v. a. to frighten). 
i, p. and pp. of ' freeze.' Froze, frozen. Leic, 
, (i) sb. A diah of anything fried 
\ have a frizzle for dinner' N'hamp. 

{2) V. a. To fry; to scorch; to dry hard, 
frizzle that chop up to nothing.' Leic, N'hamp. 
X^oggin, jxtrt. Faring, doing. 'How are you 

is the usual form of greeting at Sutton Coldlield, and tn 
the neighbourhood. 'How ai-e you coming up'i' ia used 
in other parts of the county. 
Frogstool, si. A toadstool, fungus. N'hamp., SE. Wore., 

■, offj. Frouzy, fusty, foul. Glouc., Loic N'hamp,, 
EShrop. Hal. Diet, bas ' &ouat ' = a musty amell. Var. 

; a fry. ' Let's 

' Don't 

86 Prum — Fullooker 

Frum, adj. Concupiscent. This is the exact Warw. meaning, 
and the Glouc. Gloss, preserves a somewhat similar one 
' of pigs and mares, maris appetens! * Frum/ * frem/ * frim/ 
meaning lusty, vigorous, flourishing ; early, forward, fresh 
and firm, abundant, &c., usually applied to plant-life, are 
interchangeable terms in various dialects. Glouc. {frum^ 
freTti), Shrop. (frum, frum-ripe). Wore, Leic. (frem), 
N'hamp. (frem). Hal. Diet, {frum, West ; frim, North ; 


Fmmmety [frum-&-te], sb. Variants of this, as * frumenty * 
(Lat. frumentum, corn), * furmety,' ' thrummety,' &c., are 
in use all over England. It is a delicacy composed of 
baked creed wheat, sugar, dried currants, &c., boiled in 
milk, and sometimes thickened with flour and eggs. It 
used to be customary in Warw. on St. Thomas' Day, 
Dec. 2 1st, for the poor people to go a-corning, i. e. to visit 
the farmhouses, to beg corn to make this compound, 
frummety being a traditional delicacy for that day. 

Frumpled, adj. Wrinkled, crumpled, as *a frumpled 

Fry, V. a. To freeze, to harden. * The coldll sttn (soon) 
fry the roads up.' 

Fudge, V, n. To advance the hand unfairly, whilst dis- 
charging a marble. Leic. {fob or fudge), N*hamp. {fob). 
Hal. Diet. {fob). Vide Hodge. 

FHU, adv. Quite, fully. Common. 

*' Beat. The first suit is hot and hasty, like a Scotch jig, and faU ac 
fantastical.' — Much Ado About Noihing, ii. i. 79. 

Fullook, V. a. To buffet. ' FuUock 'im i' th' jaw.' 

F&llocker, sb. A blow, a buffet. Hal. Diet says, ' A sudden 
heavy fall in Derbysh.' 

Pummy — Pussock 87 

. Pnnmiy, «6. A peraon whose deformed hand is iindigitated. 

save ab the thumb. 
I Pan, /J. and /jp. of 'find.' Found. ' I fun your thimble in the 

gutter, ma'am.' Leic, SE. Wore. (fund). The word is in 

Mlnot, p. 38. 
I FnndlaaB, ah. i. q. Tindless, q. V. 
I Fanny, adj. This singularly elastic word does duty for 

etrange, queer, mysterious, bad, capricious {of the temper), 

remarkable, &c. Midlands. 
I Far [u as in ' cur '], aih: Var. proQ. of ' far.' Common. 
'For thel may not Bee Tai.'—PiiTS Ploa. (quoted in Ifliamp. Gloss.). 
Purdor, var. pron. of 'further,' is cuiTent in Leic, 

Shrop., and other districts. 
Farbidge [u as in 'cur'], v. a. Var, pron. of 'furbish,' 

Fordest [u as in 'cur'], adv. and adj, Var. pron. of 

'furthest.' Shrop., Leic., and elsewhere. 
I Farred [u as in 'cur'], (idj. Internally incrusted with 

' fur,' as a tea-kettle, or boiler, after long usage, N'hamp,, 

Shrop. {fur, sb.). 
\ Fnrrldge [u as in ' tub'], (i) v. n. Var, pron, of ' forage ' ; 

to hunt about, search eagerly. Leic , N'hamp. 

(a) eb. Rummage. 'I'll have a funidge for that old 

\ Pubs, sb. Hurry, bustle, disturbance. These are common 

applications of the word, but the N'hamp. Gloss, notices 

another aspect: e. g. 'They made a great fusa of me, 

when I went to see them,' a usage common in Warw. 

and other midland ahii-ea. 
Fueaockt eh. A large, gross woman. Glouc. (uttBoocIc), 

N'hamp., Shi'op., W. Wore., and elsewhere. Of. Buscook. 

88 Pust — Gab 

Fusty adj, and adv* First. 

< Billy, Billy Bust, 
Who speaks fust (for a gift) ? '—Mid, Fotk-rhyvM. 

Fut [rhymes * but '], sb. Var. pron. of * foot.' Staff., SE. 
Wore., and elsewhere. 

Fas, v,a. To friz or eurl the hair in a rough, untidy 
manner. Leic. In Warw. often /n^. 

Fuzz-ball, sh, * A well-known fungus {Lycoperdon Bovuita)^ 
which, when ripe and dry, emits a light powder or dust 
on being pressed.' — Hal. Diet. According to Gerarde, 
Herball, bk. iii. p. 1584, *the dust or powder hereof is 
very dangerous for the eyes.' He remarks, too, that 
* The country people do vse to kill or smother Bees with 
these Fusseballs, being set on fire, for the which purpose 
it fitly serueth.* 

The present L, Bouista is the common or Wolf Puff- 
ball. The genus Bovista was at one time included under 
LycoperdoUy and the type of the genus, B, gigaviea, was 
called by Linnaeus Lycoperdon Bovista. The difference 
between the genera is, that Lycoperdon has a single 
peridium, while Bovista has a double one. — Eng. Cyclop. 

Fuzzy, adj. Bough, shaggy, unkempt,irizzy. Leic, N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. In Warw. often fruzzy^ as ' A fruzzy 
head of hair.' ' This is fruzzy cloth.' 

G, Omitted in lengthy strength^ &c. Becomes *k' in 
nothing, something^ everything. 

Gab, {\)sh. Loquacity ; idle talk. ' The gift of the gab ' 
ss fluency of speech. 


Gaffer— GallowB 89 

;. To prate. 
'Or of Chesshyre. or bIIcs nygh Comewnll, 
Or where they lyBt, For to gabbe and rayle.' 

Hye Mny la thu Sti/tlcB Horn, v. 354 (in Salop. Anliq-), 

Oafibr, i^. The overlooker or foreman of a gaug of 
labourers. N'bamp., Leic, Wore, Sbrop. Now more 
commonly used of any master. Midlands. 
Gttiiit adj. (Regularly compared, ' gainer,' 'gainest.') 

(1) Convenient, near. 'This well is very gain for our 

(3) Handy ; ready, expert. ' A gain tooL' ' He's 
a gain workman.' 

'To the Goulli gate the gninest wny he drew, 
Where that lie foand of nrtned men onew.' 

Bliud Harry's Wallaa. 15th cent, (quoted in Ifhamp. 
Gitas.). See also MorU d'ArUmr, hk. vii. cb. xi. 
• Geyne, redy or rjthge forth, rfircthu. In the Eastern counties gain 
Bignilios LiLudy, convenient, or deaimble ; and in the Nortli, iienr, 
ta " tlie guiuebt road," which seems moat timirly to resemble the sense 
bore given lo thu word.' — Way, thompi. Parr. »nd Notes. 

All the definitions of the word apply to Warw. usage. 

Gainly, adv. ' You did that job gain enough— or gainly ' 
= readily, expertly. Midlands. 

Gollit [jgal-it^, sb. and adj. A left-handed person ; left- 
banded. Allied to 'gaUock-band' = the left hand. Yorka. 
Vide Ha!. Dkt. 

Oalloway, ^b. A hardy horse, but of small size, originally 
bred in Galloway, in Scotland. Common. 

'ft'jf. Know we nnt Oallowsy nnga?'^a Hm. IVi ii. 4. 303. 

Oallows [gal-us], (i) adj. Mischievoua, roguish, impudent, 
wicked, wanton. ' As if the person to whom it is applied 
were qualifying for the gallows." — Jjek: Dial. 'A gallus 
young rascal,' Midlands, and elsewhere. 

90 Gktmbole — Gktumed 

(2) sb. * He's a regular young gallus/ 

* Rosal, For he hath been five thousand years a boy. 
Kath, Ay, and a shrewd unhappy gallows too.' 

Love's Lab. Lost, y. 9. 11. 

GkunbdlOf v. n. and 86. Var. pron. of ' gambol.' Leic, and 

GKambrel, tb. ' A crooked piece of wood used by butchers 
for hanging up and expanding a slaughtered animal.' — 
HaL Diet. 

^Soon crooks the tree that good gambrel would be.' — Ray, Procerba. 

Heywood, Proverbs^ <fec., 1562, has : 

'Timely crooketh the tree that will good cammock be.' 

And Drayton, Eclogues, 1593, has : 

'Bitter the blossom when the fruit is sour, 
And early crook'd that will a camock be.' 

' As crooked as a gaumeril ' is the Yorks. variant : but 
Oambrd or Oambril or Canibrd appears to be the better 
form. See Atkinson's ClevelaTid Olosa., 1 868, p. 85 ; Moor's 
Suffolk Words, 1823, p. 48; Sii- G. C. Lewis's Herefords. 
Gloss., 1839, svA voce; Nares' Oloss., &c. 

Game, adj. Crooked, wavering, uncertain, as 'a game 
eye — or leg.' England. Cf. Gammy. 

GKammy, adj. Deformed, mutilated, infirm : always said of 
a member, never of the whole body. N'hamp., Shrop. 

GKaubshite, sb. A filthy boor ; a clumsy, ill-kept, ill-shaped, 
unclean person. ' A jolter-yeded (headed) gaubshite ' is 
an insulting phrase in Warw. Cf . Darlington's Folk-speech 
of South Cheshire, art. * Gobbinshire.' 

GKaumed [gaumd], part. adj. Soiled, grimed, made filthy. — 
Hal. Gloss. Leic. {gauvi, to daub, &c.), Glouc. (gorm, to 
mess, dirty), SE. Wore, (graum, v. a.), Up.-on-Sev. (to paw), 

Gawby— Gi'e 91 

N'hamp. (gaumy. adj. sticky, as with smeared sugar or 

Gawby [gau-be], ab. Var. pron. of *gaby.* A simpleton, 
a gaping noodle. Glouc, Leic, Shrop. 

Qawk [gauk], v.n. To gape to loiter and gaze about 

Qawky, adj, 

Oawky and Oawks, sb, A gaping dowiL England. 

Gk>ky, 86. Occurs in Piers Plow.^ Text B, pass. xi. 
11. 299, 300. In W. Wore, the sb, is pron. * gouk.* 

Gawp [ganp], v, n. To open the mouth and eyes in a won- 
dering or idle stare. Shrop., SE. Wore, (gyaup), and 

[My] Gtey! eoccl. 

Qear [ger], ( i) v. a. To harness. Frances, S, Warw, Provin, 
(2) sb. Harness, apparel. Glouc, and elsewhere. 

Gtegy Gkdg [ge'g], V. n. To swing. Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Qen. Gave. *I gen tuppence for it.* N'hamp. Not so 
common in Warw. as Gin, q. v. 

QeU v.n. To gain — said of a clock or watch. * This watch 
begins to get.* Glouc, and elsewhere. 

Gtothersy sb.pL Var. pron. of 'gathers.' The * fulling' or 
puckers made in a garment with a drawing-thread. 

Gibber [jib'ur], v. n. To sweat. Frances, S. Warw, Provin, 

Gid. Gave. * Gi's opple.' * I gid yer one.* Glouc. Hal. 
Diet, says, * Somersets.* 

Giddling, adj. Giddy, thoughtless : unsteady. ' A giddling 
girl.* *A giddling table.* N*hamp., Wore, and else- 

Gi'e [ge]. Give. Common. 

92 Gi'e over! — Given 

Gi'e over ! phr. Leave off. Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 

Gi'es [giz]. Gives. ' This sore finger gi*es me a del o' pain.' 

Gifts, 8b. jpl. White specks on the finger-nails. In Warw. 
interpreted thus: 

'Gift on your finger— sure to linger. 
Gift on your thumb — sure to come.' 

For variants of this rhyme see my Eng. Folk-rhyTnes, 
p. 171. See also Brand's Pop. Antiqs. for articles on 
* Onychomancy, or divination by the finger-nails.' 

Gin. Gave, given, or *have given,* as * I 'ad this knife 
gin me to-day.' 'A. Gi'e us a nut. B. I gin (gave or have 
given) yer one. A. No ! yo' gid it 'im.' Common. 

Gingerly [jin-jur-le], adv. Carefully, quietly, with caution, 
adroitly. Hal. OI088. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

' Julia. What is 't that you took up so gingerly?' — Two OerU, qf Ver. i. 9. 68. 

Gird, V. a. To strike or push. Hal Oloss. 

'And to thise cherles two he gan to preye 
To aleu him, and to girden of his hed.* 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 11. 14, 464 
(quoted in Sknp. Word'bk,). 

Shakespeare uses the word in its later^ figurative sense, 
'to gibe,' Coriol, i. 1. 262 ; and again, as a 06., 'a gibe,' 
Taming qf the Shrew, v. 2. 58. 

Girds, 86. pi. Starts, as in the phrase ' By fits and girds.' 
Glouc. Vide Fits and Girds. 

Girt, Gurt, adj. Great. Frances, S. Warw. Provin. 
Gived [givd], p. and pp. of * give.' Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Given, part. Disposed, devoted, inclined. * Given to drink,' 

* Voyde of reason ; gy ven to wilfHilness ; 
Frowarde to venture ; of Christ gave letell hede.' 

Lydgate, Picture qfHimaeif. 

Gleed — Gob 


I Oleed, eb. A glowing embor, red-hot oinder. England. 

> Loke how that fire of unull gledcs, that huth b«n almoat ded under 
•sheo, vfol quicken njen.'^Chftucer, The Pertontii Tale iDe Im) i,quot«d 
in Shrep. m-rd-bk.). 
' His Brmor glyttenrde as dyd b glede.'—Chny Chaar, 1. 57. 
Olenoh, eb. A glimpse. Hal. Gioss. 

OUTi v. n. To slide on the ice. Hal. Gloas. Glouo. (gleer), 
OloriTi adj. Fat, greaey, corpulent. HaL Gloes. Shrop. 
(gtor, gh. fat; tjlorfut, adj. exceedingly fat). Qlor, or 
a slightly variated form of it = fat, ah., is in use through- 
out England, In Warw., nowadays, glairy is more 
common than glorry. 
Qlout, v.n. To pout, sulk, look sullen. 

' He gaD to moorno, and held hym atylle ; 
He glouted, and gan to syke.' 

Bum. of Blch. OaiT dt lion 

(qnoted in N'hamp. Gloss., which has gUmting = pouting, 
looking sullen). Olouc. {glout,v. n., and glouty, adj. sulky). 
Oloazer, ^. A perfect cast of a spinning-top. ' Gloz 1 ' is 

Ln exclamation used at the moment of the cast. 
Olump, (i) V. n. To sulk, look sullen. Midlanda. 
(a) »b, A sulky, morose person. 

Olumps, sh. jd. SuUenness, sulklness, ill-hiimour, as 
' a fit of the glumps.' 

GlumpiDg, part. adj. Surly, salky. 
Olumpy, adj. Sullen. 
Go aftor, v. a. To court, to go Bweethearting. ' Doea John 
JoneH go after Mary Smith?' Midlands. Cf. Come to see. 
Ooal [gol], id). Lit. ' gaol,' jail. Midlands. 
Gob, (0 ^b. Spittle containing mucus. Common. Also 
a lump of anything, a« 'Gi'e iis a gob 0' rock (sweetatuff).' 
(a) V. a. To apit out ; expectorate. Common. 

94 Gobby — Golden-Chain 

Qobby, adj. Rough, lumpy, uneven, as * A gobby road to 
travel/ or ' A gobby skein of worsted.' Common. 

Go-by-the-ground, 8&. A dwarf. Hal. Dic^. (East). Another 
Mid. term for a dwarf is * John-above-ground.' 

Gtodoake, sh, * A particular description of cake which it 
is customary on New Year's Day for sponsors to send to 
their godchildren, at Coventry ; a practice which appears 
to be peculiar to that city.' — Hal. Gloss. 

* They are used by all classes, and vary in price from a halfpenny to 
one pound. They are invariably made in a triangular shape, an inch 
thick, and filled with a kind of mincemeat. So general is the use 
of them on the first day of the New Year, that the cheaper sorts 
are hawked about the streets as hot cross buns are on Good Friday 
in London.' — N. & Q. Ser. ii. vol. ii. p. 339. 

Qodforsaken, adj. Neglected in appearance; remote in 
situation, &c. ; as ' A godforsaken- looking place.' 

Gassing) Qoggiting, part. adj. Idling and gossiping, as 
* a goggiting woman '— * goggiting about.' 

Going in, Going for, phr. Neaiing, entering upon. * Going 
in (for) twelve ' = approaching twelve ; in the twelfth 
yeai- of one's age. Leic, and elsewhere. 

Gold-digger, sh. An emptier of compost holes ; a Jakes- 
man. Hal. Diet, iyoldjinder). Vide Gold-dust. 

G^ld-diiBt, 86. Ordure. Wright, Urieonium, 1872, footnote, 
p. 146, remarks that the Anglo-Sa^on Vocabularies have 
pi'eserved the name gold-hord-hus, a gold treasure-house 
or gold treasury, for a Jakes ; and remarks on its con- 
nexion with the name gold-finder or gold-farmer, given 
as late as the seventeenth century to the cleaners of 
privies, and which still lingers in Shrewsbury. 

Gk>lden-Chain, d). The flowera of the laburnum, Cytisus 
lab. Midlands. 

Oomeril — Oooseflesh 



A fool— 

UHUftUy a femt 

lie fool. 



Var, pron 

. of ' gander.' 


'Ooospy, Ocowy Qonik-r. 
Wliere shall I wnnder? 

Up 8t*i 

And in 

my lady's cl.arabar.'— .Vi.rjni, 


(ion© of 



. Become of. 





coat t ' Glouc. 
Gonfl-ofl; sh. A fool, simpleion. Neither allied to ' gonoph,' 

Yiddish, a thief; nor to 'gnoH',' a boor, I think; but 

aimply corrupt«d from ' (one) gone off his chump ' {head}, 

a common phraae applied to a noodle in Warw. 
Good. Much. A. ' Look what a lot o' rock they gin me 

at that shop, for a penny.' B. ■ Will they gi'e me as good, 

if I goo?" Leic, and elaewbere. 
Gkwdlflh, adj. and adv. Fairly or tolerably good, or well ; 

afi 'It's a goodi^b distance.' 'This cow milks goodish.' 

Leic, N'hamp. 
Good old haa-beoD, pkr. Said of a person or thing past ita 

prime. Sometimes 'One of the has-beens.' 
Good flhut, pkr. Good riddance. SE. Wore, and else- 
where. ' Good shut o' bad rubbidge ' ia frequently said 

of a person or thing discarded. 
Oood-flortdd, adj. Of good sort. ' A good-sorted fellow, 

apple,' Sre. Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 
Oooin*. Var. pron. of 'going.' 'I'm agooin' wum.' Oxf. 
Oo on at, v. a. To rate. ' Don't go on at the chap so.' 


rOooee-Besh, sb. The peculiar rough appearance of the skin 
which Buper^enea when cold, ^ight, or any unpleasant 
emotion affects one. Sonietimee called ■ Goose-skin.' Cf. 
Ben -flesh. Common. 

96 Ooose-gog — Gossip 

QooBe-gog [gtiz-gog], sb. A gooseberry. Midlands, and 
elsewhere, as East Anglia. See Forby's Vocah. East 
Anglia, wherein a derivation is suggested. 

Gore-thrushery sb. The missel-thrush. Frances, S. Warw. 

Goring-orow [gor-in'-cro], 86. The carrion-crow. Frances, 
S. Wanv. Provin. N'hamp. (gor-crmv^ Oxf. {gore-crmv). 

Gorse-linnet, sb. The whinchat, FringiUa linota, L., so 
called from its habit of building in a gorse or fur2e bush. 
Leic, N'hamp., Shrop. (gorsebird, gorsehatcher^ gorse- 
thatcher, Fringilla cannabina). It is now generally 
allowed that F. linota and F. cannubina are one and 
the same species. 

Gk)Bling8 [goz-lings], sb. pi. * The blossom of the willow, 
which, being in colour much like the young brood 
of the goose, and appearing about the same time, 
probably gave rise to the term.' — Hal. Gloss. N*hamp. 
(goslings, and geese and goslings), Shrop. ' (goose an' 
godings, goose an* gullies). Hal. Diet, and var. dials. 
The staminiferous flowers of Salix capi'ea are called 'Cats 
and Kittens' also in Warw., and ^Cats and Killings' 
in N'hamp. Vide Pussy-oats. 

GoBsips sb. A godfather or godmother. ' I remember this 
primary meaning of the word in common use, but it is 
rapidly becoming obsolete. " Who were the gossips 1 " ' — 
Leic. Dial. 

Verstegan, Rest. Decayed Intell., notes this word as 
meaning * God-sib,' or * akin in God ' ; and Abp. Trench, 
Select Gloss., says, * Gossip is still used by our peasantry 
in its first and etymological sense, namely, as a sponsor 
in baptism — one sib or akin in God, according to the 
doctiine of the mediaeval Church, that sponsors con- 

Goster — Gravelled 97 

tracted a spii-itual affinity with one another, with the 
parents, and with the child itself (pp. 95, 96). A.-Sax. 
god'Sibb, a gossip ; sponsor. N'hamp., Shrop. 

Goster, v. n. To brag, boast, swagger. Midlands, and 
elsewhere ; Staff, (to bray). It is also used substan- 
tively ; and the adj, is aostering. 

Goul* sb. ' The gum of the eye.* — Hal. Gloss. 

Gouty, adj. Knobby, knotty: usually applied to rough 
thread, worsted, silk, &c. N^hamp. 

Grace, sb. Var. pron. of * grease.' Shrop., SE. Wore. 

Graf^ sb. * A spade-graff is the quantity of eaith or clay 
turned up by the spade at once. A spade-graff deep is 
the extent to which the implement can be in digging 
thrust into the ground.' — Hal. Gloss. Leic, N'hamp., 
Shrop., Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. A.-Sax. grafan, 
to dig. 

Graft, sb. Work of any description. Glouc. Common. 

Granny-reared, part adj. Coddled, pampered, as if brought 
up by a more fond than wise grandmother. Shrop., and 

Granpap, sb. A grandfather. N'hamp. 

Graunch, v. n. and a. To grind, crunch, as *to graunch 
the teeth,' or * gravel' (with the feet). Leic, Glouc. 
(gvanch), Shrop. (granch), SE. Wore, (gravnch)^ W. Wore. 
(gra)U'h). The sb. Oraunch, or Oranoh, a crush, 'scrunch,' 
or crash, is common. 

Grauneher, sb. A huge, heavy person. 

Gravelled [gravid], jxirt. adj. Vexed, mortified, perplexed. 
Hal. Gloss. 

* Rosal. Nay, you were better speak first, and when you were 
gravelled for lack of matter, you might take occasion to kiss.' — 
As You Like Itj iv. i. 75. 


98 Great — Grime 

Great [grat], adj. Intimate, familiar. Glouc, Wore, and 

'Tho' he was great with the king, he always doubted the king's 
uncles.* — Froyssart's Cronydes (quoted in IThamp. Oloss.). 

Greats, Groats [grets, gr§,t8, gr5ts, grants], sb. Shelled oats. 
* Greaty pudding is a very common article of sale at 
Birmingham.' — Hal. Oloss. 

* Qreaty or i*ather groaly pudding (for I know not its orthography'^ is 
made of shins of beef^ and groats (that is, dried oats, stripped of their 
husks), and, after being well seasoned with salt and pepper, is baked in 
ovens. Not many years ago it had the honour, like tripe, of being 
publicly proclaimed, and is still in high estimation as a winter dish * 
(at Birmingham). — Mr. Pratt, Harvest Homef 1805 ( Warw. section), vol. i. 
p. 376. 

Grecian, sb. The yellow-hammer. 

'The last name owes its origin to Gi'eek characters, which, it is said, 
are to be found in the marks on its eggs.' — ffham and MicU Instit. 
Archaeolog, Trans. Nov. 24, 1875. 

Green-sauce, sb. Sorrel, Rumex acetosa. N*hamp. Hal. 
Diet says, * Sour dock or sorrel mixed with vinegar and 
sugar.' North Country. 

Grey- russet, sb. * A coarse kind of grey, woollen cloth, to 
which the epithet dandy was often prefixed, as " Dandy- 
Grey-Russet." The name and the material have both 
fallen into disuse.' — N'hamp. Gloss. Midlands, and else- 
where. Beck, Drapers Dict,^ states that an inventory of 
J 57 1 mentions *gray russett' ; and quotes Delany thus: 

* We are country folks, and must keep ourselves in good compasse ; 
gray russet and good hemp-spun cloth doth best become us.' — Pleasant 
Historie of Thomas qf Beading. 

Grim, adj. Grimy, dark, dirty : applied to the person and 
apparel. N'hamp. (?Dan. grim, soot). 

Grime, v. a. To daub with soot or dirt. Hal. Gloss. 

*Edg. My face Til grime with filth.* — King Lear y ii. 3. 9. 

Orinsard — Groaning-cheese 99 

It is used substantively to mean smut or dirt grained in : 

* Dro, of Syr. Her face nothing like so clean kept : for why she sweats ; 
a man may go over shoes in the grime of it/ — Com. of Err. iii. 2. 105. 

Gnnsard [grin-s&d], 86. Var. pron. of 'greensward.* 

Grip, ab, A small ditch, or drain. Glouc, Leic, N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. See Way's Prompt Pai^,, and Forby's 
Vocab, East Anglia, 

* Or in a grip, or in the fen.' 

Ilarelok the Dane (Early Eng. Text. Soc.\ 2102 
(quoted in Shr(^, Word bk.), 

Griskin, 86. * A lean piece out of the loin of a bacon pig, 
lying between the ham and the flitch.' — Shrop. Word-hk, 
N'hamp. GI088. says, *The short bones (dc) which are 
taken out of the flitch of a bacon pig,' &c. ; but the 
foimer definition seems to me to be the most accurate. 

* From Gryce, swyne or pygge, poroelius, ne/rendis* — Prompt. Parr, 

'Whether ham, bacon, sausage, souse, or brawn, 
Leg, bladebone, baldrib, griskin, chine, or chop/ 

Sou they (quoted in N*hamp. Gloss.). 

Grit, 86. ' Piece work.' * Cf. the phrase to work by the 
great, i. e. to undertake work in the gross, Webster s 
Diet.* — Frances, 8. Wai^v. Provin, Leic. {great), 

Groaning-cheese^ 86. ' A cheese provided on the occasion 
of an accouchement. A sage cheese is generally had for 
the purpose^ which is frequently a present.' — Hal. Gloss. 
In Oxf., according to Dyer, Eng. Folk-lore, 1884, it was 
the practice to cut the groaning-cheese in the middle, 
and by degrees to form it into a large kind of ring, 
through which the child was passed on the day of its 
christening (p. 177). 

Groaning = parturition, is a common term, and * groan- 
ing-cheese,' or * cake ' (this last presented to be cut at the 
christening), is a word not restricted to the Midlands. 

H 2 

1 00 Grounds — Gurgeons 

Grounds^ sb. pi. (i) Enclosed fields. Glouc, SE. Wore. 

(2) An outlying farm. N'hamp., Shrop. 

(3) The sediment of any liquid ; the * settlings, dregs.' 

* Grounds, the lyse of anything.' — Palsgrave. 

Qrounds = foundation, as of an argument, &c., is also 

Grouse [rhymes ' house '], v. n. or a. To pry, to seek to 
know, to grope ; hence v, a. to copulate. 

Growed [grod], p. and pp, of * grow.' Common. ^ 

Grubby, adj. Dirty. 

Grubbed, Grubbed-up, or Grubbing, 2^^"^^' ^^ * Your 
hands are grubbed-up with dirt.' *Look at that child 
grubbing in the dirt.' Common. 

Guggle [gugl], sb. The windpipe, trachea. 

Gull, sb. An unfledged gosling. Midlands. 

*Sew. Lord Timon will be left a naked gull.* — Tim. Ath. ii. 1. 31. 

Gullup, V. a. To gulp, swallow greedily or hastily. * Gullup 
it down.' Leic. {goUop\ N'hamp. (gollop), SE. Wore, 
Up.-on-Sev. (gvMock). 

Gully, 86. A game in which the players endeavour to 
knock an inner from an outer ring of marbles. 

Gunner, sb. A one-eyed person. The allusion is to the 
closing of one eye when taking aim with a fireaam. 

Gurgeons [gur-jinz], sb. pi, * Coarse refuse from flour, 
produced from the inner skin of the grain. They are 
lighter in substance than " sharps," with which they are 
often confounded.' — Shrop. Wm^d-bk. Glouc. (pollards), 

Guss — Hacker 101 

Leic. Dial, (grudgeons), SE. Wore, (fine bran), Up.-on-Sev. 
Cf. Fr. escourgeoriy Hdwell's Diet J6y^. 

Guss, V. a. To girth, to bind tightly. * Don't guss the 
child's things round him like that/ Glouc. Hal. Dirt 

Guts, sb. A glutton. * Forty-guts '=a tub-bellied person. 

Gutter, V. n. To run down, as a candle does, when the 
tallow overflows. Midlands. But I have heard *lave* 
used as a t;. 71., in the same sense, in Glouc. 

*Gowtyn as candell, gutte.* — Pynson, 1499 (quoted in N'hamp. Ghss,), 

Guv, pret. of * give ' (rare). ' I guv 'im sixpence.' Shrop., 
and elsewhere. 

Guy Fox Day. The first of November. *Fox' is the 
common pronunciation of the surname Fawkes, in Warw. 

n. Ignored as an initial aspirate, and in such words as 
shriek, shi'ill, shrimp, shrink, shroud, shrug ; which be- 
come sriek, srill, 8i*imp, srink, srovdy srug. Again, fifth, 
sixth, twelfth are pronounced //t, dxt, twelft. In heigth, 
height, it is redundant, but it is rarely added to vowels 
as a false aspirate. 

Ha'. A common contraction of * have.* 

* And I may have my will ile neither ha' pooro scholler nor souldier 
about the court/ — Day, lie of GuUSf 1633 (in Nares). 

It is sometimes redundant, as 'If I'd ha' sin (seen) him, 
I'd ha' gin him a piece o* my mind.' 

Hack-and-hew, v. n. To stumble or hesitate in reading or 
speaking. SE. Wore, {fuick an haoxv), and elsewhere. 

Hacker, sh, A short, strong implement, slightly curved of 
blade, used for trimming trees, chopping firewood, &c. 
N'hamp., SE. Wore, Shrop. 

102 Hackle — Han 

Hackle, (i) sb. A straw cover, or movable thatch, for bee- 
hives. Glouc, Up.-on-Sev., Shrop. Cf. Bee-akep. 

(2) V. a. To get the hay into rows. Frances, S. Waru\ 
Prot/in, N'hamp. Hal. Diet 

Had, V, a. Took. *He had his belongings away this 
morning.' N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Hag, (i) V. a. To cut ; a woodman's term. Hal. OI088, The 
N'hamp. Olosa. under ' Agg * says, ' In Warwickshire the 
rods which mark the boundary of a fall of timber are 
called haggstaffs ; and the separate parts so divided are 
called each man's hagg.' Leic. (to hack). 

(2) V, 71. To haggle, to dispute. 

(3) sb. A scold. 

Haggis [hag-iss], ab. The entrails, or * chitterlings,' of a 
calf. Glouc, Shrop. 

Half-a-two, phr. Almost in two pieces. Oxf, and else- 

Half-baked, culj. Weak of intellect; silly. Cf. Cakey. 

Half-saved, adj. Demented, siUy. Glouc, W. Wore. * Half- 
soaked' is a term of like meaning, common in Warw., 
Shrop., SE. Wore, and elsewhere. 

Hamper-logged, part, axJj. * A witness at a late assize at 
Warwick used this word in the sense of being overborne 
or persuaded by his wife, saying that he was "quite 
hamperlogged by her.'" Shakespeare uses the word 
hamper in a somewhat similar sense. Hal. OI088. 

'She'll hamper thee and dandle thee like a baby.' — a Hen. FZ, i.3. 148. 

Han, pL of ' have,' contraction of A.-Sax. habban, to have. 
Used by Chaucer, Wycliffe, Robert of Gloucester, and 
other early writers. 

'Ye han ete on the erthe, and in youre lecheries ye han norisched 
your hertis.* — Wycliffe, New Tost James v. 5. 

Hand-of-pork — Harry 103 

Hand-of-pork, sb. The shoulder-joint of a scalded pig 
(*eut without the blade-bone.' — Nliavip. Oloss.). Hal. 

Handftil, sb. A person difficult to manage. ' You'll find 
that lad a rare handful.' Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Hand'8-tum, 86. Slight help, light assistance. 'Not a 
hand's-tum would be put for'ad to help anybody/ 
N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Handy, adv. and culj. (i) Near, convenient, as * The farm 
lies very handy.* * A handy path.' 

(2) Nearly, as ' That bit o' garden-ground is handy to 
twenty pole.' Glouc, N'hamp., Oxf. 

Han not, pi. of * have not.' Hal. Gloss. This usage is now 
confined to remote hamlets. It has been replaced by 
Ain't and Am't (q.v.), which are employed with a 
singular or plural pronoun. Shrop. (hanrut), and else- 

Happen, adv. Perhaps, probably. England. * Shall you 
go to the fair o' Saturday ?' ' Happen I might, and happen 
I mightn't.' 

Hard on, Hard upon, phr. Nearly. 'Hard upon three 
months ' = nearly three months. N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Hare-8horn, adj. Having a cleft lip^ i. e. a lip shorn or slit 
as a hare's is. Leic, Shrop. (arshorn). Common. 

Harry, v. a. * To overdo, or press upon ; probably formed 
from harass, and difiering from the old English word 
hariy. When a number of workmen are employed 
together, and one supplies another with such a load as 
he is unable to convey in time to the next, he is said to 
harry the man, and the person thus haiTied or overladen 
is turned out of the party.' — Hal. Gloss. N'hamp. 

104 Harry-long-legs — Haulm 

Harry-long-legs [arry-lung-legs], si. The daddy-long-legs, 
or crane-fly. Leie., N'hamp., SE. Wore, {horry-long-lega), 
Shrop., and elsewhere. 

*'Arry, 'Arry-lung-legs, 
Couldn't say 'is pray'rs, 
Ketch 'im by the left leg. 
An' throw 'im down stairs.' — Mid. Fdk-rhyme. 

Haslet vd Harslet [as-lit, ars-lit], sb. Liver, lights, &c., of 
a pig. N'hamp. (hadet)^ Glouc. {harslet, hdsdet^ihe 
pig's pluck), SE. Wore, (aalat or adit), W. Wore, (a^at), 
Shrop. (haslet and hardet), and elsewhere. 

^ Haslet of a hogge.' — Palsgrave. 

*A hog's harslet.' — NomendatoTy p. 87 (in Hal. Diet.). 

Hastener [as-nur], sb. (1) A contrivance of metal, or of 
wood lined with metal, placed before the fire to hasten the 
roasting of the meat by reflecting the heat. Leic, Shrop., 
and elsewhere. Cf. 

* Haste, a spit or broach.' — Cotgravo. 

* Roostare or Hastelere, assaior* — Prompt. Pare. 

(2) A long, funnel-shaped tin vessel which, owing to its 
shape, may be thrust deeply into the fire, for warming 
ale, &c. Shrop. Cf. Foot, Hooter. 

Hatredans [a-tre-danz], sb, pL Ill-temper, * tantrums.' 
* Don't let me have any of your atredanz.' More 
common in Glouc. Shrop. (aitredan, a frolic, foolish 

Haulm, Ham [aum, am], sb. Pease-straw ; wheat-stubble ; 
bean-stalks. The first is in 8, Warw. Provln. : but the 
latter form of the word is most common in other parts of 
Warw. N'hamp. (hauhn), Glouc. {hams and havlni), 
Shrop. {haulm), Wright, Early Eng. Vocabs., noticing 
^Culmtis, healm,' in Ab. ^Ifric's Vocab.^ loth cent., 
remarks that * haulm ' is applied to the straw of corn and 

Haunty — Head-Sir-Bag 105 

the stalks of many other plants in many provincial 

Haunty [aunt-e], adj, ' Full of spirit and playful mischief. 
As applied to a hoi*se it conveys the idea of his being so 
from overfeeding and too much rest. Not synonymous 
with reative' — Hal. OI068, As applied to man or beast, 
and meaning frisky, frolicsome, it prevails in many 
dialects. The N'hanip. Gloss thinks it traceable to the 
Welsh fiavmtknvg, full of alacrity, brisk (Owen Pugh). 
It is, however, more commonly used in Warw. for 

Haygob, sh. ' A name given to the climbing buckwheat or 
black bindweed, Polygonum convolvulus^ because it mats 
other herbs together by twisting round them.' — Hal. Gloss. 

Hayrifi^ sh, Galium aparine, goosegrass, catchweed, 
cleavers ; sometimes written harifF, hairough, or heirifFe. 

*Hec uHceUa, haryffe.' — Xominalej 15th cent., in Wright's Vocahs. i. 266. 
* Hayryf.' — PrompL Parv. 

N'hanip. Gloss, says, ' No doubt derived from the Fr. 
heriffe, set, staring, or standing up like bristles, or the 
hair of an affrighted creature ; horride, rough, rugged. — 
Cotgr.' I venture to derive it from haya, a hedge, and 
rif, rough. Glouc. {hairif, harif, hariffe, hair-eve)^ 
Staff, {eriff, herif), Shrop. (hariffe [pron. aerif]), and 

He. It. Common. 

*The philosophres stoon 
He wol nat come vs to. 
He hath ymaad vs spendcn mochel good.* 

Chaucer, G. 867 -68 (six-text ed.), Skeat 
[ quoted in Shrop. Word-Ik. ■. 

Head-Sir* Bag, sb. An ironical term for a petty leader, 
chief, principal. * Bob Walker's taken up wi' th' rantei*s, 
an' 'e*s *ead-sii'-rag, I ea.n toll ycr.* N'hainp. 

106 Heady-whap — Heaving-days 

Heady- whap [ed-e-wop'], «6. A person ¥rith a preter- 
naturally large head. 

Healing [e-ling], 8&. The binding of a book. Vide Hill. 
Shrop. {hilling), Staff. {hiUing). 

Hearken out, r. n. To listen for. 'I expect the carrier's 
cart'U call ; you hearken out.' Shrop. (to be on the 
watch for information), Staff, (hark, to look out, make 

Hearty sb. Nature, condition, viitue. 'There ain't no 
heart in this land.' Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Hearten, v. a. To cheer, encourage, inspire, invigorate. 

* Prince. My royal father, cheer these noble lords, 
And hearten those that fight in your defence.' 

3 Hen. VI, ii. a. 78. 

Heartless, adj. Disheartening. ' It's heartless work, 
trying to get this ground clear o' stones.' W. Wore, 
and elsewhere. 

Heartwell, adj. In good general health. Wore, Shrop., 
N'hamp. {heartivhole). 

Heavens-hard, adv. Heavily; said of the rain. 'It's 
raining heavens-hard.' 

Heaving- days, sb. pi. Easter Monday and Tuesday. On 
the former day it was customary for the men to heave 
and kiss the women, and on the latter for the women to 
lift and kiss the men. A fine is usually paid by the 
person lifted, and the money so obtained is spent in 
drink. The idea of ' lifting ' seems to have been designed 
to represent our Saviour's Resurrection (see Oenfa Mag. 
1784, vol. xcvi. p. 96), and was a national custom. 

* ^lie Easter Monday of 1290, seven of Queen Eleanor's ladies 
* chamber of Ed. I, and proceeded to '* heave him*' in his 

Hecth — Hewsick 107 

chair. The monarch paid a fine of fourteen pounds.' — Strickland, Lives 
of the Queens qf Eng., 1864, i. 303. 

Heoth [eck^A], sb. Height, as * Poplars grow to a great 
hecth.* Glouc (Hal. Diet, says ' the highest'), N'hamp., 
Oxf. {hekth), Wore, {eckth). 

Heft, V. a. To lift. Wore, Oxf., and elsewhere. Shakespeare 
uses hefts as a «&., heavings. 

* Leon. He cracks his gorge, his sides, 

With violent hefts.' — Winter's Ta/c, ii. i. 43. 

Help, V. a. To bring, to send. * Thankee, sir, I'll be sure 
and help the book back to you.' N'hamp. 

Hel-rake, th. A large rake, drawn or hauled over a field 
to pick up all stray fragments of hay. Leic, Glouc. 
{heUrake^ huHrake^ havlrake), Shrop., Wore. Miss Frances, 
S. Wanv. Provin,, seems to think it a corruption of 
• heel-rake.' 

Helt. Held. *He belt up the flag.' N'hamp., Leic, and 

Hen-and-ohiokens, 86. pL The large double-daisy, with 
smaller ones growing round the footstalk. N'hamp., 

Hen-flesh, sb. i. q. Qoose-fleBh, q. v. Leic, N'hamp. 

Her. She, as ' Her's a-comin' up the lane.' Midlands, and 

Hem, poss. pro. Hers. Common. Leic. Dial, says, ' Hern, 
hers, of her, occurs in Wycl. 4 Kings viii. 6 ; Dan. xiii. 
33 ; ' and Hal. Diet, remarks that Chapman wi'ote hern, 
her own, in 1599. 

Hewnck, sb. The fly-catcher (iMuscicapa grisola). Trans. 
Sham and Mid. Instit. Archaeolog. Soc. Nov. 24, 


108 Hickle — Hike 

Hioklet ah. The woodpecker. Frances, S. Warw. Provin., 
Shrop, Wordr-hk,^ and Olouc. Gloss, say, * the green wood- 
pecker,' Picus viridis. N'hamp., SE. Wore, (eelde), 
Up.-on-Sev. (stock-eekle), Glouc. {hv/^kwall, hakel^ eckle), 
Shrop. {ecall, yockel, laughing-bird : the laughing hecco, 
Drayton, Poly, xiii), W. Wore, (eacle)^ Hal. Diet, (hickol. 
West). Ray called Picus varius viajor, or greater spotted 
woodpecker, the * hickwall,* whilst modern ornithologists 
apply this term to Picus minor. 

Hiding [hi-ding], sh. A beating, flogging, thrashing. Leic, 
SE. Wore, Stafll 

Higgler, «&. A badger, or travelling dealer in farm pro- 
duce ; one who ' chaffers * or ' higgles.* Shrop., SE. Wore. 
(heggler), and elsewhere. 

Higher, v. a. pec. To raise. ' That clothes-line's too low : 
go and higher it/ The participle is Highering. 

), V. a. ( I ) To beckon. 

(2) To haul. 

(3) To raise, or lift, or toss. Hal. Diet, says, ' To swing ; 
put in motion ; to toss ; to throw ; to strike ; to hoist ; to 
go away ; to hurry ; var. dials.' In the Midlands the 
sense seems to be allied to that of hook. ' Hike him in ' 
may mean ' beckon him in ' (with a hooked finger), or 
' haul (as with a hook) him in ' ; whilst to * hike a thing 
up' means to raise anything, as a cow does with its 
horns. In Staff*, and Shrop. the word is definitely 
applied to the tossing action of a homed beast. 

(4) 'Brockett {Gloss. North Country Wds.) explains 
this word " to swing, to put in motion." It is used in 
a much stronger sense in Warwickshire, as applied to 
the practice of hikeing a toad, which is done thus: 
• narrow board, about a foot long, is balanced upon 

HiU — Hind-post 109 

a convenient substance, with the toad laid upon one end 
of it. The opposite end is then smartly struck with 
a heavy stick, the effect of which is to kike or raise the 
toad with considerable velocity into the air, whence it 
uniformly descends quite dead. This barbarous practice 
is described by Brockett under the word spanghew. [It 
is painful to add that this does not fully describe the 
detestable act. It was customary to inflate the wretched 
creature at the vent, through a hollow stalk, so that it 
should ' bost ' on falling.] About Stratford-on-Avon this 
is called " Filliping the toad," which naturally brings to 
mind the Shakespearian phrase, " Fillip me with a three- 
man beetle." To hilce, to toss as a beast does with his 
horns, is a familiar expression.' — Hal. Oloss, 

Hill vd Hill up, V. a. To cover, cover up. A.-Sax. helan, 
cdare^ ' Hill,' ' hille,' and * hele ' are all in Wycl. Vide 
Hal. Diet 'Hile.' Leic, Shrop., N'hamp., Staff., Up.-on- 
Sev. (hde), and elsewhere. Dying out in Warw. 

* Palter, to hill ouer.' — Cotgrave. 

* I hyll, I wrappe or lappe, i. e. couvre : you must hyU you wel nowe 
a nyghtes, the wether is colde/ — Palsgrave. 

Hillings, sb. pi. The upper bedclothes. 

*Hyllyng, a coveryng, couverture.* — Palsgrave. 

Evans, Leic. Dial, remarks that in Wycl. Bible, ' hiling,' 
' hylings,' &c., are used for a tent as well as a covering. 
Staff., Leic, Shrop. Dying out in Warw. Vide Healing. 

Him. It. Midlands. 

'The phUosophres stoon, 
Elixir clept, we sechen faste echoon ; 
For, hadde we him, than were we siker ynow.* 

Chaucer, G. 864 (six-text ed.)» Skeat 
^quoted in Shrop, Word-bk.). 

Hind-post, sb. The post on which a gate hangs. Leic. 
(hing-pod), N'harap. {liing, to hang). 

110 His*n — Hodge 

His'n. His. Common. 

' Him wot steals wot isn't his'n, 
When 'e's cotch'd must go to prison/ — Old Rhyme, 

His-self. Himself. ' He went by his-self.* 

Hit, sb. An abundant crop. ' There's a good hit o' taters 
this turn.' Glouc, Shrop., Up.-on-Sev. 

Hit it vd Hit it off, phi\ Agree. * My stepfather and me 
never could hit it off.' Leic, Oxf. 

HiTer-hover, v. n. To waver. W. Wore., Glouc, Shrop. 
(adj. wavering, undecided). 

Hob vd Hub, 66. The ledge on either side of the firegrate. 
Leic. {hob), N'hamp. (hob and hub). 

Hob- gob, 6^. An awkward, uncouth person. 

Hob-gobs, bb. pi. Small tumps or hillocks of dirt, refuse, 
&c., from the guttera, scraped together by roadmen, at 
regular intervals. Shrop. (inequalities of surface). 

Hocketimow, 66. ^An instrument to cut the sides of a 
rick with, generally formed of a scythe-blade fixed to 
a pole or staff. Hoggerdemow is a term used about 
Stratford-on-Avon for a similar instrument with which 
hedges are roughly cut.'— Hal. Gloss. At Bourton, Glouc, 
the former is called a * hoggery-maw.* Robertson, Gloss. 
Vide Bru8hing-hook« and Slashing-hook. 

Hookle, V. n. To hobble along. Glouc. (to hobble along 
quickly), SE.Worc 

Hockling [ok-lin], j^irt. adj. Awkward, shambling, as 
' A oklin sort o' walker.' N'hamp. (walking as if ham- 
strung : from hockle, to hamstring). 

Hodge, (i) sb. The stomach. * Don't stodge (stuff) yer 
'odge so.' 

(a) The large paunch in a pig. Shrop. 

Hogsyed — Hond 1 1 1 

(3) V, 71. To advance the hand unfairly, when dis- 
charging a marble. (Near Tamworth.) Vide Fudge. 

Hogsyed [ogs-yed], sb. Var. pron. of 'hogshead.' Glouc. 
(hockshet), Shrop. i^ogshit). 

Holt, 8b. (i) Var. pron. of 'hold.' ''Ere collar 'olt' = 
Here ! catch hold. Qlouc, Leic, N'harap. 

(2) ' Quasi hold, a deep hole in a river where there 
is a protection for fish. Osier-hold signifies a place 
in a brook or river set with osiers, and thus afibrding 
a cover or security.' — Hal. Gloss. Leic, N'hamp., Shrop. 

Holy-fUls, sb. pi. Trousers buttoned breeches-fashion ; 
that is to say, with ' flap ' instead of ' fly '-fronts. Vide 

Hommacking [om-ft-kin], parf. adj. Awkwaid, clumsy, as 
'A great hommacking thing.' N'hamp., Shrop. Vide 

Hommook [om-uck], sb. 'All of a hommock,' uneven, 
lumpy : metaph. from ' hommock ' or * hummock,' a little 
hill. Glouc, N'hamp. 

Hommooks [om-uks], sb. (1) An overgrown, slatternly 
girl. N'hamp. 

(2) The feet. SE. Wore Cf. Shommooks. 

Hompered [omp-ftd], part. adj. Var. pron. of 'hampered'; 
but meaning harassed, worried, troubled. Shrop. 

Hondy sb. Var. pron. of ' hand.' This sound of the letter 
' a ' is an ancient one, not a modern vulgarism. 

*He bad him al his lond bisen (iiile'; 
And under him hegest for to ben ; 
And had him wclden in hia hond 
His folc* — Gen. and Erod. (Morris% 

1 1 2 Honeysuckle — Hoppety-kiek 

Again : 

^ In Humber Grim began to tende 
In Lendeseye, rith at the north ende, 
Ther sat is ship up on the sond 
But guin it don up to the londL' — Havelok the Dane. 

Honesrsnokle, sb. Common red clover, Trlfolmm pratenee. 
N'hamp., Shrop. This is probably the * honey-stalks * of 

' Tarn. I will enchant the old Andronicus 
With words more sweet, and yet more dangerous, 
Than baits to fish, or honey-stalks to sheep, 
Whenns the one is wounded with the bait. 
The other rotted with delicious feed/— Tit. And. iv. 4. 88. 

Hoogy vel Howgy [oo-je, ou-je], adj. (i) Bulky, ill-fitting, 
huge. * These are *ougy boots.' 

* Huge, hougy.' — Stratraan's Old Eng. Did. 

Hal. Diet, assigns it to the West Country, and refers to 
Skelton, ii. 24. Glouc., Shrop., and elsewhere. 

'A hugye giaunt sti£fe and starke. 
All foule of limbe and lere,* 

occurs in Sir Ccndine, pt. ii. stanza 18 : Percy, Rdiques. 
(2) Intimate, as * howgy folks.' Shrop. 

Hook-billy sh. A hatchet. Frances, S. Warw. Provin. In 
other parts of Warw. bill-hook. 

Hooter^ bb. An ale-warmer. An extinguisher-shaped utensil 
of metal for thrusting deep into the fire. Oxf., SE. Wore, 
Shrop. (ooter, i. e. hotter, heater). Cf. Foot, Hastener. 

Hope, 8b. The bullfinch. Glouc. (fioop), Cf. Nope. 

Hop-o'-my-thumb, «6. A dwarf. The title of a well-known 
nursery tale. N'hamp. 

* FretiUony a little nimble dwarf, or hop-on-my-thombe.* — Cotgrave. 

Hoppety-kiek, j>/ir. Spoken of a person whose gait exhibits 
a sort of hopping movement, followed by a kicking or 

Hot — Honsen 113 

swinging motion of the rear leg. * Dot-and-go-one ' or 

* Dot-and-carr j-one ' is a similar term. * Step-and-fetch^ 
it ' is a nickname used of one with a like peculiarity. 

Hot, V. C&. (i) To heat ; warm up. *Hot some water.' 'Hot 
that pie.' Leic, Glouc, JJ'hamp., Shrop., and elsewhere. 

(a) p. and pp, of ' hit.' Glouc., N'hamp., Leic, and 

'As I sat up in the pear-tree, 
With all the pears around me, 
Tliere came a man from Tamworth town 
And awore by Jube I (Jove' he'd knock me down. 

I up with a pear 

And hoi him there, 

I up with another, 

And hot his brother: 

O. U. T. 

Spells out goes he/ — Wano. counting^ut'rhyme. 

The Leic. Dial, gives the following version of an old 
proverbial distich : 

« A bh>t 's no blot 
Till it's hot ' (i. e. pointed out, designated). 

Hot-oroB8-bun-day. Good Friday. Buns made to be eaten 
on that day are marked with a cross. N'hamp* 

*Onc a penny, poker, 
Two a penny, tongs, 
Thi*ee a penny, fire irons. 
Hot cross buns/ — Wane. Folk-rhyme. 

House, sb. Any gi'ound-floor room as opposed to the 
kitchen. Leic, Oxf., N'hamp., and elsewhere. lit Shrop. 
the large kitchen or general living-i*oom is called the 
' house-place.' 

Housen [ou-zn], (i) v.a. To mufSe, to encumbei:. 

* Don't ouzen yer neck wi' that great comforter.' Near 

{2) 86. pi. of 'house.' Midlands. This plural, though 


1 1 4 Hove — Hullock 

doubtless old, is probably purely dialectical. I cannot 
find that it has ever been recognized as a r^ular form. 
'Cow-hou8en'= cow-houses, is common in OUmc 

Hove, V. a. * To hoe.' — Frances, S, Warw, Provin. 

HowBumdeTer [ou-sum-dev'ur], sb. Disorder. Frances, 
S. Wa'nv. Flavin. Unknown to me in this sense. It is 
a common pron. of * howsoever ' in Warw. Glouc. {hxno- 
soniever), N*hamp. {hmvsomever, hawsonidivery. Common. 

Hub, 86. i. q. Hob, q. v. 

Hudge, sb. 'All of a hudgc '= all of a heap, mass. Usually 
applied to the clothing of a child or woman^ if greatly 
rucked. N'hamp. (hodge), 

Huds, sb. pi. Husks, as of walnuts. W. Wore., Glouc. 

Hulking, adj. Clumsy, unwieldy, with a sense of 4azy *; 
as * A great hulking fellow.' Common. 

Hulks, t^b. A ' hulking ' fellow. * Keep off me, you great 

Hulky, adj. Lazy, idle ; clumsy ; with a sense of * bulky.' 

* Imagin Low the bulky divell slyded 
Along the seas smooth breast, parting the wave.* 

Heywood, Tr<na BritamcOj 1609. 

Hull, (i)v.a. and n. To hurl, to throw. Leic, N'hamp. {hx)ll, 
hull). Hal. Diet, says, * West Country.' XJp.K)n-Sev. 

(2) V. a. To remove the husks or shells from nuts, &c. 
* '* Hull the walnuts," a phrase used at Stratford-on-Avon 
for removing the husks.'— Hal. Gloss. Common. 

Hullock, sb. A lazy, worthless fellow. Shrop. 

Hullockixig or Hulking, paH. adj. As * He goes hullock- 
ing about.' Glouc. (and hulk, to skulk about), W. Wore. 
(hiUkiDg^ overbearing). 

Hulls — Hurden 115 

1 HiUla, fli.pL Husks, hutlft, bads, shells, 
• Hull of beane or p*Be/— Pnlsgni-ve. 

' CoMW. the Iiuske, swjid, ood, bull of beanea, peiuip, ftt!.* — Colgrnve. 
'OKculii9, the huakeor hull uf uU aeedeH.'~Elyot. 1559(111 \l»\.BklX 

I Humblo-bee, ah. 'The general term by M'liich the large 
wild bee. Apis lepidaria, ia known ; though occasionally 
we meet with Immble-bee in use, aa id the North.' — Hal. 
Oloae. Common. Vi'ie Bumble-bee. 

I Humbug, sf>. A small sweetmeat, black or dark brown of 
hue, striped with white, and usually flavoured with 
peppermint. Glouc., SE. Wore, Up.-on-Sev,, and else- 
HumpT- grumpy, axtj. Grumbling ; complaining, owing to 
indisposition. N'hamp., Up.-on-Sev. (kump, to grumble). 
To have 'the hump' is a common vulgar phrase nowadays, 
signifying to take offence, sliow trouble, &c., and is 
doubtless derived from tho habit of certain animals 
which erect the back when angered or depressed. 

[ Humstromming, jiart. adj. Lounging about in enforced 

HumBtrum, as an adj. means dull, dreary, dragging; 
as ' ft humsti'um job.' 

I Hurden, (1) sh, Coai-se cloth made of hurds or herds. 

'Flower (flour) of Elnglnnd, fruit n1 SpxiD. 
Met together in a storm of r>in. 
A hempen shirt, Hnd a hurdan cravst, 
If you're > wi*e man, tell nie thai.'— Old Riddh. 

Ana. 'A plum-pudding.' 
■ Rardea wa> nlso an ancient fonn at the word. In the will of 
Jotiin WieliC, 1560, we have "hand towelles of harden," x pare of 
hurden aheets valued at aos., and "ix table cloths of harden," valued 
at to*. A table cloth of " lynne " was priced ixd. in the will of Koger 
Pele^ Parson of mesa (1541), and one of " harden " ijyd., 
which giv*i u« wjme iOia of itn comparHtiTe viilue.* — Beck, prvptr't 
Viet., sub vop.-. 

1 16 Hurds — Inchy-pinchy 

(2) wlj. Drying, as 'It's borden weather now/ i.e, 
weather calculated to dry harden. 

Hnrda, HerdB, «^. Coarse or refuse flax or hemp. A.-Sax. 
Iteordas. Common. 

' Ueerdes of hemp.* — Pftlsgnf^e. 

' Hurdes or towe, of lUxe or hempe, Mhipcu — Baret (in Prompt, Parv,). 

* Now that part (of the flax) which U utmost, and next to the pill 
or rind, is called tow or hards.'— Holland's Pftny, ii. p. 4 in Nares' 

Hoflsyy Hussify Huswife [uze, uzif, uswlfe], «&. A case for 
holding sewing materials, such as thread, needles, and 
buttons. ' It is made of a strip of some suitable material, 
and is fitted up with longitudinal '* casings*' for the 
thread, and with pockets for the buttons, &c. It rolls 
up when not in use, and fastens with a loop and button.' 
— ^hvop, WorfJ'hk. Common. 

If so be as how, phr, * If so be as how Fve done my work 
in time, I'll come across ' (to your house). N'hamp. 

Iffing-and-Offing, sh. Indecision. *Make up your mind, 
(lon*t let's have any iffing-and^offing.' It is also used 
participially. Glouc, Wore., Shrop. {iftin''an*Hindin = 
hesitation). Cf. Hiver-hover. 

lU-contrivedy aJj. Bad-tempered ; cross-grained. Shrop. 

Ill-convenienty a<lj. Inconvenient. Midlands. 

ImberSy tth, pi. Var. pron. of * embers.* Shrop. 

In. Of. *They bo just come out in school.* *In course 
I shall do it.' N'hamp. Shakespeare uses *of * for *in.' 

* And not lu* stn^n to wink of all the day.' — Lore'* Labours Lofity i. i. 4^, 

Inohy-pinohy, ah. Progressive leap-frog. A makes a back : 
B pitches and makes a l^ack : C pitches over A and B 
ttiul makes a back. A then rises and pitches over fi 

Ind-Iss 117 

and C, &c. The formula is * Inchy-pinchy, last lie down.' 
The player who first cries this is entitled to wait until 
all the players are * down * before he leaps. 

Ind, sb, Var. pron. of * end.' SE. Wore. 

Inkle, ^6. Coai*se tape. 

' SeiT. He hath ribbons of all the colours i' the raiubow . . . inkles, 
caddisees, cambrics, lawns.' — Wint. Tale, iv. 3. 205. 

According to the FaWic Rolls of York Minster (Surtees 
Soc), sixpence was paid in the year 1583 for 'ynkle 
strynges to the Bible and Communyon boke.* * As thick 
as inkleweavers ' was formerly a common proverb. 
Swift has a version of it : 

* Lord ! why she and you were as great as two inkle-weavers. I am 
sure I have seen her hug you as the devil hugg'd the witch.' — Polite 

The word is rarely used now. 

Inon [i-nun], ^6. An onion. Up.-on-Sev., SE. Woixj., Glouc, 
N'hamp. (inion or inoii), Shrop. {ei'ul'un), S. Warw. 
(eiwyun). See Forby, Vocab, East Avglia. 

Insense [in-sens'], v. a. To inform, apprise, instruct, ex- 
plain. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

^Gardiner, I think I have 

Incensed the lords o* the council that he is 

• • • • • • • 

A moMt arch heretic' — Hen. VIII, v. i. 42. 

'The olde bokes of Glastenbury shall you euhence 
More plainly to vnder»tnnde this forsayd mutere.' 

The Lyfe of loaeph of Armathia, 1. 363 (quoted in Shrop. Word-bk.). 

Inwards [in-uds], sb. Entrails, bowels ; of man or beast. 
Glouc, Leic, Oxf., Wore, Shrop., N'hamp. 

*ItU€8(ina . . . inneweard.' — Ab. ^Ifric's Vocab. Jn Wright, Ettrlij 

Eny. Vocubs. i. 44'. 
^ Fahst, But the sherris warms it tuid makes it course from the 
inwards to the parts cxfcrcmo.' — 3 Ihn, IV, iv. 3. 114. 

Iss. Yes. Shrop. Cf. Yis. 

118 r stead — Jack-squealer 

I'Bteady adv. Vax. pron. of 'instead.' Leic. {i'stid and 
i 'stead) J and elsewhere. 

Isterd'y, adv. Yesterday. Shrop. 

Itching-berries, The seeds in the dog-rose berries; 
so called because children put them down their play- 
mates' backs, to induce irritation. 

Ivell [ivl], V, a. To pilfer. 

Iwy, 66. Var. pron. of * ivy.' Shrop. 

Jack, sb. A roller for a towel, called a * jack-towel'; this 
last, usually a long narrow doth with the ends joined 
together, which works round the roller or jack, which is 
generally fixed at the back of a kitchen door. Leic., 

Jack-at-a-pinch, ab. ' One who is ready in case of emer- 
gency or necessity.' — N'havip. Gloss. It is often used, 
too, to indicate a person who is ignored at ordinary 
times^ but made to serve a purpose on occasion. 

Jack-bannel [j-banil], bK The minnow. Hal. Diet, has 
* Jack-barrel,' possibly a misprint; for in the Warw. 
Gloss, it is correctly given. ^Jack-bannock,' in folk- 
speech, is the accepted form. Frances, S. Warw. Provin., 
has ' Jack-bannial,' a tadpole. 

*For they've filled up poor old Pudding Brook 
Where in the mud I*ve often stuck, 
Catching Jack-banils near Brummagem.' 

Old Song, *1 can't find Brummagem.' 

Jaok-sharpling, sb. The stickleback, Ga^iterosteus a^uleatusj 
L. N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Jack-squealer [j-squaler], sb. The swift, HU'uivdo apxis. 
Leic, Shrop., W. Wore. 

Jack-up — Jibber-and-jiimbles 1 1 9 

Jack-up, V. a, and n. To throw up, relinquish. * Let's 
jack-up this game.' 'Tm tired, an' gooin' to jack-up.' 
Leic, W. Wore. 

Jangling, part. adj. Disputing, quarrelling, arguing. 
* Wrangling and jangling ' is a common phrase. Shrop. 

* Jangler^ to jangle, prattle, tattle saucily or scurvily .' — Cotgrave. 

Jank, 86. Merda^ excrement. * Jankhole,' forica^ jakes. 

Jaunders [jan-durz], 86. Yar. pron. of 'jaundice ' : as the 
Imc, DiuL remarks, * almost always qualified, as the 
" yaller janders." * Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Jawy t;. a. and n. To scold, to prate. Also used substan- 
tively, as * Let's have none of your jaw.' Common. 

Jed. Var. pron. of * dead.' Leic, Shrop. 

Jee, adv. and adj, 'Crooked, awry, not straight.' — Hal. 


Jel, 86. Var. pron. of * deal.' * This coal ain't a jel o' good,' 

Jerry-honsey 86. A beer-house of the lower class. W. Wore, 
and elsewhere. In some districts ' Tom-and-Jerry-house ' 
is common. 

Jerasalem-pony, 86. A donkey or ass. 'Evidently allusive 
to our Saviour's entrance into Jerusalem on an ass.' — 
IThanip. Gloss. In Warw. * Jerusalem-cuckoo/ too. 

Jessup [jez-up], 86. Juice, syrup ; as of fruit pies, puddings, 
&c. Shrop., Up.-on-Sev. 

Jest }}€l Jist, adv. Var. pron. of * just,' as *jist now.' 

Jethy 86. Var. pron. of' death.' Shrop. 

Jibber-and-jumbleSy ah. jd. Sweetmeats, lollipops. Near 

120 Jif— Job 

Jif vd Jifiy, a6. A twinkling, trice, instant, crack, &c., as 
. *ril do tiie job in a jiffy.' Common. It may be made 

to convey a sense of 'immediately' or 'shortly.' Cf. 

Just now. 

Jigging vd Jiggeting, part adj. Gossiping about 'A' 
ji^eting yomig hussy.' * She's never right on'y when 
she's jigging about.' !N'hamp. {jigging). 

Jiggling vd Joggling [ jig-lin*, jog'lin'], adj. Unsteady, as 
applied to inanimate objects. ' A jiglin* table.' ' That's 

/ a joglin' lather (ladder), yo' be careful on it.' N'hamp., 
Shrop. {jigling), SE. Wore, (giggling). 

Jilty 86. (i) Tatter ; state of rags and jags, as ' Her shawl 
was all of a jilt.' 

(a) A slattern. ' Her is a dirty jilt, if yer like.' 

JimragSy ^6. pi. Shreds, tatters. 'My ankecher's all. to 

Job, (]) ^6. Stercus, It is used also as a t;. 77. Hal. Diet. 
Var. dials. 

(2) V. a. To prod, poke, stab, pierce with a pointed 

*To job, hocher, hecqueter.* — Cotgrave. "^ 

' That job's jobbed, as the woman said when she jobbed 
her eye out.' — Warw. version of a common Midland 
folk-phrase. In the North Midlands, when a boy wishes 
to assure a companion of the truth of a statement, or the 
due performance of some act or promise, he utters the 
following rhythm : 

' Handy-bandy, 8ugar-candy, 
Cut my throat, and double hang me, 
Job! Job I Job! 
At ten o'clock at night ; ' 

Jobber — Joiating 


inlimatiiig that he woulil be prepared for, or (leeerving 
of thBae terrible punishmcuts, should he prove false. He 
prods hia throat with hia forefin^r at each mentiou of 
the word 'job.' For variants of this custom, nee uiy 
Eiiglieh Fo/k-rhjmes, p. 336, 

{3) ei. A stab, thrust, poke, porfoi-ation, Midlahdo. 
■ A jiib with a bill ur beitke, fcoiiiua'e.'— Cutgmve. 

\ Jobber, «?j. A dealer in live-stock, as a pig-jobber, &c. 

I Joe]r> /A. (1) The green linnet. 

(a) A small glass for containing a victiialler'a thrue- 

pennyworth of bmndy. 
[ Johnny-raw', at. A countryman, rustic. N'hamp., and 

elsewhere. In Shrup. Gloee. ' Johnny Wopstraw,' a farm 

labourer. 'Johnny Whipstraw,' a valiant, ia cummoti 

in the Midlands. 

\ Joist, V. a, Var. pron, of ' agist.' ' To take in other men's 
cattle into pasture-land at a certain rate : also, to send 
one'a cattle into another man's pasture at a certain rate ; to 
take or send into " ley "or" lack."' — Leic. Dial. N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. The N'hawi'. Gli/na. says, ' Joist is 
evidently a corruption of Agid — from Fr. Gii-te, a liwl 
or resting-place —and signifies to take in and feed the 
cattle of strangers in the King's Forest, and to gather up 
the money due for the same.'^ — Cfmrta de Foretta, 9 Hun. 
m, c. 9. See Jacob's Law Dirt. 

I Joister, eb. An animal takiu ur sent in to 'ji^ist.' Leic, 
M'bamp., and elsewhere. 

\ JolBting, >fh. 'The keep of an animal which is put out to 
gross in atiulber pei-son's field. " What nuist I pay for 
his joiBUnyV" — Frances, iS*. W'aiu: J'ruclii-. Hal. DUt., 

122 Jolter-headed — Jumpers 

under ' Agistment/ says, ' The feeding of cattle in a 
common pasture for a stipulated price. The agistment 
of a horse for the summer cost 3/4, in 1531. See the 
Finchale Charters, p 417/ Blackstone, Comment, bk. ii, 
mentions the law of Agistment^ briefly. 

Jolter-headed [jdlter-yedid], adj. Stupid, foolish. Leic. 

Jonnocky adj. Thorough in good fellowship. Staff, (jan- 
nock, genuine), N'hamp. and SE. Wore, (jonnick), Qlouc. 
(to be jonnock = work together smoothly), Shrop. (true- 
hearted ; fair dealing ; honourable). Hal. Diet. (fSair and 
honourable. North Country). 

Josey, sb. Dimin. of ' Joseph.' Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Jowl [jol], ( 1) V, a. To knock the head, or that of another, 
against an obstacle. 'I'll jowl your head against the 
wall ' is a stock Warw. threat. 

'1 joUe one aboute the eares.'— Palsgrave. 

' down. Tliey may joul horns together like any deer V the herd.' 

AlVs WeU that Ends WeU, i. 3. 59. 

See also Hamlet, v. i. 82. England. Leic. (to strike, to 

(2) ^6. A deep earthenware pan with a rim. Staff., 
Shrop. (a washing mug). Hal. Diet, ^ A large, thick dish.* 

Jubous [jubus], adj. Var. pron. of 'dubious,* but with 
a sense of * suspicious.* Shrop. Hal. Diet 

Judge, V. a. To suspect. *I judge that beggar o' stealin* 
our fowl.' 

Jumpers, sb. pi. Cheese-maggots, or mites. N'hamp. 
Glosif. says, * Maggots that feed upon ham and bacon. 
The larvae of Musca pat r is,' Common, 

Justly — Keeeh 123 

Justly, (ulv. Exactly. 'I don't justly know." Leic, 
Staff- Up.-on-Sev. 
' Jaat nov, adv. Used in a past, present, and future sense. 
'Jack was here just now,' or 'just now since,' i.e. a 
short time since. 'I can't awhile just now,' i.e. just at 
present. 'I'll attend to you just now,' i.e. nhortly, 
presently. England. Hal. Gloi^. remarks, ' The phrase 
is not unfrequenlly rendered more barbarous by adding 
an 8 to the last word, making it jvjit uuwe.' 

tok, V. n. I. q. Cank, q. v. 

, Xay, ab. Var. pron. of ' key.' Midlands. 

'Either through gifts, or guiki, or mieh liko w»ie«, 
Crept in by stuuping low, or xtenling of tlie knies.' 

Sp«n»er, Faery Qtatne, bk. iv. c i, si. Iviii. 
(quoted in Shrnp. Word-bk. ' . 

Keck vel Sex, ^. KezsB, sh. The hemlock ; but liberally 

used for other umbelliferous plants of similar appcar- 
nncc, such as cow-parsnip, wild -carrot, hedge-parsley, &c. 

' Kirka, l.he dric HtHlkes of liuniloi^kes, or burroa, liiynn,' — FalhgrnvG. 
'Burs- Anit aolhing teems 

But hateful docks, rough thiatlea, k^ckaies, burs.' — lien. >', v. a. 51. 

' As dry as a kex ' is an old proverb ; and, owing to this 
quality, it was anciently used as a torch. 

' All the vrjrvea of Tottenham came to ae that sy]t 
Wytli wysp*s, and kexis. and ryachys there lyjt,' 

The TiinuinttHt nf TiillaJuim (Poruy, lleliiitia''. 

Reeoh, 0&. A cake of consolidated fat &om the slaughter- 
house, rolled up to go to the chaniUer's for tallow. 
Shakespeare makes an appropriate surname of the word : 
•Host. Did not g'Hidwifp Kowh, tli» biitrher'a wife, come in Ihen 
and call me t;i>^p<juiclily?'— a J/cH. />', ii. 1. 104. 

1 24 Keen — Kemps 

and applies it figuratively to Wolsey, * the butcher 8 son/ 
in Hen. VI II, i. i. 54 : 

'Buck. I wonder 

That such a keech can with this (?hi8) very bulk 
Take up the rays o' the beneficial sun, 
And keep it from the earth.' 

Prince Henry calls Falstaff 'greasy tallow-keech/ in 
I Hen. IV, ii. 4, 256. Glouc, Shrop., SE. Wore. 

Keen, v. a. To sharpen, make keen. ' TU keen this knife.' 
SE. Wore., Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Keep, bb. More often applied to grass than provender in 
Warw. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Keep in with, phr. To continue on good terms, or agi*ee 
with a person. ' It's best to keep in with the steward.' 
N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Keffll [kefl], ab. A clumsy person ; an ' animal.' ' Mind 
where yer treadin' yer great kefl.* Also anything of 
inferior quality, as 'This is poor kefl.' It is a figure 
borrowed from 'keffil,' a small, inferior horse. Shrop. 
and Up.-on-Sev. (keffel), SE. Wore, (anything inferior). 

*So Richard, having no more to say. 
Mounted his keffle and rode away/ 

Richard of Dalton Dale, MS. 

Quoted in Hal. Diet., which says, * Var. dials.' 

Kell, ifb. (1) The omentum, or caul, of a slaughtered pig. 
Shrop., W. Wore, and elsewhere. 

'Rim or kell wherein the bowels arc lapt' 

Florio (quot-ed in Hal. Diet). 

(2) A film, or scale, on the eyeball. Shrop., and else- 

Kemps, t<b. pi. 'Coarse hairs amongst wool or fur.' — Hal. 
JH(t. N'hamp. 

Kench — Kindle 125 

Eenchy v. a. To twist, wrench. Used substantively also^ 
as ^ I tum'd sharp, and got a nasty kench in my back.' 
Staff., Shrop. Hal. Diet, ' North Country.' 

Keout [one syllable, rhymes * out '], sh, A little mongrel, or 
cur. *Abo the short, snarling yelp of a little dog.' — 
HaL Dkt. Shrop. (a little, sharp, vigilant, barking dog). 

Kep% p, and pp. of ' kept.' * I kep' 'im for a twelvemonth.' 
Glouc, SE. Wore, and elsewhere. 

Kere [ker]. Abbreviated form of * look here ! * Vule 

Kernel, sh. A hard concretion in the flesh. Common. 

* Kymel or knobbe yn a beeste or mannyn flesche.' — Prompt Parv. 

KetchecU part. adj. ' Slightly burnt and stuck to the pan, 
in boiling; said of milk, &c.' — Shrop. Word-bk. Lit. 
'catched,' caught, the frequent form of the perfect of 
' catch ' in the Midlands. 

Eeys [kays, keys], ab. jd. The fruit of the sycamore. 
Shi'op. Sometimes called ' Locks and key&' 

Kibble, v. a. To crush or mash oats or other com. 
* Kibbled-oats ' are known to all corn-chandlers. Leic, 
Shrop., Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Kind, adj. Thriving, healthy; applied to beasts and 
plants. ' These'm nice, kind pigs.' ' Your beans are 
kind.' Midlands. 

Kindle, v. n. To bring forth young, as hares, rabbits, cats. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

'Ryndyll as a she hare or cony dothe, whan they bring forthe 
yonge/ — Palsgrave . 

* OW. Are you native of this place ? 

Ros, An the coney, that you see dwell where she is kindled.' 

A» I'ow Like Itj iii. si. 360. 

126 Elipe — Enack-and-span 

Kipe» sb. A coarse kind of osier basket, wider at top than 
bottom, with a short handle on each side. Olouc, 
Shiop., Wore Not very common in Warw. 

Kimiing'bush, sb. A mistletoe bush, under which a kiss 
may be lawfully taken at Christmas-tide. A berry 
should be plucked from it every time a kiss is taken. 

Kit, sb. A flock of pigeons. As applied to a brood, family, 
or number of persons or things taken collectively, it is 
a common word. 

Kiv^r [kiv'ur], sb, ' The tub that the butter is made up in/ 
— Frances, 8. Warw. Frovin. 'A shallow tub, with a 
cover, mostly used in composition ; as whey-kiver^ doughs 
kiveVy btUter-kiver^ &c.' — Leic. I>ial. Glouc, N'hamp., 
SE. Wore., Shrop. The word is not common to all parts 
of Warw. It is a corruption of ' cover/ which as a vb. 
is familiar throughout the Midlands : ' Kiver up yer 

Knaby v. a, ' To bite gently and playfully. Horses knab 
each other when in good temper.' — Shrop. Wd.-bk. 

Knaba^ sb. A youth, young man; possibly from Ger. 
Knahe^ boy, knave ; used in this last sense, but with the 
corrupt meaning, i. e. a false, deceitful, dishonest, or 
waggish fellow. It is always preceded, too, by a pos- 
sessive pronoun; and spoken of one guilty of some 
offence. 'I saw his (my) knabs this morning, but he 
kept bis distance : he knows Pm aware of his tricks.' 

Knack-and-span. A game at marbles. One player casts 
a marble ahead. His fellow casts another marble after 
it. Should he knack (knock) it, or bring his own within 

Knackers — Know 127 

a hand's- spAa, he iu lawfully entitled to tliat of hia 
opponent. The second player then casta his Own marble 
ahead, &c. 

EnackerB, «''. jil. Teetea, Olouc. 

Kneading-trough [k-tro], s'l. ' A rudo piece of furniture 
standing on four legs, having a (tletached) flat lid which 
flta closely on to it, bo that when covered it aurves as 
a table, and is about the height of one." — Sh-op. Wunl-bk. 
AIbo c&Ued a 'doHgh-fcrough ' [do-tro] in Warw. 

[■ EQook along, v.n. To work briskly. N'hamp. 

I Snook oS, {[) v.a. To dispose, or perform quickly ; ae 

' He can knock off work hotter than any man I know.' 


(a) v.n. To cease from work, 
it's time to knock off.' 

■ The hell's gone six : 

j Enock-down-brick-ancl-carry-one. A boys' game- Ono 
brick is placed upon another thus T, and guai-dcd by 
a band of playei-s. Another band stand at taw, and 
tjirow duckstonea at it ; and, should it be knocked from 
ita position, they run backwards as fai- as possible, fol- 
lowed by the guardians of the brick. Each guardian, on 
catching a runner, must carry him on his back till the 
brick be reached. The order of the game is then reversed. 
f Knoll [ndl], V. a. To toll, as 'a bell.' Common. 
'I knolle » belle. ■—Pai-.gTBva 
•Knrth. Sounds ever afl«r bs a adlleii hell, 
Bemeniber'd knolling a departing Triend.' — a Hen. IV, i. i, coa. 

['Know, V, n. ' Til let you know ' = I'll give you a thrashing. 
Ab the Leic. J}ial. points out, it is more common than 
{v.a.) 'I'll let you know your master,' of which it is 
probably a corruption. 

1^8 Knowed — Knuckle-down 

Knowed, />. and pp, of ' know.' ' Knowede' = knew, 4 Kings 
ii. 3 (in Wycl.). 

Knowledge, pec. use. Bange, remembrance, view. * Look 
at this poor dog, he's got out of his knowledge,' i. e. has 
lost his way. * Gardener's gel's wum agen ; her's quite 
growed out o' my knowledge/ * I ain't seen Joe for many 
a day ; he's gone right out o' my knowledge.' Leic. 

Know-nothingy sh. and adj. An ignoramus; ignorant: 
as *He's a know-nothing* or 'a know-nothing chap/ 
Midlands^ and elsewhere. 

Know to. Know of; as 'I know to a nest.' Wore, and 

Knubblings [knub'lins], sh. jil.. Small cobbles of coal. 
N'hamp., Up.-on-Sev. Hal. Diet. 

Knuckle-down, ^;/t?*. Indicating that a marble should be 
shot from the hand with the knuckle resting on the 
ground — not advanced. N'hamp. HaL DiH. A print 
with this title was a favourite picture years ago. 

A contrary phi-ase is * knuckle-up.' This means that 
the player may raise his knuckles from the ground to 
any suitable height ; nevertheless he must not advance 
his hand. Vide Pudge. 

Another usage of * knuckle-down ' is found in the 
game of Three-Holes, or any like play in which the 
players, in turn, endeavour to roll their marbles into 
holes, in sequence, and to Dolledge (q. v.) the marbles of 
their opponents to as great a distance as possible from 
the holes. Let us say that all the players, save one, 
are *up/ i.e. come to an upshot, or satisfactory con- 
clusion. The unsuccessful one then endeavours to roll 
his marble into the hole. Should he fail, any one of 
the successful players may dolledge *him' (his marble) 

Knurled — Ladies'-Needlework 


;o El di.staDce. But, as this might go on indefjnitely, he 
is cDtitled to ■ knuekl»-down,' when he pleases. That is, 
he may place his shut fiat over the hole, knuckles up- 
ward, and the other players may shoot at his hand, 
thi'oe times each, from taw : after which he is at liberty 
to join in the next game as an equal. 

Knurled [nurld], adj. Stunted, dwarfed. Shrop., and 

Snorlyr b^- A small wooden ball used in the game of 

'A bouDclie or *nw in a tree,' — Elyot (in T. 'Bnucum,' ed. 1559). 
•Nadui, fl knot, n knurl.'— Diet. Etym- Lai. 1648. 
adj. (i) Short, thick, sturdy of make, as 'A knurly 
little man.' Shrop., and elsewhere. 

(2) Hard, as ' A knurly piece of wood,' 

(3) Knotty, as ' A knurly board,' SE. Wore (hnerly). 

EaoE, (t&. A Knurly, <{. v. 

I L. Omitted in bold, cold, fold, &c. 
lAoe, V. a. To beat, thrash, castigate. Common. 

'I do not lovo to be Inood in, when I go to Uoe n raacAl.' 

Ttce Angry Women qf Abingdon, 1599. 
'" Iiaco one's jacket " is another form : e.g. "Go ;ou and find me out 
m»Ji that has no ouriosity at all, or I'll laao your jacket for ye." ' 

Sir R. L'EstraDge (cit. Latham ^. 

\ Lade-gBan, eb. A pail with a vertical stave or handle ; 
used for lading liquids from vats, large tubs, or other 
receptacles. Midlands. Not very common in Warw. 
Most likely an impoi^ted word. 
Ladies'-Needlework, sh. London Pride, Saxifraga uvi- 
broiKi. Called in Glouc. ' A-kiss-at-the-garden-gate.' 

1 80 Lady-cow — Land 

Lady-oaw, sb. The ' lady-bird,' a name applied to all the 
coceinella, as the N*hamp. Oloes. says. 

Lady-smocks, sb. pL Cardaviine pratensia. 

' This plant is called in English, Cuckowe*flower [see Moore's Smffolk 
Words] at the Namptwich in Cheshire, where I had my beginning, 
Ladie Smocks, which hath giuen me cause to Christen it after my 
Countrey fashion/ — Gerarde, HerbaUj bk. ii, p. 261 (quoted in Shrop. 

N*hamp, Gloss, quotes Drayton, Poly. : 

' Of lady smockes most white doe rob each neighbouring mede.' 

And Shakespeare writes : 

* Lady-smocks all silver white/ 

in the Spring Song in Love's Laboui'^s Lost. It is evident, 
therefore, that the ' lady-smocks ' of that time were not 
the same as the ' lady-smocks ' of this ; for the flowers to 
which the term is applied nowadays are pale lilac of hue. 
The N'hamp. Gloss, gives the great bindweed for definition. 

Lagger, sb. 'A litter, a mess.' — 8. Warw. Provin. The 
Shro]). Word'bk. has laggens (of wood) and kLggermentSy 
fragments, odds and ends. 

Lam, t;.a. To beat, thrash, castigate. Leie.,Shro]p.(la7ii7nel). 
The word is common in America. 

Lambs'-tails, sb. pi. The male catkins of hazel and filbert 
trees. Shrop. {lamb-tails). 

Lamming, sb. A beating, castigation. 

'One whose dull body will require a lamming, 
As surfeits do the diet, spring and fall.' 

Beaum. and Fletcher, A King and No King, ▼. 3 
(quoted in Xeic DioZ.). 

Lamp, V. a. To castigate. Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 
Lamping, sb. A thrashing. Staff., and elsewhere. 
Land, sb. 'One ridge and furrow' — Frances, 8. Warw. 

Lane — Lawter 1 3 1 

Provin, The Olov/). Oloss. says, *A ridge or "rudge" 
between two water-furrows.' SE. Wore. 

L&ne, adj, Var. pron. of ' lean ' ; as ' A bit o' lane mate 
(meat).' See Introd. 

Lankity [lank-e-te], adj. Lank, lanky, long and slender. 
' A lankity chap.' 

Lantun, sh. Var. pron. of * lantern.' Common. 

Lap, V, a. To fold, wrap, envelop. All the early dictionaries 
have the word. Common, 

'And whanne the bodi was takun, Joseph lappide it in a clene 
sendel.'— Wycliffe, Matt, xxvii. 29. 

^K, Edtc. How did he lap me 

Even in his garments.* — Richard IJI, ii. i. 116. 

Larrup, v. a. To castigate. Midlands, and elsewhere. 
Larruping. A beating. Common. 

Laskit, sb. Viur. pron. of * elastic' 

Lather [rhymes 'gather'], sb, Var. pron. of 'ladder.' 
Midlands, and elsewhere. Hal. Diet, says that this form 
occurs in Palsgi-ave, fol. 360, and in Collier's Old BaUada, 
pp. 33, 105. I do not know which collection of ballads 
he refers to. I have examined the ' Roxburghe,' ' Black 
Letter,' and ' Red Series,' but cannot find the example 
for quotation. The Shrop, Wd.-bk, gives ' fowre lathers,' 
in an Liven tory dated 1625. 

Lattermath [lat'ur-math]. i. q. Aftermath, q. v. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

'Lateward hay, laUrmafh* — Hollyband's Dictionaries 1593 (quoted in 
Hal. Diet.), 

Lawter [lau-tur], 86. The number of eggs laid by a fowl 
before incubation. Grose, Prov. Dict.y gives ^Laster or 
Lawter, thirteen eggs to set a hen.' North Counti'y. 

K 2 

132 Lay— Lease 

Glouc (layter and lauierjy N'hamp. Known, in slightly 
varied forms, throughout England and Scotland. 

JjAjf IfOy [la and le], ab. Land laid down for pasture. 

lAy^ V. a. 'This term, when applied to a thorn hedge, 
means to renew it by cutting it down on both sides, 
hewing out the old wood and stumps, leaving or placing 
standards at a given distance; and then — ^having first 
carefully split them lengthwise — laying down the young 
shoots, intertwining them basket-fashion between the 
uprights.' — Shrop. Word-bk. 

Lay me in, phr. Cost me. ' This horse will lay me in 
twenty pounds.' Common. 

Laylock, 86. Var. pron. of *• lilac' 

' There still exist among us a few personages who culminated under 
George IV, and who . . . maintain certain traditional pronunciations, 
gold, as gouid or gu-uld; yeUow, as faBow; lilac, as leyloc; china, as 
cheyney ; oblige, as oUeegCf after the Fr. Miger* — Earle, PhUology qf the 
Eng, TongtUf 3rd ed. 1880, p. 166 (paragraph 173). 

Lean-to [len-too], sb. A shed leaning against another 
building. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Learn, v. a. To teach. England. 

'Them shaU he learn his way.* — Ps. xxv. 8 (Prayer Book Version). 
*I lerne one a lesson or thynge that he knoweth nat* — Palsgrave. 

*Calib. The red plague rid you, 

For learning me your language/ — Temp. i. 2. 364. 

Oliphant, The Old and Middle English, 1878, p. 79, says : 
• We sometimes hear " I'll learn (docebo) you this " : the 
verb represents the old Iceran, which has got confounded 
with leornian' 

Lease [leze], v. a. and n. To glean com. 

Leasing [le-zing] , ab. Gleaning. Leic. , N'hamp. , Gloua , 
Staff, {leaze), Oxf. (lease, lezzin, lyezzin), SE. Wore, (laze. 

Leastways — Lep 


le-uj:), W. Wore. {l€eze), Shrop. (leaise, leasing [proii. laze, 
lazia or leziii]), Up,-on-Sev. {leeze). A.-Sax. lesan. 
' tensing, Toyei gleaning.' — Cotgmve. 
Leze and Zasb are interchangeable tlnoughout the 
Iieaatwaya, adv. Leastwise, anyhow, at least, at all events. 
' You'll pay me in a day or two, I hope ; leastways by 
next week.' Sometimes 'at leastways.' Midlands. 
Leather, v. a. To castigate. Leie., Glouc. SE. Wore. 

IisatheriiiK, i^j. A beating, N'hamp., Shrop., Staff. 
Iieatherhead [1-yed], si. A numskull, dolt. England. 
Iieatheren-bat vel Leathering-bat. The common bat. Up.- 
on-Sev., Glouc., SE. and W, Wore {leatheririrlat), Shrop. 
Leem [lem], v. a. 'To separate nuta and walnuts from 
the husk or covering. Leaitiere, nuts sufficiently ripe 
to fall out of the husk.' — Hal. Oloea, Leic. {learn}. Cf. 
N'hamp. Gloss, under ' Limb.' The word is in use in 
Iioiibr (ific), comp. tidv. ' More willingly, sooner.' — Hal. 
Gloss. But more commonly ' liver.' N'hamp. and Shrop. 
{/ievej"), and elsewhere. Vide Lit. 

'Faire Cliristsbelle, from tli«u to parte, 
Farre lever hrnl I dje." 

Sir Catdiiw, pt. ii, 11. 34-5 (Percy, iWi'jw*). 
liSQth, sh. Length. 

'Item j. poce of fjne IjDeu clothe, yerd brode, of Iv] yerdys of 
lenthe.'— iHwntoty, 1459, Fatlon Lttten, i. 4B0 (Artjer's reprinta), (quoted 
in Shrop. Wiiri-bli.). 

Lep, V. ('. and n. To leap. Also used substantively, aud 
as a preterit. 

' l^anne lep ho vp ll)tuli . & lokcd nl a-boutp.* 

William ifPalcme lEarly Eng. Text Soc.), I. 70a 
(quoted in SArgfi. TTonl-M.). 

184 Let on — Lig 

Let on, I*, n. To divulge. 'If Itell you,you muB'n't leton/ 

Letter, «&. A spark on the wick of a boming candle, 
supposed to foretell the coming of a missive. Common. 

Level with, phr. Used in an onfriendly spirit, and equi- 
valent to ' requite.' ' Jack's done me many a bad turn 
as Fve passed over, but FU be level with him, this time.' 
Staff! Vide Sven with. 

Lew-warm [lu-worm], adj. Lukewarm. 

' T wolde that thou were coold, ethir hoot : but for thou art low, and 
nether cold, nether hoot.' — Apocalypse iii. i6 (Wycl.). 

Lick, (i) «6. A slight wash. N'hamp., W. Wore, {lick^ 
%\ a.). 

*A lick and a promise, and better next time.' — if id. Fcik-pkrase. 

(2) r. a. To castigate. Used colloquially for ' puzzle ' ; 
as ' It licks {' beats,' in a figurative sense) me 'ow Jim 
Thorp meks 'is money by them pigs uv 'isn (of his).* 

(3) 86. A blow. Common. 

Lif; Liv, adv. Var. pron. of 'lief,' 'lieve.' Willingly, 
gladly, readily, soon ; well. 

' Uam. I had as lief the town-crier spoke my lines.'— Ham. iii. a. 4. 

The word is spelt * live ' or ' lieve,' in the quartos and 
folios. ' I might as liv (well) whistle the wind as call 
you.' Glouc. and SE. Wore (Jiive)^ Shrop. (lief^ lieve, 
[pron. lif, leev]), Leic. (lief), N'hamp., Up.-on-Sev. {lif, 
lief), England. A. -Sax. leaf. 

Lift, V. a. ' To aid, to assist.' — HaL Gloss. As a substan- 
tive, e.g. 'To give one a lift,' i.e. a helping hand, or 
succour under any circumstances, it is common through- 
out England. 

Ligy {\)v.n. To lie ; tell a falsehood. A.-Sax. leogan. 
{2) sb. A lie. 
Ligger, sf). A liar. 

Like — Lisom 135 

JAgging, part. This form was anciently used as 
a participle of lie, to rest in a reclining position: to 
abide, &c. Chaucer writes : 

< lagging in host, as I have said ere this, 
The Qreekes strong about Troy toun, 
Befell, that whan that Phoebus shining is.' 

TroU. & Cress, iv. i. 

* Lyynge, or lygynge, jaosncia.* — Prompt. Parv. 

Like [Hk], explet 'It's very comfortable, like, in the 
firelight.' Common. 

<I am nae poet, in a sense, 
But just a rhymer, like, by chance.' 

Bums, EpisUe to J, Lapraih, April i, 1785. 

Examples of its earlier use occur in Carr's Dialect 
of Craven, and Hunter s Hallawshire Glossary, 

Liking [lik-in], sb. Approval, trial * My gel's gone to the 
parson's, on liking.' N'hamp. 

Limb, sb. An unruly, troublesome person. A' limb of the 
devil ' is actually meant, I believe. The term is applied 
to a termagant also. N'hamp., Glouc., Up.-on-Sev., and 

' You limb of a spider, you leg of a toad, 
You little black devil, get out of my road.' 

Mid. Folk'Thyme. 

Limber, adj. Pliant, supple, nimble, flexible. Common. 

*Molf soft, supple, tender, lithe, limber.* — Ootgrave. 

* Her. You put me oflf with limber Yows^—Wint. Tdls, i. a. 47. 

[On a] Line, phr. Ill-tempered. * Your dad is on a line 
because you stopped out so late.' 

Lines, sb. pi. Var. pron. of * loins ;' as ' A cold in the lines.' 
SE. Wora, and elsewhere. 

Liquor, sb. Gravy, the grease of fried bacon, &c. Leic, 
K'hamp. {vb. to oil). Cf. FreBh-liquor. 

Lisom [lis-um], adj. Lithesome, agile, supple. England. 

136 Litterment — Lodge 

Idtterment, A. Litter, confusion of scattered articles or 
firagments. 'What a litterment this kitchen's in.' 

Littler, IdttleBt, comp. and Bu,per. of ^ little,' adj. Smaller, 
smallest. Common. 

' Tiayer Qvuen. Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fSaar.' 

Ham, iii. fl. 183. 
* To hold 

The poorest, littlest page in reverenoe.' 

Beaum. and Fletch., Qti/ten qfCorinthy IV, L 

Idver-pin, ab. The instmment which, by way of jocular 
hypothesis, is said to support, sustain, fasten, or secure 
the human liver. ''Aye a drop more soup; it'll oil 
your liver-pin.' NW. Warw. 

Idver-wing, ^6. The wing through which the liver is 
inserted on a dressed fowl. The ' gizzard- wing ' is that 
through which the gizzard is passed. 

Idve under, phr. To rent or hold a tenancy from ; as 
' We live under the squire.' Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Lo and behold! 'A frequent exclamation in colloquial 
nan-atives, expressive of a certain degree of wonder.' — 
Hal. GI088, *Lo and behold! as I was gooin' down the 
street, who should I see but old Wilkins.' Nliamp. 

Lobbating [lob-ft-tin], part, adj. Loitering, idling, leaning, 
lolling. Glouc, Oxf. Cf. * Loppity,' GUmc. Qloss. 

Lodge, V, a. To lay, beat down. 

Ijod«^, part. adj. Laid, beaten down (as by rain or 
wind). Said of grain or grass. 

' K, Rich, We*]l make foul weather with despised tears ; 
Our sighs, and they, shall lodge the summer corn.' 

K. Rich. II, iii. 3. i6r. 

* Wano, Like to the summer's com by tempest lodg'd.' 

2 Hen, VI y iii. a. 176. 

See also Mach, iv. i. 55. Glouc, Wore, Shrop. 

Logger — Look out 


Logger, (i) sh. A log or block of wood (Jiained or bound 
about tlie fetlock of a hoi-ae to prevent the animal from 
sti'aymg. Leic, Gloiic, N'hamp., SE, Wore. 

(2) Meat wliich is sinewy, skinny, lumpy, ' chunky,' gr 
not worth cooking, frora any cause, is called 'logger' in 
the neighbourhood of Warwick, 

(3) V. a. To secure a horse with a logger. Hal. Diet. 
IioUop [lol'up], V, n. To lounge, lean, loll. Leic, N'hamp., 

Shrop. (l<.lhip, Idlock), SE. Wore, {lollock). The word is 
used substantively, too ; as ' You ai-e sich a lollop.' Leic. 
iioUoping, ;xtri. adj. 
Lone woman, bh. A widow. Shrop, 

' Hi>st. A liuiidred mai'k is a long one for a poor Jouo womnn to beni.'^ — 

IiongftU, adj. Anxious, desirous, longing. ' I was longful 

to see the lad again.' 
Long hundred, ub. Six gcore. 

' Five store to the hundred pf men, money, ond pins ; 
Six Kcore to the hundred of all other thingii.' 

Old nsaonftuee [common] given in Bialtci qf CambrrUtail, 
by Dickinson. 1676, p. 55. 
' Naila, quills, and ofga axe atill sold at six score lo the hundred. 
The statute Hon. Ill, ht Utomrh, and the sUtuto 31 Edw. Ill, st. >i, 
*■». '357t d" otiwo Vendrndo, ordnintd that hundred of herrings 
should be accounted by six score.' — Stat, nf the Rtalm t,quoted in TetsdoU 
Gloss. 1849, iii.). 

Oranges are sold by the long hundred at most markets. 
In SE. Wore, long hundred =113 lbs. 
Iiooftd, sb. Var. pron. of ' load,' 

Looked on. ph: Respected. ' He's a man very much 
looked on.' Leic, Dial, quotes Adu.m Bede, ch. li, for an 
example of the phrase. 
Iiook out', ub. Future prospect. ' It's a poor look out for 
fanners, this turu.' Leic, N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

138 Loose — Luny 

lK>oee, V. a. To discharge firearms, &c. Doubtless adopted 
from an old archery term. Midlands. 

^ Titus, Toa are a good archer, ICaitnu [gvots the amws], . . . 
To it, boy. Marcus, loose when I bid/ — Tit, And, iv. 3. 5a, 58. 

*■ I spyed hym behynde a tree redy to lowse at me with a crosbowe/-^ 
Palagr. (quoted in HaL Did.), 

Iiousy, adj. Sparkling ; as applied to beer. Glouc. Vide 

Loyering [luv-or-in], sb. Courting, wooing, sweethearting. 

Iiowk [louk], (i) «6. A blow. Common. 
(2) V, a. To strike with the hand. 

Lugs, sb, pi, *• Slender rods placed outside of thatch, to 
fasten it down. Perhaps from the verb to lug ; these rods 
drawing, pulling or holding down the thatch.' — Hal. 
Gloss, Shrop. 

Lunge, V, n. To lounge, to lean forward on the elbows. 
Leic, N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

*What*a the odds whether I lunge or kneel?' — Frances, S. Warw, 

Lungeous [lunj-us], adj. Violent, rough, malicious, spite- 
ful, cruel. * I don't play with Dick Carter ; he's such 
a lungeous beggar.' 

^But somewhere I have had a lungeous law, 
I'm sure o' that, and, master, that's neet aw/ 

€k>tton's WorkSf 1737, p. 339^ 

HaL Diet, remarks, ' No doubt connected with the older 
term lungis^ a heavy, awkward, rough, cruel fellow. See 
Cotgr. Longis.* Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Luny, (i) sb. A lunatic, an imbecile. Common. 

(2) adj. Demented. * Tek no notice uv 'im, he's 
a luny,' or * he's luny.' 

Mad — Mammock 189 

Mad, ddj. Enraged, inflamed with anger. ' I was that 
mad I didn't know how to contain myself/ Common. 

'They that are mad against me are sworn against me.' — Ps. cii. 8. 

Made. Vide Make. 

Mag, Meg, {i) ah. A half-penny. England and Scotland. 
Vide Meg. 

(2) V. n. To prate, chatter, gossip. Used substantively 
also. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Maid, sb. A dolly : a washing implement with a cross- 
handle for pounding dirty clothes. It is worked with an 
up-and-down motion. It differs from the Dolly-peg, q. v., 
in that its base is circular and solid, save for two deep 
intersecting fissures from the opposite diameters: thus 
exhibiting four massive staves, instead of slender pegs. 
Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Maiding-tub, 6&. The large, deep tub into which dirty 
clothes are placed to be * maided.' 

Make, v. a. To fasten, bolt, lock, make fast. England. 

''Rosal. Make the doors upon a woman's wit, and it will out at the 
casement/ — As You Like It, iv. i. 168. 

* Balthas. . . . The doors are made against you.' — Comedy of ErroiSf iii. 
I. 93. 

Make a noise, ph\ To scold, to be angry. ' If you don't 
get the windows clean'd, missis will make a noise.' 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Make-weight, sb. That which is thrown upon the scale to 

make up the due weight of bread, meat, &c. Common. 
MaUdn. Vide Mawkin. 
Mammock, v. a. To mangle or break into pieces. 

^Val. He did so set his teeth and tear it; O, I warrant, how he 
mammocked it.' — CoridL. i. 3. 70. 

' Lastly he (the executioner) smote his neck, and missing, burst his 
chin and jaws to mammockb.' — Taylor, Journey to Hamburgh (161 7), 
(quoted in (72<mc. Gloss,). 

140 Mandrake — Mares' tails 

Minsheu (ed. 1617) has ' Mammockes, peeces/ Midlands, 
and elsewhere. Cf. Mimmock and Mommook. 

Mandrake, sb. Bryony, Bryonia dioica. 

' Witches take likewise the roots of mandrake, according to some, or, 
as I rather suppose, the roots of briony, which simple folk take for 
the true mandrake, and make thereof an ugly image, by which they 
represent the person on whom they intend to exercise their witchcraft/ 
— Cole, Art qfSimpling. 

It is perhaps necessary to say that the true mandrake^ 
the 'mandragora' of the ancients, does not grow in 
England, but belongs to southern Europe and the 

Many [rhymes 'Fanny'], indef. pron. Var. pron. of 
*many.' Cf. Any. 

Many a time and oft| phr. Frequently. ' This colloquial 
expression is in common use in the country, but Kean, 
the actor, either from ignorance of its meaning, or from 
a desire to use a novel reading, instead of delivering 
Shylock's speech in the Merchant of Venice, as correctly 
printed in all the editions of Shakespeare, chose to speak 
it thus : " Many a time — and oft on the Rialto," making 
one of his favourite pauses in the middle of the passage, 
and pointing to the scene which presented a view of the 
Rialto bridge/ — Hal. OI088, The phrase is well known 
in the Midlands, East Anglia, and elsewhere. 

Mares' taUsi sb. pi. White, streaky clouds believed to 
portend high wind. 

*A mackerel sky, and mares' tails, 
Make lofty ships carry low sails.' 

In Berks, they say : 

'Maayres taails an' mackerel sky, 
Not long wet, nor not long dry.' 

Lowsley, Berks, Words and Phr. (Eng. Dial. Soc). 

England, slightly varied : e, g. * horse-tails/ in Devons. 

Market-fresh — Maslin-kettle 





Harket-fVeah, Market-merry, adj. ' About as druak aa 
the average farincr of the old school, by the time he 
returned from market." — Leic. Dial. Midlands, 

Uarket-peart rm-pe-S.t]. i.q. Uarket-merry, q. v. 
Peart. Midlands. 

Harley [mar-le], eb. A marlile for hoys' play, 
and SE. Wore, (marls), W. Wore, (marl and vi 
Shrop. (marvelr'}. 

Uarley^atopper, sb. A splay-footed person ; a term sug- 
gested by the habit of turning out the toes in order to 
check the career of a ' marley.' Vide Splawger. 

Harriage-linee. A common term for the marriage certi- 
ficate. Common. 

■And I took out of my bosom, where they lie erer, our marriage- lines, 
and kisaed them again oiid again.' — Resde, Ctoiiitr and Htarih, eb. Iv 
(quol«d in Ddvis'a Sapp. Eng, Oloss.). 

Mamed-all-over, phr. Said of a woman, who, after 
marriage, becomes changed for the worse in appearance. 
' I see young Mrs. Waters to-day.' ' Ah, how was 'er 
lookin'?' 'Married-all-over a'ready (already).' Shrop. 
(married-aU-o'er), and elsewhere. 

Haaeater [ma-sn-turj. A mason. S. Wamr. Provin. 
'Masoner' is more common in other paj^ of the shire, 
and prevails in Leic. Glouc. and Wore, (masouter), Osf. 
(mai^nter). Old Ger. meizan, to hew. 

Hsah, (i) V. a. and n. To draw, to infuse; said of tea. 
TU mash the tea." 'Put the tea to mash, while I cut 
the bread and butter.' Leic, Shrop., and elsewhere. 
(2) eb. A marsh. Oxf. Hal. Diet, says, ' Var. dials.' 

Kaslin-kfittle [maz-lin-ketl], nh. A brass preserving-kettle. 
Leie. Dial, says, ' A large brass kettle, either shallow 
or deop, for boiling milk in." S/irop. Wm-d-bk. says, 

142 Massacree — Mawkin 

' A brass or a tinned-copper preserving pan/ The word 
is common* A.-Sax. mcedling, Tuceatline, wxBaling^ 
mcealen, a kind of brass, or mixed metaL 

' Take a quarte of good wyne, and do it in a elene mastelyn-panne, 
and do therto an ounce of salgemme.'— ATS. Med. Rtc, 15th cent, (in 
Hal. Did.), 

Massacree [mas-&-cre], v. a. Var. pron. of ^ massacre.' 
' I'll massacree them cats.' Leic. 

% 8b. (i) A title given to a husband, by his wife. 
* My master isn't home yet.* The wife is usuaUy styled 
^ missis.' ' I'll ask my missis, when her comes in.' Mids. 
(2) A prefix to a name ; as in Shakespeare's time, e. g. 
'Master Shallow.' This still prevails in the shire, the 
north-west side excepted. 

Maul, V. a. To handle roughly ; to drag or pull about 
rudely. ' Don't maul the girl so.' Midlands. 

Maulers, ab. pi. The hands. Staff., Up.-on-Sev., and else- 

Maunt. May not. 8. Warw. Provin. N'hamp. (must not), 
SE. Wore, (mawnt). Cf. Mont. 

Mawkin [mau-kin], sb. (i) A scarecrow: hence a 'slattern.' 

(2) A coarse female ; a trull, a worthless woman. 

* Bru. The kitchen malkin pins 

Her richest lockram 'bout her reechy neck, 
Clambering the walls to eye him.' — Coriol. ii. i. 227. 

* Dion. None would look on her, 

But cast their gazes on Marina's face ; 
Whilst ours was blurted at, and held a malkin, 
Not worth the time of day.' — Pericles, iv. 3. 32* 

Hal. Diet, remarks that it was formerly a diminutive of 
' Mary,' and that Maid Marian was called ^ Maid Malkin.' 

(3) A baker's mop, used to clean out the oven. 

* Malkyn for an oven, frotgon* — Palsgrave. 

Mawks — Meddle and make 148 

Hawks [mauks], sfc. A dirty, slatternly woman. * Molly- 
mawks ' is a frequent variant. Hal. OI088. Common, 

May of the meadow^ sh. ? Meadow-sweet, Spiraea vZmaria. 
Near Sutton Coldfield, on the StaflTordshire side. 

Me. Myself. Til go an' wash me.* Leic, N'hamp., Shrop., 
and elsewhere. 

Meal [mel], sb. * The quantity of milk produced by a cow 
at one time. Thus, the evening or morning meal signifies 
the milk obtained at those periods of the day.' — Hal. 

'Madge (or Margaret) Goodcow gave a good meal; 
But then she cast it down again with her heel.' 

Heywood, ProverbSj 1562. 

Hazlitt, Eng, Proverbs, says, ' The idea is copied in the 
title of a very severe tract against Cromwell, 4to, 1659.' 

Means [mens], sb. Private income, moneys ; as ^ He lives 
on his means.' ' I haven't the means to buy a horse at 
present.' Common. 

Measle-faoed [mezl-facd], adj. Mottled, or inflamed of 
complexion, but not from disease. 

Measly [mez-le], adj. Mean, miserly, contemptible. 

Med, p. and pp. Var. pron. of * made.' * I med this box 

Meddle and make, v. n. To interfere and become a partisan. 

*Pan. For my part, I'll not meddle nor make no further.'— IVoa. A 
Cress, i. i. 14. 

* Quoth the young cock, I'll neither meddle nor make.' — Old Proverb. 

Ray adds, * when he saw the old cock's neck wrung off 
for taking pai*t with the master, and the old hen's for 
taking part with the dame.' 

144 Meg — Mimmock 

A. (i) A ludf-pennj. Vide 
(2) The p^ or mark at which quoit-players aim. 
Nliamp., Shrop^ and elsewhere. C£. TooaQy-mega, Tocaey- 

^-flying, 8&. The game of pitch-and-toss. 

Mek, t*. a. Make. * Don't mek a row.' Shrop. 

KeoB, (1) A. A small, mean, paltry object; as 'This 
basket is a mess of a thing ; it won't hold a handful.' 
Wore, and elsewhere. 

(2) v. 71. To waste time. 'Don't mess there all 
morning, trying to get that dock to go.' Glouc, 
N'hamp., Shrop. 'To mess and tinker,' to waste time 
and bnngle ; as ' Don't mess and tinker at that lock.' 

Middling, (i) adj. Poorly, indisposed. In the Midlands, 
' pretty ' and ' very ' give opposite meanings to the word. 
*rm pretty middling' = I am fairly well. 'I'm very 
middling ' = I am ilL 

(2) adv. Indifferently, as * We get on middling at 
the farm.* *Very' and 'pretty' have the same power 
as before. 

Mighty [mi-te], adv. or adj. Very, exceeding, vast; as 
'mighty cold,' or 'There's a mighty lot o' cherries on 
that tree.' England. 

Miller's-eye, 8b. A small kernel in bread, where the water 
has not mixed with the flour, when the dough was 
making. 'Don't drown (or put out) the miller's eye* 
is an old folk-phrase, meaning. Do not add too much 
water to flour (when making bread or paste). England. 
Cf. N'hamp. Gloss, and Jamieson, Etym. Diet. Scot. 

Mimmock, (j) v.n. To toy with food. 

(2) sb. A person with a dainty and fastidious appetite. 
SE. Wore, {inimviucking^ adj.). Cf. Mommook. 

Mimping — Mizzle 1 45 

Mimping, adj. Dainty. W. Wore. 

Miiidy V, a. To remember. * Mind the butter for to-morrow, 
when you're at the farm.' Glouo. Used imperatively, it 
means * get out of the way/ 

Minty, adj, Mitey; said of cheese, &c. Glouc., Wore., 
Shrop. Mint for iniite is still in use in the West of 

* Vermes^ Anglice myntys.' — Metric, Vocab, in Wright's Vocabs. i. 176. 

Minate [min-it], 8h. A very small child. * Mrs. Webb's 
baby is a little minute (mite); I shouldn't think it'll 

Mirky [murk-e] , adj. Dark, gloomy. Hal. GI088. ? if dial, 
or obsoles. 

MischiefTal [mis-chur-ful], adj. Mischievous. Glouc. (mi^- 
chieffvl and mishteTful), Oxf., SE. Wore. {Taisktiful), 
Up.-on-Sev. (miehterftU). 

Miskin, sh. A compost pit, mixen. Glouc, Wore. 

'And would yon mellow my pretty young mistress 
In Ruch a miskin ? * — Beaum. and Fletoh. Night Walker^ iii. i. 

•Erroneously printed mw-ken, from not being under- 
stood.* — Nares. 

Misaisging, part, adj. Assuming the authority, without 
having the claims, of a mistress. ^ The mississing hussy^ 
I won't have her mississing over me.' N'hamp. 

Misword', sfi. A word of censure or blame. *He never 
gave me a misword all his life.' Midlands. 

Mish-ur, v. a. and sh. Var. pron. of * measure.' SE. Wore. 

Missle^ V. n. To sneak away. Used imperatively, it means 
* Be off,' depart. Common. 


146 Modge— MoDy-ocyt 

r. a To nnddk:. diauPtler, confiiy ; Mud of inani- 
oljccttu ' To eodee aMd Biodge* = to muddle mod 

eolUcL - Yon'Te codged and iMdged dib sewing F^^^y 

vefl ^ ^1. e. to a cwfwJdfiaMe dqp«e t 

« «^ A aBorkii^ cal£. A dimmotiTe of ' Maigarei.' 

MflOv r. a. To labour, dmdge ; irith a sense of ' to soiL' 

Often used in eombination with * toQ ': as * I had to toil 
and omhI for two homs.' Common. W. Wore (to toil, 
schI). Up.-on-Sev. (ihi/e. moil, to make dirty), Shiop. (to 
dmdge in cSaty work). 

Wofled, pari. SoUed, dirtied, made foal. Wore 

Mio-iflt, adv. and aJj. Tar. pitHi. of ' most.' 

Moithwr nrf Mxtber, r.a. and r. n. To puzzle, perplex, 
bother, eonfose. daze; wony ; to be delirious. 

Moithered and llbithflring; part. Ccmftised, troubled ; 
delirious. Common, slightly varied, throughout England. 
Charles Lamb, in a letter (dated Oct. 1 7, 1 796) to Coleridge, 
writes * moythered braina' 

Mollicrush [mol-le-erush], r.o. To beat, bruise, pound, 
mangle. Til mollicrush him.' Leic., GIouc., Shrop., 
N'h&mp. (viuHycmsh^ to donuneer). Hal. Diet. In 
Warw. it is frequently pronounced * mol-e-crosk' 

Mollycoddle, «&. A man who does a woman's work. 
SK Wore., and elsewhere. In Glouc. ' Bessycoddle.' 
Cf PoUydoddle. 

MoUy-cot, »6. A Mollycoddle, q. v. N'hamp., Glouc. 
(vwlly), Shrop Cf. Rom. and Jul. iv. 4. 6, where the 
nurse calls Capulet a * cot-quean.' 

Holly-ragging — M oocher 1^7 

UoU^-ragging, si. A coaree, abusive scolding. Used parti- 

cipially alBo. N'hamp., and elsewhere. 
Homble, v. a. and n. Tu bungle ; ravel, tangle. GIouc, 
Shrop., SE. Wore, (to puzzle). Used substantively, aleo ; 
as 'I know'd 'e'd mek a momlile on if (i.e. a bungling 
job of it). 
Uommock, nb. and v. a. i. q. Uommook. q. v. W. Wore. 
(confuBion), N'hamp. (a dirty mixture, a mess), Shrop. 
(a litter: and v.a. to tumble, disarrange, throw into 
Hon, sb. A man. A-Sax. M'bamp., Sbrop., and common. 
'Byfore that nuro kyng nns ded, 
He i^puk nse mnn tlint wcs ia eare.' 

On the Dtnlh of King EdiPanHht Fim, 11. i6, 17 
I Percy, fltlta.). 

Mont. Must not. ' Yo' moot open that gate.' Cf. Maunt. 

Kooobe, Mdche, Mouche, v. ii. To loiter or ekulk about ; 
usually for pilfering purposes. Allied to the old forms 
'miche," 'meechc.' Glouc, (ntwAe or tnooche, to play 
truant), SE. and W. Wore, (mouvh, to go prying about), 
Sbrop. (moacli, to lounge or ' hang about ' idly), Up.-on- 
Sev. (moMc/t, to pilfer eatables, to prowl in eeareh of 
sport). It has another meaning in Warw., i.e. to rum- 
mage, Cf. Moooher. 

'To Uiche, oriWL'retly tohidehintaclfout of the w»]-, us truaiita di>» 
ftom Bohoole.'— Florio. 

■ Sure ihe baa 
Some ipeocliing rascal Id \wr hou4e.' 

Boauiu. and Fletcli. Scornful Lady. 

I Moocher, Maebert Uoncher, si. Askulker; abedgerobber. 
' HMhor, n lyleU tliefp, lanmrmu.' — PaUgraTC. 

'ThefesaiidiDychersltoya,'~rou''w^v3fv9t p. 9l6(qii')tfi(J in Hal, Wet). 
'Micber' occura in Chaucer's Rmn. Rose, 6.>4i (Urrj^'s); 
and is gloBsod, ' a lazy, loytering vagabond, a truant,' Is 
1. I 

l48 Mooching — Moreisli 

it a mere coincidence, or did Shakespeare intend a play on 
words when he makes Falstaff say : 

* Shall the blessed son of hemTen firoTe a micher, and eat black- 
berries ? ' — I Hen. IV, ii. 4. 454. 

For mooclies or vwochers = bhickberries in Glouc, Here- 
fords., and ihe West, and the Glouc. Cfloss. preserves 
the foUowing mde distich : 

'Moocher, mooeher, blaekbeny banter. 
Tied by the rope and swim by the water/ 

Xoochering. Blackberrying, in Glonc. 

Mooching, Moching, Mouohing, part. culj. Loitering, lark- 
ing ; usually with felonious intent. Cf. ' Miching mallecho * 
= sneaking or skulking mischief, in Hanu iii. 2. 148. 

* Mychyn or pryvately stelyn smale thyngea, merripio* — Prompt. Parv. 

Mooning, part. adj. Musing, contemplating, staring, dream- 
ing, gazing idly about. N'hamp., and common. 

Mopuses [mo-puas-iz], Moneys; coins. N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. Latham says, *£ac2 pieces of money,' and 
suggests that the word comes from the name of Sir Giles 
Mompesson, the notorious monopolist in James the First's 

Moral, sb. Lnage, likeness, model, as ' The very moral of 
his father.' 

'Fools be they that inveigh 'gainst Mahomet, 
Who *8 but a morral of Love's monarch ie.' 

H. Const, Decad., iv. Sonn. 4 (in Nares). 

This glossarist says, ^ Moral was sometimes confounded 
with model, and is used for it ; and, I believe, still is by 
the ignorant.' England. 

Moreishy adj. 'There's a moreish smack about this,' i. e. 
it tastes so well that one would like more of it. Hal. 
Diet, spells it moorish, and so do some Midland and 
North Country glossarists. 

Uorris [in 

Morris - Mothering-Sunday 

)r-i8s], (i/i/X'c. Be ofl'! depart. SE. 



Uort, «b. A quantity; a great number. Lcic, N'hamp., 
Sbrop. {a groat deal, an abundance; ami in Warw., too), 
Glouc. (a lai^e amount). 

"Then thejr Iiad n mort of priaunors, vritli boys Hnd girla, some two, 
wme threu, nud others Bvo a piece,'— Hiiuh's tiiuds EngliKk, 1694. (in 

Kortal, adv. or otlj. Very; exoeediug. "TbiB ia mortal 
poor beer." 

> TinKh. Wt> that are true levers run into stninge capers ; biit m all 
ia mortal in naturu, ati ia all iiatura iii tuve mortal in folly.'-— Ji i'oit 
Like tl, ii. 4. 53. 

In tbe neigblKiurbood of Wai-wiok tbe word is bftr- 
baroualy pronounced 'mor-abl,' or 'miir-abe-l.' 
1^^^ Hosael [mos-il], sb. Var. pron. cif " morsel.' Glouc. (vios^), 
^^L SE. Wore. {moseU). 

^^^^H ' And after the niosBel, tlmone Satiuma entridc iiitu him.' — Wyvl. New 
^^^r Teat., John liii. 

' HoBt in general, culv. Genei-ally. ' I go on Monrlay, most 

in general-' Leic, Glouc. {mod hi ijtneraUy). SE. Wore, 

I Hot) sh. A moat. 
■ Hut 'mongst the pliiijijfi-s we liure got 
In good old Bruinnisgeni, 
They've mndo a murkut of tbe Mott, 
Tu suit the pigs in Brummagem.' 
<M Su><g, ' I can't find Brumniagi'iiL" 
Vote, sh. The clothes tnotb, Tinea tapetsella. 
'And make t» }ou rachela that waxen not oolde, treaoure that failitli 
not in lieuenea, whidir a Iheernoiiitb not, neither inoujtdestmyutli.''- 
Wypl. 138S, Luko lii. 33 (quoted in dArnp. Word-bk.). 
Tbe Pruni.jil. Paru, has Mmt^te, and Palagi-ave nwught. 
In Glouc. some times mat. 

IUothering-SuDctay. 'Mid-Lent Sunday, on wbich day it 
was usual, before Ibc Reformation, to make otterings 
at the high altar in tlie mother church. Afterwards it 
clianged into a custom of visiting the natural parent on 

150 Motty — Mought 

that day, carrying frumenty, and other rural delicacies. 
In Warwickshire the practice is very general ; and in 
several towns a great quantity of prepared wheat is 
brought to market, and provided at cooks' shops against 
the day, furmety or frumenty being always a part of 
the fare upon the occasion ; and the custom of children 
assembling at the houses of their parents is much in 
use.' — Hal. Gloss. 

* On Mothering-Sunday, above all other, 
Every child should dine with its mother.* 

IThomp, Folk-rhymey Baker, Gffott. 

^ In many parts of England,' says Dyer, Pop. Gust, p. 1 1 6, 
' it was formerly customary for servants, apprentices, and 
others, to carry presents to their parents on this day. 
This practice was called Ooing-a-Mothei^ng* 

Motty, sb, (i) A mark to pitch at. Hal. Gloss, says, * When 
boys play at pitch and hustle, usually a small white 
stone or fragment of white earthenware.' Anciently the 
peg at which quoits were thrown. Midlands, and else- 
where. Sometimes Mot 

(2) A token, of metal or other suitable material. In 
Lane, when a coal-heaver has filled a corve, he places his 
motty on the load, and the truck having reached the pit 
bottom, the number of the motty is taken, and the coal 
with which the corve is loaded is placed to the miner^s 

Mought vd Mote. Might : ancient form used by Chaucer, 
Oower, and others. 

' And ever my flock was* my chlefe care, 
Winter or sommer they mought well fare.' 

Spenser, Shtp. Cal. Fthy, (quoted in N*han^, Qloas.), 

' A shepherd*8 brat even as I was, 
You mote have let me be/ 

The Knight and the ShephereCa Dattghtety 11. 3i, 8a 

(Pfercy, Rdiq,), 

Moulding-plough— Muckbird 


Moulding plough [molJ-ing-plou], tih. A modern agricul- 
tural hand- implement. It ha& a Email circular plough of 
steel at tbe ond of a long handle, and is used to throw up 
earth around potatoes, &c. 

Uould, I', a. and n. To hoo up the earth to the roots 
of potatoes, &c. MiiUands. 

Koater, s&. A kiss on the mouth. ' Come his little ways, 
and give papa a mouter.' 

UoBQ, V. n. To bum slowly and dull, without any flame. 
N'hamp. (and vioziny, buining dull), Glouc. (vivtie or 
moose, to smoulder). Hal. Diet. 

Hosey, a(0. Natureless, sapless, woolly ; the state before 
withering. Glouc. (moseij), Shrop., W. Wore, (motte, to 
rot, and moueij}, Osf. (wuwksy), SE. Woi-c. (viavsey). 
Leic. Dial, says, ' Muggy, 6S applied to weather, warm and 
damp ; also, as applied to meat, Fruit, &c-, tainted, musty, 
beginning to decay.' (Of tainted meat, 8&py, q.v., le said 
in Warw.) Of, Shakespeare, where Biondello eays of 
Petruehio's horse : 

n the chine.'— rnnii Iff 

Huoh of a muchness, phr. Very much the t«amc. ' These 
two lots of plums are much of a muchneSH.' Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 
Huck [ratlk], sb. Perspb-ation, . ' All of a muck.' 
Kackbird, 'To sing like a muckbird' is to emit a con- 
tJBuous mournful sound in a minor key, I do not know 
what the muckbird really is, unless it bo the cuckoo, 
which is said to 'pick up the dirt' in the old proverb, and 
whose monotonous call liaa u.sually a fall of a minor third. 
But ' muckbird," I am led to understand, is a name fur 
a jakc^man, a man whose profession is not Ciilcutattd 

152 Mucker— MuU 

to inspire lively melody. Perhaps he is the 'fowl* in 

Mucker, 86. A failure, muddle, ' mess.' ' I know'd I should 
mek a mucker o' this job.' It is used in the literal sense 
in Shrop.=a state of dirt and confusion. 

Muckeren, adj. Mberly, covetous; scraping. N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. 

Chaucer has ' muckre,' vb. to scrape together. 

' Pense that he can mackre and ketche.* 

TroU. dt Ores, iii. 1381. 

Cf. also : 

'That gold, and that money, shinoth and yeveth better renowne to 
them that dispenden it, than to thilke folke that muckeren it' — 
Boethiu3f ii. par. 5. 

' Avarice maketh muckerers to ben hated.' — Ibid. 

Muckinder, sb. ' A handkerchief. In the present sense of 
the word it implies a dirty one,' — Hal. Gloss. Glouc. 

' Be of good comfort ; take my muckinder, and dry thy eyes.' 

Ben Jonson, Tale qfa Tub. 

Mudgin [muj-in], sb. The fat on a pig's chitterlings. 
Glouc, Wore. Vkle Frill. 

MufOing [muflin], adj. Useless, unable to work. * I get 
as muffling as a child.' — 8. Warw. Provin. Leic. 
(riioffling and muffling). 

Mug, 8&. ( I ) A fool, simpleton. Common. Hal. Diet, has 
' mug,' a face, a pot (of earthenware or metal from which 
to drink), both of which are common. 

(2) A fog, or slight rain. Hal. Gloss. Shrop. (a mist, 
a fog). 

Mull, sb. A failure, a blunder, a muddle. * I*ve med 
a nice mull o' this job.' N'hamp. Hal. Diet. 

Mullen — Humps 


\ JSallm [mul-in], nb, ' The headgear of a horse.' — S. fl'uru'. 
Provin. Olouc. and Wore, (the bridle of a cart-hoi-ao), 

Oif. (mullin), 'S' {imAtcii or vtvIUn, a bridle for 
husbandry- hoi-aes). Nearly obsolete. 
Uollook, ( I ) y. «. To cast things into disorder ; or, to dirty 

(a) ab. Dirt, refuse, rubbish, filth ; dirty disorder, as 
' All of a mullock.' England, 

'Tlic mullocko on 

And cm the fton 

Chaucer, Ckntim 

an hopv yxwopid wai>, 
yeast WHS n caliv»s,' 

HuUockiag, pitrC. ' Uow the things He mullocking about.' 
. UuUoc)[y, utij. Dirty, filthy; as 'What a mullocky state; 

the place is in.' 
Mumchaace, phr. The silence of a whole company : but 

tiometime& applied to that of an individual. 

'Why stand ye like a muiiKihsiice? Wliot, are ye tongue-ty'dS' — 
FlantKt made £V)^JaA, 1694, in N«roa (,UaIliwoll and WrigLt, 187a). 

' You sit like Mumchancer, who was hanged for saying 
nothing,' is a Warw. folk-phrase ; in Chesh. ' He stands 
like Muinphazard,' &c. According to Nares, mumchance 
wan a sort of game played with cards or dice. ' Silence 
seems to have been essential to it ; whence its name.' 
'And fur mumcliniioo, howe'pr the cliance do fstl, 
You must bo miini, for fear of maJTiiig all.' 

Mm^liiaTull's Dr/g;/. 1617, sigii. B (oitol in Obi riant, xii. 433). 

Uiunolianoiiig, part. adj. Moping in silonco. ' Don't sit 
mumchancing there by yourself.' 
Mummook, v. a. To pull about, to worry. ' The child do 
mummock me about so.'— iS. WuiV.'. Prov'ni. 

I Mumps, «6. The sulka; a sulky mood. N'hamp. Ilal. 

154 Mun — Miisszy 

Miin, (i) eh. The mouth. Hal. Gloss, N'hamp. More 
commonly ' muns/ Midlands, and elsewhere. 

'Ono a penny, two a penny, hot-cross-buns: 
Sugar 'em, and butter *em, and stick 'em in your muns.' 
IThamp. FoUc-rkyme for Good Friday (in iTkamp. G/oss.)* 

(z) Must. ' I mun be married a Sunday ' is the fourth 
song in Roister Doister. 

'And aye! but I winne that ladyes love. 
For dole now I mun dye.' 

Sir CauZtwe, U. 19, 90 (Percy, BAiq,). 

See Oliphant, Sources of Stand. Engl, p. J 04, for its use 
in the Omivlum (circa laoo). 

Munch, V. a. To maltreat. Used substantively also ; as, 
' She's a cruel munch to her children.' SE. Wore., and 
elsewhere. Cf. Mush. 

Munge, V. n* To eat greedily and by stealth. * I monche, 
I eate meate gredyly in a comer, i. e. loppine.' — Palsgr. 
Shrop., Glouc. (to munch). 

Mungelling [mun-jel-in], (i) adj. Dark, obscure, tortuous ; 
as 'A mungelling cellar wheer yo' can't feel and can't 
find.' Near Middleton. 

(2) part. adj. Murmuring. Shrop. and Up.-on-Sev. 
{mv/nger^ v. n. to mutter, to grumble in an undertone). 

{i) part. adj. Bungling. In this sense it is pronounced 
* mung-lin.' Near Warwick. 

Mnrfeys, sb. pi. Potatoes. SE. Wore, and elsewhere. 

Mush, V. a. *To break the spirit by harsh treatment: 
usually applied to children.' — Hal. Gloss. N'hamp. 

Music, sh. Any musical instrument Glouc, N'hamp. 

Must, sh. The dregs, or dry refuse of apples, after cider- 
making. Glouc, Shrop., Up.-on-Sev. (must or mad). 

Muzzy, adj. Stupefied with liquor. Common. 

Nab — Naughty-man's-plaything l5i 

a. To catch suddculy, or by surprise. Common. 

To strike with a missile. Cf. 


ETab, I 

TSaba, ab. Vide Knabo. 

ITacIc vd Enack, v. u. 

I7ag. nh. A riding-borse. as distingoiahed from a cart- 
horse. Commoa 

Hail-passar, sb. A gimlet. Leic, Glonc., Shrop , SE. Wore., 
Oxf. {iuiil-p<tdei-). Holme, Actui. Arvi., calls the instru- 
ment a ' nail-piercer.' 

Baitber [ha-thur], indef. pron. Neither. A.-Sax. na/ei; 

ITaked aa a robin, pkr. Quite naked : usually said of an 
undressed child. Shrop,, and elsewhere. 

ITaUa [naulz], 6^. pi. Lq. AUa, q.v. SE. Wore., Oxt 

Ifame, jihr. ' Vou'd try to mek any one believe they didn't 
know their own name '=; You attempt to peqilex or 
confound me. Lek. Dial, has, ' Oi'il mek ye af> yo 
wunna know yer oon neeam,' i. e. I'll knock the musch 
out of you. 

XranunoB, vmper. Be off, begone, depart. 

ITapper, 6&. The head. ' Nap ' or ' napp ' ia an ancient 
form. A * head ' on beer is called a nap in niany 

ZT&at, 86. Dirt, filth. Wore., and elsewhere. 

Nasty, adj. Hl-tempered, croes-grunod. Common. 

Mattering, part. adj. Scolding; continual fanlt-finding. 
Leic, Shrop. {knatter, v. n. to find fault incessantly). 

Hangbty-man'B-plaything, nh. Cow -parsnip, hedgc-parelcy, 
gout-weed, or otiier similar umbelHforouH plants. A 
country boy told mc that these plants oxv so called ' if 

156 Nayword — Nesh 

you pick 'em an' throws *em away again,' which at once 
suggested the old rhyme : 

'Give a thing and take a thing, 
The naughty-man's-plaything.' 

But I believe the name is given really to indicate the 
noxious qualities of these plants. 
Nayword, sb, A byword. Common. 

'Maria, If I do not gull him into a nayword, and make him a 
common recreation, do not think I have wit enough to lie straight in 
my bed.* — Twelfth Nighty ii. 3. 146. 

Near, adj. Mean, stingy. Common. Sometimes 'near- 

Neckhole, nb. The nape of the neck. Leic, Shrop., and 
elsewhere. ' To get round a man's neckhole ' is a Warw. 
folk-phrase meaning to wheedle or coax one for a favour. 

Neddy, a&. A simpleton, in figurative language. The 
term actually means ' donkey ' ; Ned or Neddy being the 
vocative and common name for the ass. Common. 

Ne'er-iin or Ne'em [ner-un and nem]. Not one, neither, 
Never-a-one, q. v. N'hamp. {nam or Tiarun [pron. nem, 
nerun]), SE. Wore. (Tierrun), Glouc. (nam, Tiern, neern), 
W. Wore, (nurra one). In Glouc, a lad suffering from 
the sting of a nettle rubs the place with a dock-leaf, 
and utters the following charm : 

'Dock, Dock, shall have a good smock, 
Nettle shan't ha* ne*er-un.' 

Neighbour, v. n. To visit neighbours for purposes of 
gossip. ' I don't care to neighbour : your own house is 
never free if you do.^ 

Neighboiuing, jxirt. adj. Gossiping, amongst neigh- 
bours. Midlands. 

Nesh, adj. Tender, delicate, susceptible to cold or rough 


*Wummon is of nosche flcsche.' 

Owl mid Nightingale, 1. 1387 ^quutcd in Shrop. Word-bk,\ 

Nesses — Nicklaa 



"Neschyn, or make nescli, mMiJu-o" oecura in Euij, 
and Lat. Lexic. (1440), Hart. MS. aai,' says X^hanifi. 

ITeiMho. NMhe, NeBahe. Soft, delicate. Pi-cf. E/>. cb. iii, 
p, 63 ; Job xxiti. 16 ; Jer. II 46 ; 1 Cor. vi. 10 (in WycL). 
Nessee [nea-iz], k/i. /V. Nests. SUdl&nds. 
ZTerer-B, No'er-a. Not a, or one. ' Never a word.' — Matt, 
xxvii. 14. 'Never a woman.' — Jndgea liv. 3. 'Never 
a aon.' — 2 Chron, xsi. 1 7, See BihU Wonl-bk. for these, 
and a i|Uotation from North's Plutnrch, 

•Never a word spake Iho heire of Linnt', 
Nevtir a word he sptke but three.' 

Thr Urir of Linnr. pt. ii, 11, aft 3f> {Percy. StJi^wt). 

See ali^o pt. i, U. 62, 63. England. Cf. Ever. 

KeTei>a-ODe. None, neither. 

"Sevj, d). A nephew. ' ■■ Neve " is in the A ng.-Lat. Lerir. 
of IJ40 {Hart. MS. 23i),' says N'huvip. Gloei8. CominoQ. 

Kew-DOttiing, pkr. ' A silver new-nothing to hang on your 
arm ' is the reply to a child that aeks some such tjuestioti 
as, ' What shall you bring me from the f&irV N'bamp. 

Kextway, adv. ' Directly. Shakespeare usee this expression 
in a cognate, but different sense.' — Hal. Glons. N'hamp,, 
Leic. (nej:timii/s). 

ZTick-Bt-need, pfiT. At a puich. ' I'm nothing to him at 
ordinary times, bnt he's glad enough of rae niek-at-need.' 

nioker, v. n. To laugh rudely j to jeer, snigger. Wore. 

ITicklas, ea:cl. 'This very common exclamation in this 
couuty amongst boys at play is evidently of great 
antiquity, and had its origin in times before the Re- 
formation, when St. Nicholas was considered the tutelar 
saint or patron of children, and is now used without the 
remote idea of its primitive nioaniug. When a boy is 

158 Niddle— Nineted 

hard pressed in any game depending on aetivity, and 
perceives his antagonist gaining ground upon him, he 
cries out " Nicklas/' upon which he is entitled to a sus- 
pension of the play for the moment; and on any occasion 
of not being ready, wanting, for instance, to fasten his 
shoe, or remedy any accidental inconvenience, the cry of 
" Nicklas '' entitles him to protection or safeguard. This 
was often expressed in the words "I cry Nicklas."' — 
Hal. GI088. Cf. Barley. 

Niddle, ab. Var. pron. of * needle.' Up.-on-Sev., and else- 

Niggling, (i) ddj. Small, trifling, paltry, contemptible ; as 
*A niggling laugh,' or 'pen, handwriting,' &c. Glouc, 
N*hamp. Hal. Diet 

(2) jxiH. adj. Whining, fretting, grumbling. * Them 
children's al'ys nigglin' and cryin*." 

Nighty-nighty vd Night-night, phr. Good-night : spoken 
to children. Oxf. 

* Nighty-nighty, 
God Almighty.* — Wano. FoOc^hymCf 

meaning * Good-night, I commend you to God.' 

Nine-Men's-Morris. This game (for the original play, see 
Nares' Gloea,) is now played on a board instead of the 
turf. Mr. Wise says : 

* Ploughmen use white and black beans to distinguish their men ; 
the great object being to got three of them in a row, or, as it is called, 
to have a ** clickclack and an open row." In order to do this you are 
allowed to take up your adversary's pieces as at draughts, or else to 
hem them up until they cannot move. There is also a game called 
" three-men's-morris " which is much simpler.' — Shakspere, His Birth- 
place and its Neigkbourhoody 1861. 

Ninetedy adj. Loose, mischievous, wicked: thought, by 
some glossarists, to be a corruption of ' anointed by the 

Hineter— Ho go 138 

dcviL* inakods. & WnnsL Prmu. h» 'VBumMedJ 
wicked, misdiieToos : and Leit. DiaL " mmaatbbU 

Nineter, A. A preeocKNu, aitAiI joo^ster. Gakwe. 

Nip, V. n. and flu To more qniddy, go huniedly ; ako to 
catch up hastfly, as ^ Nip op your fdaythinga. and eome 
indoors.' Midlandiu Shiop. (nippii^ 9. «. to go quickly, 

to huny). 

Nipper, sb. A youngster: often said ci a preeodoos (me. 


Nirker, a6. Any one or anything difficult to mast^, over- 
come, or outmatch. Leic. Dial, says, 'The word, I 
imagine, should be written, not a nirkery but " an irker,** 
i. e. something that will irk or trouble any opponent to 
beat.' N'hamp., Shrop. (nurier = something of superla* 
tive worth or excellence). 

Niste [nist], adj, Var. pron. of * nice.' Leic 

Nither [rhymes * wither '], v. n. To grimace. Qlouc. and 
Up.-on-Sev. (to grimace; to shiver. In Warw. dither 
for the last sense). 

Nitty, adj. Bright, sparkling (said of ale). 8hwp. Word- 
bk. gives this derivation: *Nitid {nitidvs), clean, • . . fair, 
bright.— Blount's Olossograpkia^ p. 435.' If we accept 
this etym. (?), the teifm Lousy, q. v., is explicable ; for 
a nit is a young louse, and a mere play upon words is 

Nobby, 86. Vocative and pet name for a colt. Up.-on«Hov, 
Nogman, ab. A numskull, dolt. Olouc. 

No go', phr. Impracticable; unserviceable, of no MtkW. 
' I went thiuking to borrow the horse, Init it mtm m j(o/ 
N'hamp. HaL Durt. 

160 No great shakes — Nose-holes 

No great shakes, phr. Not good for much ; out of condition. 
' This beer's no great shakes.' ' I'm no great shakes this 
morning.' N'hamp., Shrop. 

Nohow, No-hows, adv.^ adj. In no manner ; by no means ; 
unsettled, discomposed. ' How did you do at market wi' 
th' pigs V 'Oh, nohow.' * I couldn't get theer in an hour 
nohows.' ' I wtLnt ask yo' in now, Tom ; the place is 

No-ways, adv. Nowise. Midlands. 

Non-plush, 86. Var. pron. of ' non-plus.' ' He told me sich 
a tale, I was at a non-plush.' 

Nope, 86. The bullfinch. Shrop. Word-bk. says, ' Nope 
=ope=aupe, and avpe=alpe,' the word used for bull- 
finch in the following : 

* . . . nightingales, 
And alpes, and finches, and wode-wales.* 

Rom. of the Bom, 1. 658. 

*To philomell the next the linet we prefer; 

And by that warbling bird the woodlarke place we then, 

The red-sparrow [sic ? reed-sparrow], the nope, the redbreast and 

the wren.' — Drayton, Pdy, Song xiii. 


* Nope, RubidOa^ — Ainsworth, Thesaurus. 

Cf Hope : and vide * Alpe ' in Hal. Diqt. 
Nor [nur], conj. Than. England. 

'It apjiears that there are more sorts nor one.* — King James I, 

Norating [no-ra^-tin], part, adj. Chattering, narrating 
gossip in a verbose fashion. Common. 

Noration [n5-ra^-shun], sK A prolix narrative; a long 
or discursive tale. Possibly a * narration ' is meant ; or 
even ' an oration.' Common. 

Nose holes, sh. pi. The nostrils. Midlands. 


Nothing*s-nest — Obedience 161 

KSothiog's-nost, sh. A nonentity. ' He's found a notbing's 
Rout, sh. Nought, nothing. Common. 

■ feitli without fet ys feMero than noulit, 
Ami de't ns a doru nayle, '—P.Vn Ptou. ^quoted in S'haap. OJok.). 

nBTow and again, fAr. Now and then ; occasionally. Oxf. 

Itow jnat, adv. A moment ago. ' Wlieer'a Jack t ' ' He 

can't be fur off; ho was here now just." Shrop. Cf. 

Just now. 

ow! Now! e.»W. Be silent ; restrain yourself. N'hamp. 
Kow then ! An exclamation of admonition, reproof, &c. 
Nowt [nout], bJ. Var. pron. of ' newt,' Triton crietatus. 
I7ubblings [nub-lina], sh. pi. Small coals. Midlands. 

Another Warw. form is TiwAWefl. 

Wuz. i.q. Knua. q. v. 

Oak-bali-day. May 29. Shrop., Nhamp. {Oak-opple-thti/). 
May 29 was the birthday of Charles II, and also the day 
of his public entry into London, i6rto, after his arrival at 
Dover on the 25th from Holland- It was in the Septem- 
ber of 1651, after the battle of Worcester, that he concealed 
himself in the oak at Boscobel, Shiopshire. In Warw. 
it is the custom to wear an oak-ball in the hat or button- 
bole on May 39, and to decorate horses with the same, 
as an tmblem of the Heetoi-ation. 
■baths, Expletives, &c. Blow my buttons! Damn my 
sinks [? senses]! Docker me! Dog bite me! Fiahl 
Hang my carcase ! I'll be soysedl My Gal O, Sddlel 

Obedience, a'*. Obeisance, bow, curtay, 'Make your 
obedience to tliL- lady.' Glouc. 

1 62 0-brav68 — OflFal- work 

O-braves [6-bravz], ah pi. Acts of impudence or effrontery. 
* Don't let's 'ave any o' yer obraves, my lad, or you'll get 
a tannin' when yer father comes.' Glouc. 

Oceans, sb. pi. An abundance, a multitude ; as ' Oceans of 
sugai-/ ' Oceans of folks.' N'hamp., and common. 

Ookey-indey-berries [ok'-e - in'-de - ber'-iz]. A corruption 
of CoccvluB IndicvbS^ or grains of paradise ; used to adul- 
terate beer, or to stupefy or destroy pigeons, &c. 

O'd [6d], adj. Old. Staff, {ovd). 

Oddling, paH, adj. Trifling ; acting in a paltry, uncertain, 
dallying, useless or ' tinkering ' way. ' I don't like his 
oddling way of doing business.' * The gaffer wunt 'ave 
a chap oddling about the place.' 

Oddments, ah. pi. Sundries, odds and ends. Staff., Shrop., 
Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. 

Odds, {i) v.a. To alter, to make different. * Her's master 
an' missis as well, just now ; but I'll odds it after a bit.' 

(2) sh. Difference, importance. ' There's odds in 
children.' ' It's no odds to me what you do.* 

(3) bh. or adj. ' You're the odds o' me ; I like to get 
my work done in good time.' Midlands. 

Of [uv], prep. Off; as ' I sid 'im jist uv 'ere ' = 1 saw him 
just (off' or about) here, or at this place. 

Off [orf ], prep. From. ' I bought these fowl off a badger.' 
In the Midlands, it is frequently followed by a super- 
fluous 'of or 'on'; as *I took it orf uv 'im' or *orf 
on 'im.' 

Offldwork [ofl-wurk], ab. Dirty, menial work ; coarse 

* I'll ne'er want to do aught but th* offiil-work as she wonna like 
t' do.' — Adam Bede, ch. xxxv (^quoted in Leic, Dial). 

Okurd — On and In 163 

Okard, adj. Var. pron. of * awtward/ Oxf., Glouc, Wore, 
Shrop. (au'krt^ aukrwVt, ou'kit). 'Awkward,' in the 
Midlands, does not always raeaa ' inolegant,' &o. It may 
mean 'uncertain,' 'unfavourable,' as applied to crops, 
e.g. 'Taters have been rather okurd this turn;' or be 
applied to persons ' not easily managed or pleased/ e. g* 
' Them Snells be okurd folks to deal with.' See Awkward. 

Old, (i) adj. ' Famous, great, abundant.' — Hal. Oloss. Mid- 
lands. This colloquial intensive was much used by 
Shakespeare and other writers. 

< PwrUr. If a man were porter of hell-gate he should have old turning 
the key.' — Macbeth^ ii. 3. i. 

* Pwiia. . . . We shall have old swearing.* — Merck. Ven. iv. a. 15. 

* Ursula. Yonder's old coil at home.' — Much AdOj v. a. loa. 

' Sunday at masse there was old ringing of bells.'^-Tarlton's NeWH nut 
qfPurgcUory (quoted in N^hamp. QI088.). 

(2) adv. Craftily, distrustfully ; as ' He looked very 
old at me.' 

Old-foot-one. A game at pitchback : the term being cor- 
rupted, I think, from Whole-fbot-one, q. v« 

Old woman's poke, phr. After cards are HhufHc^il, it in n4ti 
unusual for the shuffler to push the central canlw length' 
wise out of the even pack, and place thern at th<$ Uf\h 
Sometimes called ' The lucky poke.' 

'Oman [tim-&n], ftb. Var. pron« of * woman/ UUWhtuU, 

* Evans. But can y<m affeetion the 'oman V'^Mftrry Wir^^^ S, h itm* 

' My old 'oman' = my wife : ' My oU i/iaii ' m my UHn\miu\^ 
amongst homely folk 

On and In, (1} prejm. • VntA in tli^ f^tm ot * tit** j M, ** \U 
cut a bit out on it," or ^//ut in ii/' At a HUi$rHhUtf( iff 
two women at StnUfr>rd-</n-Air/^, Ui^ His^nywMt tHyi, 
" O Lord, save Mm wtmrnn^ thy mfr^M$iy wiM$ lJ^t4< #(|^*f fc 

N 2 

164 One — Othergaits 

turned round, and said, " There be two on *em." — From 
a person present.' Hal. Gloss. Midlands. 

^Banqw). Or have we eaten on the insane root?* — Mach, i. 3. 84. 

See also v. i. 69: *He cannot come out on's grave.' 
Comp. Julius Caesar, i. 2. 7 1, and Mid. NVs. Dr. ii. i. 266. 
Vide In. 

(2) phr. * To go on ' = to scold, ' To take on ' = to 
grieve, lament. ' To get' on '= to set on ; as * If he wants 
a fight he can get' on.' 

One [rhymes 'gone'], adj. and sh. Var. pron. of *one.' 

Ood [tid], sb. Var. pron. of * wood.' Glouc, Wore, and 

Ood [tid], V. aux, Var. pron. of * would.' Vide Wiild. 

Open-arse [6-pn-ars], sb. The fruit of the medlar, Mespilus 
Gemiamca. Glouc. 

* Openhers, medler.* — MS. Stoane, 5, f, 6. 

Palsgrave has * opynars.' Vide Hal. DicU 

Opple, sb. Var. pron. of ' apple.' SE. Wore., Shrop., and 

Ofls, sb. Var. pron. of * horse.' England. 

'Otmillo [ot-mil-6], sb. A boys' game. A kneels with his 
face in £'s lap, the other players standing in the back- 
ground. They step forward one by one, at a signal from 
B, "who says of each in turn, * 'Otmillo, 'Otmillo, where 
is this poor man to go ? ' A then assigns each one to 
a place. When all are dispatched, A removes his face 
from £'s lap, and, standing up, exclaims^ 'Hot I Hotl 
Hot ! ' The others then rush to him, and the laggard is 
blindfolded instead of A. 

Othergaits. * Otherwise, different.' — Hal. Gloss. 

Oudacious — Over-get 


Oudacious [ou-da'-shua], (ulj, and (ulv, Var. proii. of 
'audacious'; as 'Don't tell sich oudacious lies,' or 'Ho 
caiTied on oudacious.' It ib used, too, aa an intensive, 
e.g. 'I'm oudacious tired to-day.' Common. 

Oup, Tour, pass. pron. Prefixed to tho christian name of 
a person to denote bta or lier connexion with a family ; 
as 'Our Jack,' 'Your Mary." 'Now then, our Jack, 
leave me alone.' As the Lelc. Dial, points out, this style 
— followed by the Burnaiiae, instead of the christian 
name — has been adopted in eommerce, e. g, ' Our Mi'. So- 
and-So will call on you in a few dayH,' 

Oarc, jmae. pron. Ours. Outti, oututi, ourena, ourns are 
all WyoL forms. Leic, N'hamp., Glouc, SE. Wore. 

Out-asked, Asked-out', vel Oat-aat, jxirt. Having had the 
banne of marriage puhliahed for the thinl time. Up.-on- 
Scv., Leic, Glouc, N'hamp, (and oiit-uxt), Oxf. {irut-unt 
and out-exed). 

Outcome [out-cum], ah. A coming-of-age ; tho entertain- 
ment on such an occasion ; as ' I've bin to Joe's outcumo 
to-day.' When an apprentice attains his majority he Is 
said to he ' out of his time.' 

Out of the cold, phr. Moderately warm. ' Don't make 

that milk very hot : I only want it just out of the cold.' 

Outride, eb. Tho district of a commercial traveller — himself 

called an ' outride ' or ' outiiJur,' in old times. The tenna 

are almost forgotten. 
OutB, bI). pi. LeavingR, ' oris.' ' I have my meals when 

they do, Idon'thavcto oat their outs." — A'. Warw. I'ruvin. 

\ Over-get', u. a. To get over; recover from. 'Joe's 'avin' 

1 66 Owner — Paddle 

a bad turn 'uth (with) *is lungs ; I don't think *e'll overget 
it/ Midlands. 

'Old Watling in his way, the flood doth ouerget.' 

Drayton, Poly. S45 (quoted in Stqff. Qio$9,), 

Owner [5-nur], bh. A proprietor of barges. Glouc, Shrop., 

* Ow(n)ere of a schyp, or schyplord, navarehusJ 

Prompt Pare, (quoted in Shrop. Word-hk.). 

'Owsomdever, 'Owsomever [ou-sum-dev'ur or evur], adv. 
and covj. Var. pron. of ' howsoever.' Leic. [aksorndivver). 

Fao-waZy Fax-wax, ab. The tendon of the neck of beasts, 
ligamentum nucltae. Leic., N'hamp., and elsewhere. 
Sometimes called * Paxie- waxie ' in Warw. Vide Taxy- 


* Paxwax, sunetce* — Way, Prompt. Part. (Paxwex, P.). 

In the curious treatise on vegetable remedies, Arund. 
MS, 42, f. 44, v^, it is said of * BdMivSy Delle — it resol- 
uyth blod J^at is congeyld, i. cold slawyn, and doddyd, 
and clumperyd, and helpej> for brussures of )>e paxwax 
and of \q brawn, and for congelacyon of j^e senewys.' — 
Way. For many variants, see Wheatley's Diet. Redu" 
plicated Words (Phil. Soc. Trans.). 

Padded, part. adj. * Dried at the top.' *The ground is 
getting padded now.'— S. Wamv. Pwvin. Cf. Leic. Dial. 

Paddle, (i) ab. A small spade ; a spud. Oxf., Qlouc. (used 
to clean the plough), Shrop. 

* The Plow Staff and Paddle by which the man cleaneth the Plow 
from clogged earth or Mould.'— ^corf. Armory^ bk. iii, ch. viii, p. 333 
(quoted in Shrop. Word-bk.), 

The Shrop. glossainst states that the term is used at 

Padgel — Parsley-bed 167 

Wellington for a email crescent-shaped spade used by 

(2) V. a. To cut oH" with a apiid; as 'to paddle 

Padgel [paj-il], v. n. To tiifle, dally. 

PadgelUng, tulj. Tiifling, petty ; aa ' A padgelling 
■way of paying a debt.' Leic. Dud. saya, ' Padgel, v. a. to 
patch, of which it is the frequentative form." In Warw. 
a somewhat cognate sense of the word (but in this cauc 
pronounced 'paggle') is in ueo, as 'To paggle a hole in 
a stocking,' i. e. to cobhle it. 

Fale, V. a. To pummel, to ' pitch into.' It is usually 
followed by 'into' or 'on to,' as 'I'll pale into him,' 
Sometimes ' it ' is inserted, as ' Go and palu it on to him.' 
Glouo. Hal. Diet, has ' Pale, to beat barley.' Chesh. 

Fanahioi s6. A very small pan, commonly used to waiw 
babies' food in. Shrop. 

FanoolLe-belli ah. The church bell which in rung alxiut 
noon on Shrove Tuesday, as the signal for preparing 
pancakes, Tlje bell ia supposed to say 'The pan's 
a-buming, the pan's a-buming.' The custom of ringing 
this bell is falling into disuse in Warw. 

Faaoake-day. Shrove Tuesday. Common. lu Warw., 
school-children, demanding a holiday, say: 
' Paiicake-dHy, Pnucake-day. 
If you diiii't give us h liolidny. ne'll all niu away,' 

Fantle, v. ii. To pant. Glouc. 

Farish'I&ntem, sb. The moon. N'hainp,, Wore. Ual. 

Farsley>bed, ffi. Baby-land; the place where children are 
created. A euphemi&m foi' the uterus. ' Where do babies 
rumc from, mamma 1 ' ' Oat of the paisley -lied, my dear.' 

168 Partial— Pearl-rot 

Partial [par-shI], adj. pec. * Fm very partial to mutton.' 

Fa8h9(i)86. A sadden flow or gosh. Near Warwick. Shrop. 
{posh). HaL Dkt * pash ' =a heavy fiJl of rain or snow, 
and Shrop. Word-hk. 'posh'=a heavy iail of rain, as a 
thunderstorm. In some parts of Warw. ' posh ' is used 
as an adverb, as ' The water came out, or down, posh.' 

Faahing, part. adj. Gushing, as *The water was 
pashing out of the broken spout.' 

(2) v. a. To strike. Common. Vide Potoh, 

*Ajax. If I go to him, with mj Aimed fist 
I'll him o'er the face.'— rrotZ. ami Cnas. iL 3. ai6. 

Palsgr. uses the word to mean to bruise, to beat into 
small pieces: a usage found in Piers Plowman a Vision 
(Toone), too : 

'Death came diyYing after, and all to dust pushed 
Kings and Kaysers, knightes, and popes.' 

(Quoto<l in y^hamp. Ghss.) 

Pass the time of day, phr. To exchange a few words of 
greeting, to be on speaking terms with ; as * I pass'd the 
time of day with hei*, and went on.' *I don't know 
much of him, we just pass the time of day.' Common. 

Passel, ab. Var. pron. of * parcel.' Parcel, collection, lot, 
number. 'A passel o' rubbish' (material or abstract). 
* A passel o' folks.' 

Paste [past], v. a. To strike another on the face. Cf. Baste. 

P&ze, bb. pi. Var. pron. of *peas.' Wore., Shrop., and 

Pea-risers [pa-rizurs, pe-rTzurs], 8b.j)l. Pea-rods, or sticks. 

Shrop. Word'bk. says, * A pese ryss occurs in the Treatise 

of Walter de Biblesworth, 13th cent, in Wright's Vocaba. i. 

p. 154.' In Warw. * pea-rTzles ' is sometimes heard. 

Pearl-rot [purl-rot], sb. A pearl- worker. Pearl-dust has 
a deleterious effect on workers among^^t it. 

Peart— Peek 169 

Peart [pe-&t], adj. (i) Lively, nimble, brisk. Common. 

'There was a tricksie girle, I wot, albeit clad in grey, 
As peart as bird, as straite as boult, as freuhe as flowers in May/ 

Warner, Albion* a England, 159a. 

• Peart, godinet, mignard, mignardilet,* * A pretty peart la«s, godinette.' 

* To make peart, accointer.' — Cotgrave. 

(2) * Perky,' impudent. 'Don't you be so peart, my 
Pearten, v. a. and n. To revive, enliven, cheer. * Fearten 
up, old chap.' 

Peartish, adj. Somewhat brisk, or well. * I'm peartish 

Peartly, adv. Lightly, brightly, briskly. 

'Then, as a nimble squirrill from the wood, 
Ranging the hedges for his filberd food, 
Sits peartly on a bough his browne nuts cracking.* 

Browne, Britannia* s Pasiorals, p. 135. 

Peek, (i) sb. A pick. A pointed hammer for breaking 
coals. Midlands, and elsewhere (as West of England). 

(2) V. n. To fall headfirst, forward. ' I saw him peck 
on to his nose, ^' off" the curbstone.' Midlands. 

Peckled, adj. Speckled ; as ' A peckled toad.' 

'Jacob the patriarke, by the force of imagination made pecklod 
lambs, laying peckled roddes before his sheep.'— Burton, Anat. Mel, 94 
(in Naros). 

Pedigree, 86. pec. A long story, history. * I heerd the wul 
(whole) pedigree o* that affair at Webster's, to-day.' 
Oxf., and elsewhere. 

Peek, V. n. To peep, to pry. 

* In euery comer he wyll peke.* — Skelton, Magnificence, 667. 

Dyce, noting this passage, writes — * I peke or prie : ' 
Palsgr. fol. cccxvii. (Table of Verbs). 

'That one eye winks, as though it were but blynd, 
That other pries and peeks in every place.' 

Gascoigno, Tfm SUelc Glass (Ric)iurdbon), 
(quoted in N*hamp. Gloss). 

170 Peel — Peggy 

Feel, A. The long-handled flat shovel with which bread, 
&c., is thrust into a hot oven, or taken out. Glouc. {pale 
and peel). Common. Florio, Palsgr., and other early 
glossarists have the word. 

' Also put into an oven with a peele.* — Florio, p. 937. 

'Pele for an oyjh, pelle a four.' — Palsgr. (in HaL I>kL\ 

'A notable hot haker 'twas, when he plyed the peele.' 

Ben Jonson, Barfk, Fair. 

* He beareth Sable, a Baker, with a Peel in his both hands Bendways, 
with a Loaf of Bread upon it. Or . . .' — Holme, Aoad. Arm, bk. iii, 
ch. iii, p. 85. 

Feelings, 8&. jyl. Parings; as of potatoes, apples, &c. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. Cf. Filling. Used in the 
singular form, too. 

Feff, sb. Punishment * I'll gie yd' peflF.* 

Feffled, paH. culj. Begrimed. Near Warwick. 

Feffling, (1) paH. adj. Pouring. Near Warwick. * PefBing 
rain.' ' The rain came peffling down.' 

(2) adj. Overpowering. *This is peffling weather,' 
i.e. oppressively hot. GUmc. Gloss, has 'peffle,' to fall 
(as snow). Cf. IShrop, Word-bk. * peflfel,' to beat, &c. The 
sense of ' overbearing ' is somewhat associated with the 
word throughout. 

Feggens [peg-ins], sb. pi. Children's teeth. N'hamp. 
Vide Toosey-megs, Too8ey-i>egB. Cf. Meg. Sometimes 
*peggies' in Warw. 

Peggy* Peggy Whitethpoat, 86. The stone-chat (Rugby). 
a. Warw. Provin. As the Leic. Dial, points out, * Peggy ^ 
is applied indiscriminately to the garden-warbler, black- 
cap, both the white-throats, the sedge- warbler, and others 
of the same family. The Shrop. Word-bk. applies the 
name to the willow-warbler, chiff-chaff, wood-warbler. 

Peggy — Pen-feathers 


•Pivtly Poggy Wliite-throiit, 
Come, ato|i. and givu us a Dule,' 

IB ftn invocation frequently addressed to Bonn; bird of 
tbia family by country cbildreu. 

Foggy. A DoUy-peg, q.v. Not veiy common in Warw. 

I Pelf, si. Rubbigb, refuse ; particularly applied to vegetable 
rubbish. Hal, Glo»ti. Loic, Glouc. (weeds). 
pell, V. a. To strip ; usually spoken of the hair. ' Don't 
pell your hair back, like that.' 
■Pylled BB one thut Wiintetli Iiearf, pB'/i..'— Palogr. I,hi Hal. Did.). 
In S/irop. Wont-bk, it is atatud to mean 'to make hare, 
as of abeep or cattle eating down a pasture.' The 
original meaning, however, is shown by another word 
in the same work, i, e. 'pell-necked,' tulj. having tho 
. neck bare of wool : said of sheep. Cf Pill. 
Pelting, jKvii. mlj. Bustling, huj-rj'ing. 'I saw him go 
pelting along.' ' Peltering ' is another fonn. N'/iam/). 
GloBS. says, 'The "pelting, petty officer," in Men». for 
Meas. (ii. 2), and "pelting ware" in TroU. ami CrsfS. 
(iv. 5) express the hustling, self-importance of the one, 
and the beat and hurry of the other,' But I do not 
think the context agrees with this. The word is usually 
glossed ' paltry,' and the same sense seems to bo meant 
in ^fid, iVCa. Dreii'in, ii. i. qi, 'Have every pelting river 
made so proud,' Glouc. (i^t, a fuss). Of. Belt. 

ten-feathers, a'', jd. Pin-feathers ; the young, newly de- 
veloped quill ft:&tberB, as tlmy appear at moulting time. 

'PenncH, qitllU.' — Mntindovilie, p. 369 , In llal. Ditl.). 
' Hec pluwa, & fedyre ; Hec />enna, a penne : Htx- Ham, 
tho pyf of the penne,' occur eeriutlm under tho head of 
Partes An into/ htm in a Xitminafe, 15th cent,, in Wright's 

172 Penny — Pewit 

Early Eng, Vocabs. i. 221 (quoted in Skrop. Word-bk). 
Sometimes * penny-' or ' pinny-feathers ' in Warw. 

Fenny, adj. Abounding in rudimentary quills: said of 
fowls, ducks, &C. Shrop., W. Wore., and elsewhere. 

Pep, Fept, p. and pp. of * peep/ Leic. 

'Bound the house and round the house, 
I pcpt thro' the winder, 
And saw four and twenty little devils 

Dancing round a cinder.' — FoUc-riddle, Answer: 'Sparks.* 

Ferial [pe-re-ftl], adj. pec. Splendid, magnificent, superior 
in style, quality, &c, : a corruption of * imperiaL' ' That 
'ere picture be perial, to be sure.' — S. Warw. Provin. 

Perished, part. adj. Pinched with cold. Wore, Staff., 
and elsewhere. Cf. Starve. 

Persecute, v. a. To prosecute. S. Warw. Provin. 

Peter Grievous, sb. A grumbler: a grievance-monger. 
Oxf. (Peter Grievancey a cross, fretful child). The word 
is used as an adjective also, as ^He's a regular peter- 
grievous fellow.' Glouc, Wore. 

Peth vel Pith, v. a. To insert a cane or other slender rod 
into the hole made by the poleaxe in the skull of a 
slaughtered beast; the object of this fearful operation 
being to destroy the vital force in the brain. 

Peth, sb. Var. pron. of * pith.' Leic, SE. Wore. In Glouc. 
the soft of bread is called * peth.' In Warw, 'crumb.' 

Petrifled kidneys, sb. pi. Kidney -shaped stones formerly 
used to pave the footpaths, and even now to be met with 
in remote villages and small towns. 

Pewey [pu-e], sb. The pea-linnet. 

Pewit, Peewit, sb. The lapwing, or bastard plover, 
Vanelliis cridatus ; Tringa Vanellus, Linn. : so called 
from its cry. Common. 

Pibble - Piece of work 173 

Fibble, ab. Var. pron. of * pebble/ Glouc, SE. Wore. 

"Diy face washed as clean as the smooth white pibble.' — Adam 
BedCf ch. xx (quoted in Leic. Di<nf,). 

Picked [pik-id], adj. (i) Peaked, pointed, sharpened; as 
* This penciFs got a pick^ point.' ' Mind I or else you'll 
get the picked end of that stick in your eye.' Glouc, 

(2) Pinched, sickly looking. ' What a pick^ face 
that child's got.' Glouc. (pecked or picked^ SE. Wore. 
(peckid), Up.-on-Sev. (pecked). 

Ficksnifi; (1) ^. An insignificant, paltry, contemptible 

(2) adj. Paltry, despicable. 

Pick up', V, n. To mend in health. Leic, N'hamp. Hal. 

Picod [pik-od], sb. A pea-finch. S, Warw. Provin. 

Piddle, V. n. To micturate, to stale. Used substantively^ 
too. SE. Wore. Hal. Diet says, * Var. dials.' 

Piece, sb. (i) A field, enclosure, or parcel of ground. 
Glouc, Leic, Wore, Shrop. 

(2) A somewhat contemptuous word for a woman. 
Sometimes * piece of goods,' or * piece of flesh.' * 'Er's 
a nice piece ' (ironical). Midlands. 

* Satuminus. Go, give that changing piece 

To him that flourished for her with his sword.' 

TU, Andron. i. i. 309. 

(3) A child's snack, or light repast between meals : 
literally 'a piece of bread-and-butter,' or the like. 
' Mamma, give me a piece.' Midlands. 

Piece of work, phr. A fuss, disturbance. *Ther'll be 
a nice (ironical) piece of work about this broken window.* 

174 Pie-finch — Pigs'-puddings 

Pie-finch, sh. The chaffinch. Common. 

Piffling, paH. adj. Trifling ; as ' A piffling fellow,' or * He's 
only piffling about.' N'hamp., Leic. 

Pig-meat, sb. Meat, which is not bacon, from a bacon-pig. 
GIouc, Wore. 

Pigeon-breasted, adj. Having a prominent and ill-de- 
veloped chest: the breast-bone forming a sadden arch. 

Pigeon's milk, a6. A nonentity. Greenhorns are often sent 
to a shop for a ' pennyworth of pigeon's milk.' Common. 
In workshops, the green-hand is sent to some one in 
authority for the * following-up tool,' I am told. Vide 

Pigeon-i>air, 8&. jil. Offspring consisting of a son and 
daughter only. Common. Compare Hamlet^ v. i. 308 : 

*QiMen. As patient as the female dove, 
When that her golden couplets are disclosed.' 

' The pigeon lays only two eggs at a time, and the newly- 
hatched birds ai-e covered with yellow down.' — Clark and 
Wright (Clarendon Press Series). 

Piggin, 8b. * A small pail-like vessel of wood with an erect 
handle.'— Hal. GlobS. Ray gives this as a North Countiy 
word ; and it is common elsewhere. Shrop. WordrJ)k. 
gives another meaning, i. e. *a wooden bowl, formerly 
used for eating porridge or other *• supping " out of.' The 
term seems to have been applied to a drinking vessel 
of bowl-like form. 

*0f drinking cups, divers sorts we have: some of elm .. . broad- 
mouthed dishes, noggins, whiskins, piggins.* — Haywood, Drunkcard 
Openedy &c. (1635), p. 45 (.quoted in N^hamp. Gloss.). 

Pigs'- puddings, sb. jjI, Blood, groats, and fat, highly 
spiced, boiled, and put into skins ; black-puddings. The 

ig-ste - Pill 175 

white-puddings are made with milk. 'Pig-pudding' is 
another Midland form. 

Fig-8te, sb. Var. pron. of * pig-sty.' 

Pigsty-doors, sb. pi. Trousers buttoned breeches^ fashion ; 
having the flap instead of fly-fronts. Near Warwick. 
Vide Holy-fftllB. 

Pike, 66. A toll-bar, turnpike gate. Common. The last 
is just abolished as I write (1895). 

* The turnpike gates, which will enjoy the honour of thus being last 
in the field, belong to that portion of the Shrewsbury and Holyhead 
road which traverses the island of Anglesea, the trust for which was 
continued by a special Act of Parliament until Nov. i, 1895.' — Daily 

Fikel [pi-kl], ab, A pitchfork. Leic. (pikle), N'hamp., 
SE. Wore., and elsewhere. 

*For the Pitchfork (or Pikel, which we vulgarly call it) it is an 
Instrument much used in Husbandry for their Loading and Stacking 
of Hay and Com.' — Acad, Armory^ bk. iii, ch. viii, p. 331 (^quoted in 
S/wop. Word^bk,). 

Pill, (i) sb. Peel, skin, bark ; as * Orange-pill,' * Tater-pill.* 

' Add in the decoction the pill of a sweet lemon.' — Bacon, Cent. i. 46 
(quoted in N^hamp, Gloss,), 

(2) V. a. To peel ; to deprive of the outer skin, rind, 
or bark. 

* Pyllyn, or pylle bark, or other lyke, decortica.* — Prompt Parv, 

* Mandate, to pare, to pill, to shell, &c.' — Florio, 

' Pder, to bauld or pull the haire off; also to pill, pare, barke, unrinde, 
unskin.' — C^tgrave. 

Vide Pell : and the phrase * Pil-garlic ' in Brewer's 
Diet, Phrase and Fable. 

. *Pylled as one that wanteth heare, peOu. Pylled as one's heed is, 
ptiU.* — Palsgrave. 

Glostei* (1 Hen, VI, i. 3. 30) calls the Bishop of Winchester 
* Peel'd ' or * Pilled priest,* in allusion to his shaven crown. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

176 POling — Pmner 

PQliiig. «^>. Var. proa, of * Fsefinsiy' q. t. Faiings. ' Gro 
and give the tASer-pilliiig to the pigs.' Leic, and eke- 
where. Somedmes ' tater-pilliiigs.' 

Pimping- o^j- Little, petty. Often redundant, as ' What 
a pimping little basket this is.' Nliamp., Glooc. Shrop. 
(<&. a small delicate creatnrel 

Pinch, r. ^f . To pilfer, steal. Leic. Gloae., and common* 

PincherB. d>. pi. Pincers. N'hamp., and common. Vide 

Tiney [pT-ne]. «fc. The peony. GIoucl, Oxf., and elsewhere. 

* Using such canning as they did dispose 
The mddT piny with the lighter rose.' 

Browne, Brikumia's Pastorals, ii. 82 
^qnoted in HaL Diet,). 

Pingle, r. n. ' To eat with very little appetite.' — Hal. Glees, 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

' He filleth his mooth well, and is no pingler at his meate.'^TopaeU, 
Beasts, 1607, p. 530. 

Pink, (i) 8&. The chaffinch. Midlands, and elsewhere. 
Vide Spink. 

(2) V, n. To pitch at a mark, for precedence in any game : 
the player whose missile falls nearest is allowed first or 
best place in the ensuing sport : hence, in slang, the word 
means ' to put upon,' or make one a mark for sport or 
abuse; e.g. 'Don't pink on to me, I won't stand it.' 
N'luimp. Gloss, has * Pinking, a boys' mode of deciding 
who is to commence a game.' 

Pinner, Pinny, sb. A pinafore. Oxf {pinner)^ N'hamp. 
(both), Shrop. and SE. Wore, {pinner), 

* Now then, Totty, hold out your pinny.' — Adam Bede, ch. xx (quoted 

in lA:ic. DiifL), 

* Instead of homespun coifs were seen 
(>o<><l pinners odged with colbortoen,' 

Swift, Baucis and Phileman, 1708. 

Pinsons ~ Hther 



' Colherteen.' according to the LiuUes' Dictionary oi 1694, 
was a lace resembling network, being of the inanufactura 
of Mone. Colbert, a French etateaman : consequently 
Beck, Dvaiier'a Dirt., thinks that Swift here inteniJed 
a Bort of hoad-dreBB, as Randle Holine deacrihea the 
garment as * a lady's hoad-dress, with long flaps hanging 
down the sides of the cheek.' Ainaworth, The^aunis, has 
'A pinnor (hcadcloth for women), capilul muliebre.' 
finBona, sh. pi. Pincers. Shrop., Wore, (/linnens). 

' Pynsomi, lencBn.' — frmapl. Pntr. 

iip or Feep, bIk ' One of a number of hloBsoma whose 
flowers grovr in cliistere upon a stem. Hence, cowslip- 
pcepa,' — Hal. Diet, Common, 
ip, i;, n. To crack, as eggshells do in hatching, before the 
advent of the chick. Glouc.Oxf. (pip/vd=s\ie]\ cracked 
by chick), 
[tchback, 8'>. A boys' game. Vole Cap-it; Inohy-plnoliy 1 
Frentloe-my-BOti- John ; Throe- strawo ; Wholo-foot-one. 
fitohing, eb. The pavement. Hal. Gloes. Olouc. Aina- 
worth, Thesaurus, has ' To pitch or pave, pavio [pavire]' 

»' In Jul; anil August wiks tlie highwny from near the end of St. Clu- 
meiit'a Churcb to the v/ay lending tu MHTston, pitched with pebbles.' — 
Lifi tf A. Wood. July to, 1669 ^quoted in DKvies' Supiii, Eng. Gloss.). 

FitohpoU [pitch-pol], V. n. To turn head over heels ; hence 
' to turn money over,' i. e. to make a profit, generally 
cent, per cent. Glouc, Wore. 

Pit grate, »f>. A grating over the ashpit in the kitchen 
hearth, Shrop. 

Pither [pith-ur], v. a. ' To scratch, pat, fondle." — 8. Wano. 
' Piiiv. Hal. Dkt. has ' Pither, to dig lightly, to throw up 
[ earth very gently.' Kent. 

178 Pitbering — Flash 

Kthnriitg, pAft, Oflj. Trifling, dawdling. Shrop^ GIooc 

Fit-hale, A, The gimve^ llirlUiMfa mud elaewbere. It is 
a w<»d much os^ to aind by cfaildreii ; e. g. * Babj*8 
dead, and gone in the piihole.' 

Finie, aft. The 'yaid' of a bolL Onee a eonmum ex- 
prcflsion. Falstaff calls Prince Heniy 'boll's piszle' in 
I Hen, IV, iL 4. 275. Ainswoith, 1%teauru8, has 'A 
hollas pizzle, nemu taurinus,* 

Flacket. Placket>hole. th. The slit in a gown or jpetticoat 
which enables the wearer to pat the garment on OTer her 
head. Midlands, and elsewhere. Common. 

Nares states that the word once meant the garment 
itself, and gives quotations in support of his statement ; 

* If the nukides a spinning goe. 
Bam the fljiz. and fire the tow. 
Scorch their pUckets.* — Herrick. 

But the following readings show that the word in early 
times properly signified a slit : 

' Edgar, Let not the creaking of shoes nor the mstllng of silks betray 
thy poor heart to woman : keep thy foot out of brothels, thy hand out 
of plackets.*^ JTifijr Lear, iiL 4. 95. 

* That a codpiece were Car fitter here than a pinn'd placket.' 

Beaom. and Fletcher, Love*8 Chtre, 

Plash, (i) sb. 'A rod cut half through and bent down. 
Whence, to plash a hedge, to cut and lay it' — ^HaL Cfloss, 
heiCjOloxic. (pleacher^), SE. Wore. {plaicher8)fVp.'0n'Sey, 
(jDlaysher, pleacher, plasher, stem in a hedge), Shrop. 
(jieachers [pron. plachers]). Staff, (plaichvd, plaicher). 

(2) v. a. To lay or remake a hedge by splitting the 
Ktrong stems and bending and intertwining them with 
the other growth, &c. Vide Iiay. 

^ PleysfTf to plash^ to bow, fold, or plait young branches one with 
an otl HT. ' — Cotgra vo. 

Play— Poke 179 

Bur, ... * Hor hedges oven-ploach*d, 
Like prisoners wildly overgrown with hair, 
Put forth disordered twigs.*— flm. K, v. a. 4a. 

See also Mvx:h Ado, iii. i, 7. Staff, {planch or plash), 
(pleach [pron. plach]), Glouc. {pleach). 

Play, V. n. To refrain from work unwillingly. Glouc, 
Shrop. Used substantively, as * I've had three wiks' play,' 
i. e. enforced idleness. Staff. 

Fleok, ab. A small enclosure of grazing ground ; but some- 
times used for any plot of ground. Shrop. {plack, a plot 
of ground), Glouc. and Wore, {plack or pleck, a plot of 
ground). Leic, Dial, says, * Plack, pleck, seldom less than 
about five yards square, and seldom more than half an 

Plim, (i) adj. Plumb, perpendicular. Shrop. 

(2) V. n. To swell, to plump. * The bacon plims well 
in the boiling.* Glouc, SE. Wore, N'hamp., Up.-on- 
Sev., W. Wore, {plv/mp), and elsewhere, as Wilts., Somers., 
Heref., Devons. 

Pluck, sh. The liver, lights, and heart of a sheep. Shrop., 
Leic. {pluck'pasty and lights-pie = a pasty containing 
the pluck), N'hamp., and elsewhere. Conmion. 

Podge, V. a. To punch ; to give a blow with the fist. 

* Come down the railway 

And see a jolly fight. 
Two dead men 

Podging left and right : 
Two blind men 

To see fair play; 
Two deaf and dumb men 

To shout hooray r — Wnrw. FoUc-rhjpne. 

Poke, Pouk, sb. A sty on the eyelid. 

* HecporigOf a poke.' — Nominaley 15th cent., Wright's Vocabs. i. 344. 

W. Wore. {pouk)y Up.-on-Sev. (poke and pouk), Shrop. 

N 2 

180 Poke— Fdss 

(pTAii), and ekewiiere. It seems to have been used in 
the past for a small pnatole of anv kind, a g. 

*Scab is a drj aoce^ praeccdiii^ from a Pook or wateruh biisier/ 

Aead, Armarf^ bk. ii. eh. xrii, pL 49B \in Sknf. Wmd-ik.), 

* Powk, pmahda^ papula.'— Aissworth, TkenMnoL 

PcdLO, 9b. A peak ; as 'The poke of a cap.' SE. Wore 

Poikehole, adj. Mean, wreiehed, limited in siae ; as * A 
pokehole sort of plaoe.' Gloac C£ Toksj. 

Pokey, adj. Miserably small; as 'A pokey kitchen.' 
Nliamp. HaL Diet. Common. 

Pole, 86. A pooL A.-Sax. pdl. 

Pollydoddle, sfr. A XoUyooddle, q. v. 

Polt, (1) 8&. A blow. Gloac, N'hamp., Wore, and else- 

(2) V. a. To beat. Midlands, and elsewhere. In 
Glonc. and Wore it is more conmionly used to mean 
' to beat down,' as fruit from trees. 

Pooch [piich], v. a. To thrust oat the lips in a sulky 
fashion, to pout (pouch). Gloue, Shrop. ' Don't pooch 
your mouth at me like that.' 

Poor, adj. Thin, without body; usually spoken of malt 
liquors. Common. 

Poor-man's-goose, 86. A cow*s ' melt ' (? lung), stuffed and 

Porket, 86. A young pig fed up for killing. Glouc, Staff., 
Shrop., Up.-on-Sev., SE. Wore. Sometimes * porker.* 

* A porket, porceHuSy ne/rendia* — Ainsworth, Tkeaaurtts. 

Poses [po-siz], 86. pL Posts. N*hamp., Shrop., SE. Wore. 
{jywvsU pi. pvmasee), 

P088, V. a. To diive clothes up and down in the water, in 
the act of washing. England. 

Potato-bodger — Prentice-my-aon- John 181 

liir, nnd possodo hir up und downu, and 
for thi slowdie snil thi glotonyu.' 

MS. Lincoln A, i. 17, f. 253 (in HaL Wrt.l. 

Potato-bodger, ef). A cross-handled implement of wood, 
pointed and shod with iron, for making holes in the 
earth into which the seed potatoes are set; a dibber, 
or dibble. Cf. Bodge. 

Potato-sets, eb. jX. Vide aet». 

Pot-ball. eb. A small dough-dumpling, usually eaten with 
treacle. Midlands. 

■ Pot-bftU or Dumpling.' — Acad, Armon/, bk. iii, chap, tii, p. 79. 

Fotob, (1) V. a. and n. To push, poko, thrust. 
'Anf. True strord to Hword— fU potch at him aome way.' 

rorW. i. 10. .5. 
a eyoa.'— SilVBBler, Du Bartia, 

(2) To heap ; as ' Potch these oddments in the comer.' 
Potcbed, p(lrt. Heaped, confused, muddled. ' These things 

are all potched together.' 
Pour [pou-ur]. v. a. To pour. Common. 
Power, eb. A great deal, a great quantity, a great number. 
' He's got a power o' money.' ' Tliere waa a power 
o' folks there.' Midlands. Cf. Sight, 

'M. Ootps. diByir. Tlit'O cnmo into Iiigloiiil kynge JwaysofSkotland, 
with a pounrof moo.' — US. CaUan, F'upiu A, nv {in Hal. Did.). 

Frate-apaoe [prat-fl-pas], sb. A chatterbox. 'What a 

prate-apace that wench is, to be sure.' 
Prentice-my- son- John. A game at pitchback. The players 

tis OD a trade, — say that of a butcher. V^ach player has 

I a chosen joint or portion of a beast for formula, which he 
litters as ho pitclies the back. But Ijeforo one placer 
makes the back, he arranges in secret with the leader 
that to name a certain Joint or portion shall put the 

182 Print— Puddling 

speaker in his place, L e. ' down.' e. g. one player pitches, 
crying ^ steak ' perhaps ; another says * kidney,' and so on, 
until one nnfortonate, who has chosen * liver,' say, for his 
formula, finds himself forced to make the back, ' liver'' 
having been the portion prohibited. 

Print, phr. * In print '= in clean, neat, and exact order. 
Common. 'As clean as print' (fabric) is a Midland 

Proudflesh, 8&. A fleshy growth out of wounds and 
ulcerated surfaces. Common. 

* Proud flesh, caro putria vel emoriua^ — Ainsworth, Theaatams, 

Proud Tailor, sb. The goldfinch. 'Daines Barrington, 
Archaeologia^ iii. 33, observes that this odd name is 
given in Warw. to the bird usually called a goldfinch ; 
and Archdeacon Nares likewise mentions the fact as 
derived from local testimony, suggesting a new reading 
in a passage of Shakespeare.' — HaL Gloss. Midlands. 

' '* Lady Percy, I will not sing. 

Hotspur, Tis the next way to turn tailor, or (be) redbreast teacher." * 

I Hen. IVf iii. i. 961. 
'That is, — ^To turn teacher of goldfinches or redbreasts. The editions 
have ^* or be redbreast teacher," which leaves it difficult to extract any 
sense from the passage.' — Nares. 

Pucker, sb. Bustle, perplexity, confusion ; as, ' I'm in 
such a pucker.' 

Puckered, part. Perplexed, confused, flustered. 
. Common. 

Pudding-bag [ptid-n-bag], sfc. A blind alley; cvZ-de-sac, 

Puddling, 2>^rt. axlj. * A person who lives in a house below 
his means is said to live in " a poor puddling place." One 
who does more business than he has accommodation for, 
" does business in a puddling way." A person who does 
not pay attention to external comfort or appearance at 
table " lives in a puddling way" ; and any one who is 

Pudgy— Pun 


, Gtos 

slow in action "goes puddling atout,"' — N'liw 

Olouc, (pv(ldle=U) work leiaurdy or sluwlj), SE. Wore. 

{ptoudcUin about). 
' Pudgy [pQj-e and puj-e], adj. Vax. pron. of ' podgy.' 

Short and stout; as 'A pudgy fellow." Lcic, N'hamp. 
Puff, vh. Life (synecdoche) ; as ' I never aeod sich a thing 

in all my puff.' 
Puff-ommb, sb. A small portion of protruding hre&d picked 

tfrom a newly -baked loaf. SE, Vt'oTc.{pit£ing-crumb),aad 
ig, (i ) V. H. To pluck (as of a fowl) ; to drag, pull (as of 
rough hair). Glouc. (=to pull, drag down : to pick out 
the quills of fowls after plucking : to pull out the loose 
ends of a rick to make it oven), Shrop. (to pull, as of 
entangled hair), SE. Wore., Up.-on-Sov., W. Wore (to 
pull, to pluck fowls), Tho Up.-on-Sev- glossarist has 
'pug'=a quill left in a plucked fowl; ^'^. Wtnr. Gloss. 
gives ' puggy ' = a fowl having short stumpy feathers 
[ remaining, after all tho principal feathers havo been 

plucked out ; and the Gtouc. G^ows, notes ' puggy ' as an 
a^lj., said of a gooeo whose feathers are imperfectly 
developed. ' Pug- feathers," in Warw. = Peo-feathera,' q. v. 
(a) V, a. To offend. Leic. 'To take pug' = to take 
offenoet in Warw. Cf. Bug. 
fPtUlbook, bit, A hindrance, disadvantago, drawback. ' It 
was a great pullback to us, the master being laid up all 
laat winttir,' MiJlaud.4. 
kfilUy'baulyr ailj. Romping, tearing. 'None o' yer pully- 
hauly sport for me." N'hamp. Hal. Diet. 
I, (i) V. a. Var. pron. of ' pound.' Common. 
'Jlurflle». Ht! Houlil pun tlioe intn sliivera with his flst, aa a Miilur 

tironkB & liiBCuiL* — Tmil. it crcaa. 11. i 
■To stanipi' "r puuiii- In h iiKirUir.' 

-Fliiin rill Hill. Did. ). 

184 Puncli — Father 

(2) a6. A pound [or pounds] sterling: singular and 
plural alike. Common. Shrap. Word-bk. has *pund' 
(A.-Sax. pund); and gives a quotation from Havelok the 
Dane, 1. 1633 : 

*A gold ring drow he forth anon, 
An hundred pond was worth the ston.' 

' I gin five-pun-ten for that pony.' 

Punch, V. a. and «;&. To give a blow with the fist. The 
blow so given. ^ He gin me a punch in the eye.' 

' I punche. . • . Why punchest thou me with thy fyste in this facyon ? ' 
— Palsgrave. 

Punish, V. a. To hurt, to pain« ^ These new boots do 
punish my feet/ Olouc. and Shrop. (' punishment ' = pain). 

Pup [pttp], V. n. Pedere. 

Purgy [pur-ge], adj. Surly, cross-grained. ' He's a purgy 
old chap.' Glouc, Wore. In Shrop. Word-bk. * purgy *= 
conceited ; consequential. 

Purgy-hole, sb. The grated ash-pit in front of a kitchen 
fireplace. Shrop., SE. Wore, and Up.-on-Sev. (purgaiary), 
W. Wore, (purgate). 

Pussy-cats (ptls-e-catz), ab.j^- The staminiferous flowers 
of the willow. Glouc. and Up.-on-Sev. {catkina)^ and 

Ptit about, (i) v.a. To vex; harass; annoy. 'The way 
you carry on does put your father about.' 

(2) part. adj. Distressed, worried, annoyed. *I've 
bin very put about this arternoon.' England. 

Puther [puth-ur], {}) sb. A volume of smoke, or of dust 
in motion ; a state of bodily heat ; perspiration. ' He'd 
bin walkin' fast an' far, an' come in all of a puther.' 

Futhering — Quick-sticks 185 

'And suddainly untyes the poke, 
Which out of it sent such a smoke 
As ready was them all to choke 
So greevous was the pother.' 

Drayton, Nymphidia (in leic Dial.). 

{%) V, n. To fume, reek ; as ^ The wind made the dust 
puther along the lane.' Midlands. 

Futheiing, part. adj. Reeking, fuming; as 'The smoke 
came puthering down,* or ' out' Midlands. 

Puthery, adj. Very warm, close; as *A puthery day.' 

Qu&kers, sb. pi. The quaking grasses, Briza media et minor. 
These are the * Quakers and Shakers ' of Oerarde. See 
his HerbaU^ bk. i, p. 87. Midlands. 

Quat [quot], eb. A Sty or Poke, q. v. Olouc, Leic, N*hamp. 

'The leayes [of coleworts] laid to by themselves, or bruitted with 
barley meale, are good for the inflammations and soft swellings, burn- 
ings, impostumes, and choleric sores or quats, like whcales and 
leaprys, and other griefes of the skin.' — Langham, Oard, of Health, p. 153 
(in Nares). 

Used figuratively by Shakespeare : 

*Iago. I have rubbed this young quat almost to the sense (quick), 
And he grows angry/ — Othdlo, v. i. 11. 

Vide Nares, mb voce, for quotations from The OvlCs 
Horn-book and DeviVs Law-caee. 

Queeser [ques-ur], sb. The wood-pigeon. Shrop. (queece), 
Staff, (yxxxl-qtiebt^ Up.-on-Sev. (quice), Qlouc. (quice, 
quiet, queuft), SE. Wore, (quice or quut). 

Quick, eb. Young hawthorn for planting hedges; but 
broadly used also for the young shoots under any condi- 
tion. Shrop., Wore, Glouc. 

Qiiiok*stiok8^ phr. * In quick-sticks,' in a trice, at once. 
' You'd better get that job done in quick-sticks, or else 
you'll hear something.' Staff., and elsewhere. 

186 Quilt — Raffle 

Quilt, (i) v.n. To tbraab, castigate. Midlands, ojid else- 
where, as West of England. 

Quilting, sb. A thraohing. ' The metaphor, I ima^ne, 
is frum the many coloura of a patchwork quilL" — Leic. 

(a) V, a. To swallow. Glouc. 
Quitch vd Quitch-grass, ab. Couch-grass, Tritlcum rejKns, 
&c Viile Couah, Soutob, and 8qultoli. Qlouc, Lcic, and 

Babbit it, eaxl. A sort of demi-oath. Common. 'Od 
rabbit; it ' and ' Od drabbit it ' are other forma. 

Bocei sfc. The heart, liver, and lights of the pig, lamb, 
sheep, or calf. Common. 

Racketing, puTt. adj. pec. Idling about from place to place 
in search of pleasure. N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Baddle, f'*. Var. pron. of ' reddle,' red ochre, or oxide of 
iron, much used to mai'k sheep. It was formerly 
a custom in Warw. to ' raddle ' the kitchen-doors and 
the flower-pots on the window-silk. Lcic, N'hamp,, 
Staff, and Oxf. (^-uddle), and elsewhere. 

'And little RutUndEhire ia termed RAddltunan.' 

Drayton, Poty. iiiii (quoted ia Leis. Dial.), 
which gives ' Baddlemau,' a digger of ' raddlo,' or a dealer 
in it. Kay says, of the proverb ' Rutland Baddleman ' : 

'Tliiit 19, porcliiinco, Ruddlcinaii, a tnido, ntiit tlitit a poor ouu only, 
ill ttiin county, whonoe men bring on tbi^ir hiicka a j)iu-k r.f rud stones 
or ochro, wbiuli they sell to tho iieigtibouring t-ounliuB for the marklDg 
of slioop.' 

Baff, sh. A low fellow, a rough ; hence ' ritf-raff,' the dregs 

of the populace. Common. Cf, RlfF. 
Baffle, isb. Refuse, rubbish, trash, odds and ends. Loio., 


Rag— Rake 1R7 

N"hainp., Up.-on-Sev. {rii{}'<nje), ami elaowhere, as East 

Rag, eb. A hard kind of rock. Hal. Gloaa. N'haiiip., 

Staff. Rou-ley-rag is a well-known example. 
Baggie, V, 71, To manage to get on. ' With a bit of coal 

and a loaf of bread, I caa rf^gle along.' — S, Wariv. 

Provin, Vkic Euggle. 
Baise the place, phr. To mako a disturbance. Common. 

Cf. Shakespeare: 

'Kent, Ho rnisod tho house with loud and cownrd cries.' 

Kins Itar, ii. 4. 43. 

Bake, { 1 ) y. ft. To cover. ' To rake up the fire is to preserve 
it for keeping alight all night, which iu usually done by 
laying on a large piece, called the rakhtg-coid [or raker], 
and covering it over with cindtrB or coal slack. The 
term " rako " is also used to express the act of dealing out 
tbo aehes from the bars of the grate. [Cf. : 

'Piilol. Where Brea thou find'Ht unrakcd and honrths uuswopt.' 

Mtrry Wivts, V. 4. 50.] 

When fires were generally made on the fioor of the 
chimney or hearth, to ruk-c would mean to bring together 
by raking, with the fire ahowl, the ashes over tho coals 
or wood, so as to prevent their burning out during tho 
night. Dr. Johnson explains a passage in King Leur -. 

['Ei'lfor. Hen; in the (mnds. 

Thee I'll ruk-j up.'— iv. 6, 381.] 
by refeiTJng to the Staffordshire practice of raking, i. 0. 
covering the fire.' — Hal, Glusg. Palsgr. (1530) explains 
rake thus : ' to cover up anything in the tire with ashes.' 
Hal. DUi. Leic.j Staff., Slirop. 

(2) V. n. To move about restlessly, to rove. Leic, Staff. 
' Now pass mu to the bold bcggnr 
That raltud o'it Uh; hJlL' 

Rubin I!u„-t, i. 103 (quuUid in Xltanni. Gluse.). 

188 Ramel— Rant 

Bamely a&. ' Rubbish, more especially that which is occa- 
sioned by the employment of bricklayers.' — Hal. Gloss. 
Under * Rammell or Rommell * the N'hamp. Oloss. says : 
'My late £riend Mr. Sharp, of Coventry, informed me 
that it occurs in the municipal muniments of that city 
as early as 1448.' Common. Cf. 'Rammel,' reddish 
earth, neither day nor sand — ^not fertile, a foe to vegeta- 
tion ; and ' Rammelly,' adj» of the nature of ' rammel ' ; 
in Shrop. Word-bk 

Bamshackle, (i) adj. Loose, tottering, unsteady. 

(2) V. n. To progress with a loose, shuffling motion. 
Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Bandom-shot, sb, A wild young fellow. Shrop., and else- 

Bandy, adj. Wanton, lecherous. Hal. Diet says, 'Bois- 
terous: viaris appetens/ North. In N'hamp. it means 
unruly and restive, as applied to a horse. In Oxf. 
a ' randy ' = a jovial feast. 

Banpike or Baunpike, adj. ' A tree banning to decay at 
the top from age, and having bare dead branches in 
consequence; said to be so called in consequence of 
ravens being fond of sitting thereon. Such trees are 
also called stag-headed. Nares mentions the use of the 
former term by a Warw. poet.' — Hal. Oloss. 

'Only the night crow sometimes you might see 
Croking to sit upon some ranpick tree.' 

Drayton, Moone^ealf 

(quoted in Leic, Dial,, which says: * Ranpick, part adj. 
Bai-e of bark or flesh, looking as if picked by ravens *). 
But there is a quotation in Hal. Diet, under 'Rampick.' 

Bant, v.a. (i) To steal by force, as marbles. 'Let's go 
and rant their marleys.' 
(2) To forcibly and unduly handle a female. 

Rap — Reasty 189 

Rap, V. a. To exchange, to swap. ' 1*11 rap my knife with 
(for) y5m.' Olouc, Shrop. 

Baps, sb, pi. (i) Sports and games, merrymakings. *We 
bin to the gipsy-party, an* *ad sich raps.' Shrop., and 

(a) News. * Tell us the raps o' the fair.' Shrop., and 

Bapsoal'lion, sb. A vagabond, a worthless fellow. Common. 

* Well, rapscallions ! and what now 1 ' 

Ingcidsby Legends, i. 87 (in Cent. Did.), 

Butler uses rascaUion in the same sense : 

^That proud dame 
Used him so like a base rascallion.' — Hudib, i. 3. 327. 

Battletraps, sb. A common term for small movable 
articles. ' Shift your rattletraps.' Sometimes spoken of 
worthless articles. 

Raum, v. n. To reach awkwardly, to strain. ' Don't yo' 
raum over the table like that : ask for what yer want.' 
HaL Diet has ' raum, to sprawl.* Suffolk. 

Ravelment, eb. Entanglement. Glouc. 

RavlingB vel Bovings, 86. pL Raw, untwisted threads, 
drawn, fingered, or worn out of silk or cloth. Common. 

JT. Rich, 'And must I ravel out 

My weaved-up follies ? '—iC. Rich. 11, iv. i. 228. 

Beap up, V. a. To recall or revive painful bygones. * Don't 
reap up old grievances.' Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Be&r, V. a. To i*aise, on moulds, the paste for meat-pies. 
If the paste be badly made, it gives way and loses its 
shape. Midlands. 

Reasty [res-te and ras-te], adj. ^Rancid or rusty, as 
applied to bacon. See Coles in v. "Reasy."' — Hal. 

190 Beckling — Beeming 

' Aresic or Testy,' and * Beesty as flesbe, Bameidms,' 

AngL'Lat. hex. 1440, Rani, MS. 231 
(quoted in Xhamp, 02on.). 

* Restie or nu>tie baeon.'—AoM«Mdaft)r, 1585, p. 86 (in HaL Did,). 

*La7 flitches a salting. 
Through folly too beastly 
Much baeon ia reasty.' 
Tnaser, Fitt Hundred Points 0/ Gmd Huabandriej NoTember^s Abstract 

: quoted in Skrop, Wcrd'bk.). 

Glouc. {raisty and reasty), NTiamp., SE Wore (raisty), 
Up.-on-Sev. (rasty and raisty), Sta£ (reasty and reisty)^ 
Leic, Shrop. (raisty and reasty), and elsewhere. 

Beckling or Wreckling, sb. 'The least as well as the 
youngest of the breed amongst animals, with which is 
generally combined the idea of weakness ; but the last 
bom child in a family is usually called a reckling or 
wreckling, whether small and weakly or not' — Hal. 
Gloss. Leic, Shrop. 

Beckon, (1) v. n. or a. To suppose, account, estimate. 

^Cyrnb. Which to shake off 

Becomes a warlike people, whom we reckon 
Ourselves to be/ — Cymbeline, iii. i. 5a. 

(2) V. n. To draw wages. 'I'll pay you when I 

Bedishy 86. Var. pron. of * radish.* 

Beechy, adj. Smoky, black with smoke. Common. 
* You'll mek them clothes reechy, if you hang *em in the 
kitchen.' Cf. * Reechy-neck,* quoted under Mawkin. 

Beed, 86. * The stomach of a calf, eaten as a delicate 
variety of tripe, or salted and dried for rennet.' — Leic. 
Dial. Glouc, and elsewhere. 

Beeming, adj. Excellent, first-rate. Glouc, W. Wore 

Reeve— Rick*8taddle 191 

Reeve, (i) v. a. To pucker, wrinkle, as 'Don't reeve your 
forehead so/ Midlands, and elsewhere (as West of 

(a) 86. ' Reeve of onions,' a rope or string of onions. 

Reeving-string, 8b. A string inserted in a hem to draw 
the material tighter, or into gathers, which, in the Mid« 
lands, are sometimes called 'reevings.' 

Reftige, 86. Refuse, worthless things. 8. Wartv. Provin. 

Refti^saly 86. Option of refusal or acceptance. ' If I part 
with the horse you shall have the first refusal.' Leic, 
N'hamp., Glouc. {refvf8e). 

Remem^ber, v. a. To remind. ' Remember me to buy the 
lamp-wick.' Common. 

^Paulina, I'll not remember you of my own lord, 
Who is lost too.* — Winter's Tofo, iii. a. 331. 

Render, Render-down, v. a. To melt down any fat sub- 
stance. ^ Render that leaf for the lard : and old Betty 
can have the Soratohlngs (q. v.).' 

Repeat [re-pet^, v. n. pec. To rise on the stomach, as rich 
or unwholesome food does. ' I don't much care for veal: 
I find it repeat so.' Midlands, Shrop. (and rehearse). 

Retoh, V. a. or n. To stretch, or make larger. Hal. 

Rheuma^tios, 86. Rheumatism. This is distinct from 
' rheumatiz.' The latter lies in a particular limb, while 
^the rheumatics' is a general complaint. S. Warw. 
Provin. Common. 

Rick-staddle, 86. The foundation of a rick. Hal. Gloss. 
Vide Staddle. 

192 Ride — Riz 

Bide, 86. A green road through a wood. S, Warw. Provin* 
Oxf., Leic. {riding^ sh.), N'hamp. (riding). Hal. DicU 

Riff, 86. A disease of dogs, in which the hair falls off, 
leaving the skin scaly and rough. Shrop. Wordrhk. 
(the itch, the mange), OUmc. Glo88.y and Up.-on-Sev. 
Wds. (the itch). 

Rifle [rifl], V. a. To ruffle. Said of the temper. * You'll 
rifle my temper, if you don't give over calling names.* 

Rights, 86. Right. ' That butter ought to be eighteenpence 
a pound, by rights.' Common. 

Rile, V. n. To fidget on another's lap, or climb up and 
down a seat or fixture of any kind. Shrop., Oxf. 
Vide Roiling. It is used substantively in Warw., as 
* What a young rile you are.' 

Rimming, part, adj. Moving furniture to a fresh house. 
*We be a-rimming on Monday.' — 8, Warw. Provin. 
Glouc, Glo88, (rimy to remove). 

Ringy [ring-e], 86. A game at marbles. More commonly 
called * Bing-taw * elsewhere. 

Rip, (i) 86. A rascal (^ or as applied to a horse, a worthless 
" screw." ' — Leic. Dial.). Eng. 

(2) V. n. To rush, run violently. Leic. In Warw. 
used commonly with ^tear,' as * Don't rip and tear 
about so.' 

Ripping, adj. Sharp, cutting, as applied to cold weather ; 
e. g. * a ripping frost.' Midlands. 

Riz, pp. of ' rise ' (which is used for * raise '). * Butter's 
riz.' Leic, N'hamp., and elsewhere. In Warw. foJks 
would say, 'They "rose" (= raised the price of) the 
butter yesterday.' Cf. the old preterite — 

Eoad — Rommelly 1 93 

•With that word tliey i-yien Hodeynly.' 

Chaucer, Ucrtlvaifn Tale, 1. 33a 
'SUoe not tho consular mon, und left tboir placvs, 
So «ion an thou aat'Ht down?' — B. Jonson, Catiline, iv. a. 

■ Boad, [ra-M], (i) nh. Var. pron. of 'road.' 'The cart's 
jist gone duwn thu ro-ad," More often ' roo-fid.' 

{2) Faaliion, manner, method (a play on tbe word 
' way '). ' I'll Bhown'd yer th' road to plant taters.' 

I Bobble, { I ) at. A tangle. ' This cottons got all of a robble.' 
(2) t'. ((. To tangle, ravel. Midlands. 

I Bock, s''. SwiietstiifF generally ; lollipops. The place 
where such ware is sold is called a ' Rock-shop ' ; and an 
itinerant vendor of lollipops, a ' Rockman.' Vide fluok. 

I Boded vef Boey [ro-did, ro-e], adj. Streaky ; having alter- 
nate layers of fat and lean— usually applied to bacon, 
Leio. {rmded), Whamp. (waded or rody), Shrop. (rckled, 
rody), SE. Wore (raov.'y). HaL I>kt. eays, ' West of 

Bodney, sb, (i) A helper on canal-banks, the one that 
opens the locks. 

(a) A rake, a roamer ; a loafer. Staff., Giouc. (and 
adj., roaming), W. Wort, Up.-on-Sev. («((/. rough and 

p»rt. adj. Fidgeting, climbing about. Shi-op, 
,. Diet, {rile and roil). Vide Rile, 

'A man shnll not suffer hia wire to roilo' about.' 

ChaUL-er, Kom. Rost tquoled in N'liamp. GliM.\ 

tommeUy, adj. (i) Coarae, wild, as 'a rommt-lly cabbage.' 
(3) Fat, greaay (as of bacon). Shrop., Wore, GU/uc. 
Glot*. (lancid). 

' romp ' or ■ ro»v.' Ilnl. Din. Ims ' mil, to itinip. North Country.' 

194 Bonk — Roughed 

Ronk, adj. Var. pron. of * rank/ ( i ) Strong, high-tasted, 
as * ronk meat * ; vigorous or gross in growth. * Dig up 
them ronk, rubbishing docks/ Glouc, Wore, Shrop. 

'Seven ears of corn eame up upon one stalk, rank and good/ — 
Genesis xli. 5. 

(2) Bad, corrupt, depraved. * He's a ronk old rascal.' 
Olouc, ]S*hamp.^ Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Roobub, 86. Var. pron. of * rhubarb.' Glouc. {roo-hurb). 

Roody 8h, Eight yards lineal measure, in draining, hedging, 
and ditching, &c. The digging-rood, or allotment-rood, 
in Warw., Shrop.^ and some other shires, contains 64 
sq. yds. See Notes and Queries^ 5th ser., x. 284. 

Roomthy [roora-fAe], adj. Roomy. 

Boomth. Room. Leic, N*hamp., Oxf. 

*Not finding fitter roomth upon the rising side.' — Drayton, PoUy. vi. 
*In Tamer's roomthior banks their i-est they scarcely take.*— Id. i. 

Roozles, sb. Wretchedness of mind and body, ' the miser- 
ables.' A person in this state is said to be troubled with 

* the billery-ducks [? from biliary ducts] and roozles.' 
Vide Sorewton-Newtons. 

Ropes, 8b, pL The entrails of a sheep. A.-Sax. lyppasy 
bowels, entrails. Common. 

Rot, 85. Var. pron. of ' rat.' Midlands. 

Rother, 86. pi. Homed cattle. Hal. OI088. 

Rother [roth-ur], adv. Var. pron. of * rather.' 

Roughed [ruft], part. Made rough. Said of horses' shoes, 
which, in frosty weather, are spiked or otherwise treated, 
to prevent slipping. Midlands and elsewhere. In Warw., 

* Tum*d-up * is used in the same sense. * The gaffer says 
you must tek th' 'osses to be turn'd-up, afore they'm put 
in th' wagin.' 

Bounce — Roxy 



loonoe, V. n. To flounce, to move uneasily or angrily. 
Leic. Cf. Shrop. Wmr^l-bl:. (round ng, roaring, l;>oiste- 
roua, said of Sre cr wind). 

lound t-el Bound on, v. ii. (i) To blab, tell tales. 

(2) To BC-*ld. Glouc. I 

"BonndetB, *fc. A game at bat-and-ball. Certain ' rouoders ' 
(sanctuaries) are marked out on the playgrouad— aay, 
north, BouUi, east, west, of a large circle— and the players 
of one side stand at the north, the leatlcr holding the 
bat. The leader of the other side places his ' scouts ' at 
points where the hall is likely to fall when struck, and 
pitches it to the batsman. The latter knocks it as far 
as possible, and ' runs the rounders,' i. e. fi-om point to 
point by way of the west, to the starting-place, if posaiblo. 
But if ho find himself in any strait, he may tarry at either 
sanctuary. Any plajer of the other side may secure tha 
ball, and throw it at him whilst he is running. Should 
it strike him, he is ' out.' If he taiTj at a sanctuary, 

I a second batsman strikes the ball and runs, the tirst now 
advancing a point, or any number of points, at the same 
time. If two players tarry at one sanctuary, the one 
most in fault may be struck with the ball. The object 
of the batting side is to get to the north, one after the 
I other, by way of the roundtTB, a* noon as poHHihle, no 
I that the innings may be continued as long as poHaible. 
Should the ball be caught in the air. tbL> ttlriker (somu- 
1 times his party) is ' out.' The players of the other sidv 
become batsmen, when all their opponents IwvD liueii 
1 struck with the ball, which ta of some sotl mab^rial. 
Bdvinga, sh. pf. i. q. BaTlingi, q. v. 

BozTt adj. Over-ripe, very soft, rutlvu. Coiiiinotiljr 
^^^_ said of a perishing pear. I^ii?., N'haiiip., tJlin'r. IJIimh, 


196 Rubbidge — Rumbustical 

(raced), Up.-on-Sev. (roxecl and rox, to soften), SE. Wore. 
(roxed). Hal. l}i€t has * roxt. West/ 

Rubbidge, sb. Var. pron. of * rubbish' (written ' rubbage ' 
by some glossarists). 

'Buried in rubbidge and dust.' 

Bp. Hall, Rem, p. 56 (quoted in N^hamp. CRoss.), 

Rubble, ( I ) sb. Detached fragments of stone, &c. Common. 
(2) V. n. To crawl or wriggle amongst dirt and 
refuse. ' Don't let the child rubble among them 'ere 
dusty things.* 

Bucki (i) 6&. A heap or quantity. Common. 

* Against the end of Harbome church [Staff.] is a mural monument 
to the memory of Beata, third daughter of William Hunt, of the Ruck 
of Stones, in Smothwick.* — Shaw, Hist, Staff, ii. 125 (quoted in Poole. 
Arch, and Prov. Words of Staff.), 

A correspondent informs me that there used to be a 
public-house called * The Kuck of Ericks * in Birmingham. 
The W. Wore glossarist says * the ruck o' bricks = the 

(a) V. a. To gather or cast things into a heap. * Ruck 
yer playthings together, an' put 'em away.' Midlands. 

Kuf [rtif], sb. A roof. Shrop. {t^uff)* 

* Ruffe of an hows.* — Prompt, Parv, 

Buggle, V, 71. To struggle, to wriggle : but in a figurative 
sense, aa 'Hang the bad luck! we sliall niggle along 
somehow or another.' Glouc, Wore. 

Buin^ sb. *A woodman's term, signifying a pole of four 
falls standing. At the first fall, it is a plant or wicket; 
at the second, a white pole ; at the thirds a black pole ; 
and at the foui-th, a ruin.' — Hal. Gloss, 

Bumbus'tical, adj. Boisterous, obstreperous, unruly. 

Sad — Sag 



'Bad, tulj. ' ITcavy. as applic<J to bread, when the yeast has 
not producud the proper effect. "Sad-iron" ia us«l in 
the sense of heavy or solid, to distinguish that descrip- 
tion of clothes-iron from box-irons.' — Hal. Glw8. The 
Shrop. Word-bk. gives a quotation from Alexander and 
DiTulivius to show that 'sad' is sometimes applied to 
firm, heavy, clayey earth. ' >Sad or hard, soUilus,' occurs 
in the Ang.-L<tt. Lexii: of 1440, and in the Prompt. 
Parv. Holme, Avud. Armory, bk. iii. eh. vU, p. 317, has 
the word as applied to bread. So also Coles, ' Sad bread, 
jtanis grairie.' 
ided [sa-did], jxirt. adj. Sated, satiated, cloyed, 

•TosAde, tac1o7, Mio.'— Coles, Lai Diet, IIbL Diet.). 
' Sick and saded ' is a common expression t e. g. ' I'm sick 
an' saded o' bread-and-drippin' all the wik.' Oxf, (aivk 
and mtecl), S- Warw. Provm. {mted), SE, Wore., Shrop. 
(mde, v., and mdiiig. jmii. adj.), Up.-on-Scv. (mde, saded, 
eading), and elsewhere. 

iSB| a<^. Sure, certain. ' I'm safe to be back to-night.' 
Oxf., N'hamp., Staff., Leic, and elsewhere. 
, Saflbm, sb. V&t. pron. of ' saflron.' Osf. 

PjEtog, V. n, or a. ' To hang heavy, to sink down by its own 
weight i but the terra is generally pronounced " swag," ' — 
Hal. QI08S. Shakespeare uses it figuratively: 

' ilarb. Th(> mind I sway by nnd tho heart I bear 
Bliall DoTor sag vith doubt aor «hake with fear.' 

UarheOi, V. 3. 

Anything that gives way from weakness in itself, or from 
overloading, is said to ' sag.' See Forhy. Vocab. East 
Aiujlia ; Atkinson, Ctecdand Olosa., &a. Hal. Dkl. haa 
a quotation from Pierce Penn'deme, 1592. Leic. (eagg), 
N'hamp. {mrj or fi'-mj), Shrop. (bu-nri), and elsewhere. 

198 Said — Sammy 

Said [sed], pec, use. ' Will you be said V is a common 
reproof to an unruly child. Glouc, N'hamp., and else- 

Saim [sam], bb. Vide Seam. ' Tak the rute of horslue, and 
stamp it, and fiy it in a panne with swyne say me, and 
wryng it owte, and dp it in boistes.' — MS. Line. Med. 
f. 295 (quoted in Hal. DicL). 

Saint Monday. The second day of the week received this 
name because idle workmen, anxious to find an excuse 
for a holiday, added Saint Monday to the calendar in 
a jocular spirit. Common. N'havip. Gloss, quotes 
Crabbe thus: 

'And hero Saint Monday's worthy votaries live 
In all the joys that ale and skittles give.' 

Sallet [sal-&t, sal-it], 86. A salad. Shrop., SE. Wore. 
(sallit), Qlouc. (sallet and salletiv), and elsewhere. 

' Cade. I climbed into this garden, to see if I can eat grass, or pick 
a sallet another while.' — a Hen, VI, iv. lo. 8. 

*Sdfataf sallets .'—i>ict. Ettfm. Lot. 1648. 

' Sallet, acetaria,* — Ainsworth, Thesaurus. 

* Acetariunij •n't, n. ge. a salette of herbes. It is also a gardeine, 
where salet herbs do growe.' — Eliote, Dictionariej 1559 (in Nares). 

Salt [sault], adj. Salacious. 

^Pomp. But all the charms of love, 

Salt Cleopatra, soften thy waned lip.' — Ant. and Qecp. li. i. aa 

Hal. Diet, says, * Maris appetens (of the female of any 
animal). Also of a leap in a similar sense.' North. 

'Then they grow salt, and begin to be proud.' — ^Topsell, Beasts, 1607, 
P- 139. 

Mr. Wise remarks that the term is used of a common 
woman, but it is more frequently applied to the bitch. 

Sammy vel Soft Sammy, sh, A fool, simpleton. Hal. Diet. 
' Sammy-suck-egg * is another term. 

Sam well — Scallion 199 

Samwelly 86. Var. pron. of * Samuel.' Glouc. 

Sappy, adj. Silly, stupid, demented. SE. Wore, N'hamp. 
(sfc. a silly fellow : it is so used in Warw. too), and else- 
where, as Suffolk. 

8apy [sa-pe], adj. Moist, slimy, nearly tainted: said of 
meat. Glouc, SE. & W. Wore, N*hamp., Shrop. Leic, 
Dial, (and sapid). Hal. Diet. * moist, sodden. West.' 

Sarment, »h. Var. pron. of * sermon.' 

' Which was ye think in' on, Seth ; the pretty parson's face or her 
sarmunt ?' — Adam Bede (quoted in Ldc. Died.). 

Barpent [sar-pint], sb. Var. pron. of * serpent.' The firework 
called a * squib.' Leic. 

Sarve, v. a. Vide Serve. 

Saturday-night, sb. Wage, wages. 'If I have a good 
Saturday-night, I'll buy the nipper a pair o' boots.' 
'Have you drawed your Saturday-night }* 

Savation [sa-va'-shun], sb. Saving. ' There's no savation 
in buying cheap meat.' N'hamp., W. Wore, Shrop., and 

* And for the savacion of my maisters horse, I made my fellowe to 
ryde a wey with the ij horses.' — PasUm Letters, i. 13a (Arber*s reprints). 

Say, V. n. To micturate. Wright, Dial. Obsol. and Provin. 
Eng. has ' Say, to strain thro' a sieve.' Leic. 

Say-so^ (i) phr. * I agreed with him, just for the say-so of 
the thing.' Wore, (so-my). 

(2) A mere assertion. ' It was only a say-so.' N'hamp. 
and elsewhere. 

Scallion, t^, ' Allium ascalonicum, a kind of small onion, 
the Ascalonian garlic' — Shrop, Word-bk. 

' Hec hinmda, a scalyone/ — yominaJe of 15th cent, (in Wright, Vooabs. 
I 335). 

200 Scamble — Socrar 

But the term is. and has been, apfdied to ChiMMls, q. r. 

•Seallion. ^i 

HcMnWis r. n. To shnflk the feei in walking : to move 
awkwardly. * A acamUing job'=a woik shuflled over 
in ill haste. Common. 

8cswt [scant], r. a. or n. To kidc, to senteh with the 
toe-nails, or scmpe with the feet. In S. Warw. to 
scratch, e.g. 

* There were niAriLS tdiere the boj had aeanted iL* — 5. Wwrw. iVortn. 

HaL Diet has ^ soort about, to disturb, to injure. Warw./ 
and ^ scant, to posh violaitlj. West.' Glouc. (sror£= the 
footmarks of horses, cattle, &c; to plough up the ground ; 
of the hoofs of horses or cattle), np.-<m-SeY. (acawt and 
8CoU, to scramble, slip about, scrape the ground with the 
feet), SE. Wore. (=to push or press on the ground with 
the feet when lifting, or forcing with the back or shoulder, 
or when coming to a sudden stop if running). Vide 

Scheme [skem], v. a. To plan, to arrange. 'I must try 
and scheme it some way.'— 5. Warw. Provin. Common. 
N*hamp. Gloss, has ' schame,' a pronunciation oflen heard 
in Warw. 

Scholard [skol-ud], sb. Var. pron. of ^ scholar.' Common. 

* The admiring patient shall certainly cry yoa up for a great schollard, 
provided always your nonsen&e be fluent.' — The Quadc's Academy, ^^1^ 
Harl. Mi»c. ii. 33 (in Daries* Suppl, Eng. Glass.). 

'Tis a fine thing to be a soollard.' 

Farquhar, Recruiting Officer, Act ii, scene— The Street 
(Shrewsbury) (quoted in SArqp. Wcrd-bk. ). 

Scorky Bcorkle, sh. The core of an apple, called ' score ' in 
Glouc. Shrop., and elsewhere. Vide Corklo. 

Scour, sb. * The shallow part of a river, or brook.' — HaL 

Scouse — Scrattle 201 

Scouse [rhymes ' house '], v. a. To harry, to drive. * Scouse 
them dogs out.' Up.-on-Sev. {scouts to drive away). 

Scrabble^ v. n. To scramble, in a figurative sense. * We've 
had a lot o' bad luck, but we shall scrabble on, I expect.' 
Cf. Leic. Dial, sub voce, Oxf. {scrabble along), Up.-on-Sev, 
Vide Baggie, Ruggle, and Sorobble. 

Scraily [skm-le], adj. Thin, attenuated. N'hamp. Olosa, 
has 'scrail, a meagre, lean, thin animal.' *A higler*s 
horse is a poor scrail.' 

Scraniy v, a. To stuff, to cram. ' Don't scram them apples 
down like that.' 

Beraty (i) v. a. To scratch. Common. 

'And ylkane skratte othyr in the face.' 

HampoU MS, Bowes, p. 215 (quoted in Hal. Diet.), 

<To scrat where it itches 
Is better than fine clofts or riches.' — Lincolfu, Proverb, 

(2) To scratch off a person s name. * I hope you won't 
scrat me.'— £>. Warw. Provin. 

(3) V. n. To work hard for a poor living. *Me an* 
my ol' mon 'a* got to scrat an* scrape very hard to kip 
a 'ouse over our 'eads.' Midlands. 

Scratch, ab. A common name for the devil — ' Old Scratch.' 

Scratohings [skititch-ins], 86. pi. The crimp, refuse bits 
left when a pig's-leaf is rendered or boiled down for lard. 

* She'd take a big cullender to strain her lard wi', and then wonder 
as the scratchin's run through.' — Adam Bed^y ch. xviii (in Leic, Dial.). 

* Done to a scratchin' ' is a common phrase spoken of meat 

Scrattle, v. n. To scratch, as domestic fowls do. Hal. 
Glo^. Leic. 

W « I M 1 » 

?. 'I. Ta enmch. OtMnwh, q.T. W. Wore^ mud 

vml '^seaaTj • i> c. n. Tj ccswl: to creep aboai the 
AocT as a efaild df)e». Vitflmntfa, 

(i; To move siowij and fieeblj. ^I was that bad, 
I coald hardl J aexxwL' Cooonoii. 

('3; 4^'. A tani^ ^Thia thread's all of a aciawL' 


Scraie, '/. a. To graze, raze : to * liark ' slight! j by mbbiDg 
against any one or anything in pa»mg. ' How did that 
ehild acraze the skin ojf his forehead T ^ Did the wheel 
scraze yoar elbow as the cart went apastl* Leic Some- 
times spoken 'serage' by the more illiterate. Used 
sabetantiTelv, too. as ' A scraze <m the knee.* 

Screwton-V ewtoaa, sh. pi. *■ The miserables.' Vide Booalea. 

Scribe, isb. A poor, shabby, or oddly-dressed person; a 
' fright/ ' I Jiauld look a scribe in these clothes.' 
N*hamp., S. Warw. Provin, (a poor, pnling thing). 

Scriggles vel ScrigglingB [skrig-ls. skrig-lins], 8&. pi. Un- 
dersized apples left on the tree as worthless. These 
little apples are often very sweet and palatable, however. 
Qlouc, {seirigglings, scrogglings, and «engfgrfe8),Up.-on-Sev. 
(scriggiing), W. Wore, {scrigglings and acrogglinga). 

From this term comes the cidj. Boriggly, small and 
sbrivoUed, as 'a scriggly bit o' meat,' i.e. that small 
portion of a joint where it is dried up or over-roasted. 
It is likely that the word is connected with ' sbriveL' 

Scrimp, (i) sh. A very small piece. *Gi'e me a scrimp o* 
butter.' N'hamp. 

(2) /;. a. To scant, to spare, to curtail. N'hamp. 

Scrimpy — Scutch 203 

Scrimpyy adj. Scanty. N'hamp., Glouc. (poor, wretched, 

Scrinch [rhymes * pinch*], bb. A little bit, a morsel, the 
smallest portion of anything. * Mother, our Jack's 'ad 
some rock gin 'im, an' 'e wunt gi'e me the least scrinch.' 
Leic, N'hamp., Oxf., Shrop. 

Scrobbley v. n. To scramble; to wriggle about on the 
floor. Sometimes used substantively, as ' Let's have 
a sorobble for these opples (apples).' Midlands. Hal. 
Diet ' West.' Vide Scrabble. 

Scrouge [scrouj], v. n. or a. To crowd, squeeze, crush, 
compress. Shrop. (scroodge, acrvdge)^ W. Wore, Glouc. 
(and scrunge)^ Up.-on-Sev. (scroodge). Cf. Spenser 
(quoted in Shrop. Word-hk.) : 

*He caught him twixt his puiasant hands, 
And having scruzd out of his carrion corse 
The lothfull life.' — Faery QueenCj bk. ii, c. xi, at. xlvi. 

Scrufl; 8b. (i) A wastrel, raffish rogue. Sometimes pro- 
nounced * scroflF.' 

(2) The nape of the neck. Shrop. {scuff and acuft)^ 
W. Wore Vide Scuff. 

Scrumi>8y sb. pi. Apples. 

Scrunch, v. a. To bite up greedily and noisily ; to crunch. 

Scufi; V, n. or a. To scrape with the feet in walking. 
Glouc. Gloss, (to shuffle with the feet). 

Scuff vd Scruff, sb. The back or nape of the neck. 
N'hamp., Shrop. Word-hk. {scruff, scuffs scuft)^ SE. Wore. 
{scruff), and elsewhere. 

Scutch [sciitch], sb. Couch-grass, &c. Wore., Shrop. 
(and tkuch). Vide Couch, Quitch, and Squitch. 

204 Scuttle — Seg-bottomed 

Seattle, th. (i) A basket ihat holds a bushel 8, TTarur, 
Provln, In other parte of Warw. the term is applied to 
a broad, shallow basket; but I do not ihink it would 
hold half a busheL 

(2) A receptacle for coal, scoop-shaped. Cf. Leic. Dial, 
mb voce. Sometimes called a ' coal-scoop.' Cf. Coal-hod, 

Seam, a&. Fat, or lard. HaL Gloss^y Leic. Dial. In some 
counties this is pronounced ' same,' e. g. Torks. In Notes 
& Queries, 3rd ser., ii. 277, there is a variant of a well- 
known folk-rhyme, which begins : 

*A, What's your name?' 
*B, Batter and saim 

If you ask me Again,^ &c. 

A note states that ^sairn,' in Welsh, = grease. It is only 
just to add that, as the concluding line is Til teU you 
the same,' there is no true rhyme. In other versions of 
the rhyme 'Butter and tame' (Eton) or 'Pudding of 
Tame ' is the second line. A writer to iT. dfc Q., 3rd ser., 
xi. 306, points out, as a coincidence, ihat 'Pudding of 
Tame ' is the name of a devil mentioned in Harsnet's 
Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures, 1603. 
Ainsworth, ThesauruSy has 'Hog's seam (lard), Adeps 
poQ'cina vel suiUa, purijicata.* 

* Cold meat fryed with hogs seame.' — Ootgr. (,m voc. Qranwuae). 

* Seme for to frye with, seyn de pourrcau,* — Palsgr. (in Hal. DicL), 

Seben, adj. and sb, Var. pron. of * seven.' Common* 

See, Seed vel Sid. Saw. ' I seed 'im a day or two agoo.' 
' 1 sid him isterday (yesterday).* Vide Sin. Lcic. (see, 
seed), N'hamp., Glouc. {seed or zid). Hal. Diet *Var. 

*The nativity according to our modern authors, is one of the best 
that ever I see.* — Bishop, Marrow qf Astrology, p. 64 (in Hal, Diet.). 

Seg-bottomed, a^j. ' Rush '-bottomed, as ' A seg-bottomed 

Sen — Serve out 


f dieer (chair)." Shrop., Up.-on-Sev. {mgsecteil), Ghiu-. 

1 GliiKS. {'wys or ze(/8, sedgeB, "A place where segges 
do grow." — Barret, Alvearle, 1580'). SE. Wore, {tags, 

I Kaight'a Cyrlojtaei.iia, iH54,uuder'Cy/jer«ce«c, sedges,' 

' Bays, ' Their most common application is to the manu- 
facture of what are calltH erroneously rush-mats and 
nish-bottoms for chairs. The plant uaed iu this country 
for such purposes is not any kind of niah, but the 
cypcraceouB species Srir/nm lacustris.' Cf. Shnij^. Word- 
hk., where quotations from Wright's Vocahe. and Pi'ompt. 
Parv. support the glossanat'a contention that 'segs' is 
applied to the Iriilareae, too. 
, adv. Since. S. Wanv. Pruvin. 

tenoei adv. &c. Since, 

'I heanle once a tnle of n (hinftp ynl hms Hone at Oxforje xx ycrpa 

xaA the l;ko hatli bene aoncu in tliiK roalme bh I was enforinud 

uf urvilibte penKins.' — Lstiuicr, Sfi-m-m, jv-. p. rig (Arber's reprinta], 

I (quoted in Shrop. Word-bk.). 

I, 86. pi. Var. pron. of ' sinews.' SE. Wore., Shrop, 
I (sennow), W. W(nv. Glims, (eennw). Up.-on-Sev, {*ren7i«). 
'To feed, to supply. The pigs and obickena 
are served. The boy vrho hands up the stubble serves 
tbe thrasher.' — S. Warm, frnvi- ti. Sometimes pronounced 
'sarve.' Shrop., Lelc, and elsewhere, 'While the 
wisdome of one is tliat a wbite cote is best to sarve 
' Ood in' occurs in T^ndale, Obedience of a Christian 
Man, &c. (1538), Moms and Skeat, Sjtec. Eng. Lit. 

I Serve out vel Sarve out, v. a. To retaliate, punish. Leic. 
I Dud. says. ' Like Punlah (q. v.) it is also used in the 
I sense of giving pain without connecting it with any idea 
I of retribution.' N'baiiip. 

206 Server — Settle 

Serw, Sarrer, ^. A roan*!, slttllow hekeU to hold m 
' fb^ ' of eom fur a horse. Commoo. 

Serring, «&. A meal for pig&r poahrjr. and the like: a 
diare. portioiL. or 'belling* of iLe j<Hiit or padding, for 
peisona. CommoiL 

Set, ( i) r. a. To let. said of a house or land. Oxfl, Wore., 
Staffl. Shrop.. and elsewhere. 

' Tlh&T <ajtr iwt bow higjk thej i«n anj of tkeir eommodititrs. at bow 
anrcauonaMe nie* tiMj «t their zroonda.' — BfL Hall. Oua o/OmseieMe* 
eit. f jtham . 

(2) K\a. or r«. Sit. ' Set yourself down.' 

*I tect at home. I kaT^ n^* thriftj cloth/ — Urry's CkoMcer, Wife uf 
Ba/M'i Prii. L 238- 

It is used for ^ sat,* too, as ' I set on this 'ere cheer (chair) 
a fall hour yesterday artemoon. waiting for you.' 

Seta, A. lA. ' Small potatoes, or such large ones as contain 
what is termed an eye, and which are set in the ground.' 
— IThamp. Gloss, More commonly styled in fuU, ' potato- 
sets,' in Warw. 

Settin'-pin, Jj. A dibber. S. Warw. Provin. 

Setting-stick, A. A dibber or dibble. Glouc., SE. Wore., 
Nliamp., and elsewhere. 

* Debbyll or aettyng-stycke/ — Huloet, 155a (in Hal. Diet), 

Settlas [set-l&s], f/). A platform, or ledge of bricks or 
tiles, around a cellar, on which to place barrels. Shrop. 
WorJrbL, *Setles8 = platform, shelf, of bricks or tiles, 
round a dairy for the milk-pans to stand on.* Cf. Nares* 
Gloss, under ' Settle,' where the glossarist refers to the 
settle of the altar, Ezekiel xliii. 14, 17. 

Settle [set!] 86. A long wooden seat with arms and a high 
flat, solid back. A.-Sax. sell. Common* 

^ A common Mettle drew for either guest.' 

Dryden, Battcis arid PhUemonj 1. 44. 

Seven-coloured linnet — Shelf 207 

Cf. Shroj)- Word'bk, * Sotless * and * Screen * ; Leic. Dial, ; 
Wilbraham's Cheshire Gloss,^ * Skreen/ 

Seven-coloured linnet» 66. The goldfinch. 

Shackler, sb. An idle, neglectful, or careless workman. 

Shaoklety [shak-l-te], adj. Shaky, rickety. Olouc. Olosa. 
^ shackety .' 

Shackling, adj. Idle, loitering ; unstable, unreliable, shaky. 
' A shackling fellow.' * A shackling old table.' Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

Share [sher], 86. 'A short wooden sheath stuck in the 
waistband, to rest one of the needles in whilst knitting.'— 
S, Warw. Provin. 

Sharps, ^6. pi. A refuse kind of wheaten flour, gi*ound 
coarsely, with a portion of bran in it. Leic, N'hamp., 
Sbrop., and elsewhere. Cf. Ourgeons: and seeZeic. Dial. 
for an article on the various kinds of meal. 

Sh&ver, 86. A sharp, quick-witted lad. * A young shaver.' 
Common. N*hamp, Gloss., ^ A keen tradesman ; one who 
takes selfish advantage in a bargain.' 

Sheed, v. a. or n. To shed. 

*The litle boy had a home, 
Of red gold that ronge ; 
He said, there wa^ noe cuckolde 
ShaU drinke of my home ; 
But he shold it sheede 
Either behind or beforne.' 

The Boy and the Mantle, II. 179-184 (Percy, Rel.). 

*The com is beginning to sheed,' i.e. to fall, over-ripe, 
from the husks. Wore, Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Shel^ 66. The chimney-piece : sometimes pronounced * shilf/ 
as in SE. Wore, and elsewhere, for any shelf. 

208 Shet— Shirty 

Shot, V. a« To shut. Wore., and elsewhere. Cf. Sliit» Shut. 

' He knokked Ikste, and ay, the more he eiyed. 
The faster shette they the dores alL' 

Chaucer, B. 3799 (Six-text ed. Skeat) 
(quoted in Shnp. Word-bk.). 

Shewn [shon], v. a. To show. Shrop. Cf. ShewndL 
Shewnd [shond], v. a. To show. * Til shond yer the way/ 
Shifty (i) V. a. To change, as of underclothing. Common. 

' i8t Lord, Sir, I would advise you to shift a shirt ; the yiolenoe of 
action hath made you reek as a sacrifice.' — CifmbeUne, i. a. i. 

(a) To remove ; move. * Shift them tea-things.' ' Shift 
yourself a bit quicker.' Common. 

' 1st Serv. Where's Potpan, that he helps not to take away? he 
shift a trencher I he scrape a trencher !' — Rom. & Jtd, L 5. i. 

(3) V, n. To move from one house to another. Midlands. 

* Schyftynge or removynge, amocuK* — Prompt. Poaro, 

(4) To manage, contrive. Common. 

* Steph. Every man shift for aU the rest, and let no man take care for 
himself, for all is but fortune.^ — Tempest, v. i. 256. 

Shimmy* sh. A corruption of chemise = a smock, shift. 

Shindy, 86. A row, disturbance : quarrel. Common. 

Shining [shi-ning], part. Apple-stealing. 

Shiny-back vel Shiny-bat, sh. A common garden-beetle, the 
appearance of which is supposed to indicate wet weather. 
' Here's a shiny-bat ; we shall have rain soon.' Lawson, 
Up.'On-Sev. Wds., has ' rain-bat.' So has SE. W(yix. Gloss. 

Ship, sb. A sheep ; sheep. Common. We find 'ships' as 
an occasional plural. 

* Poor grass when ships cannot graze.* 

Lii&is Literarum, p. 68 (in ScUnpia AnHq%ta). 

Shirty, adj. Enraged. * To get a man's shirt out '=to try 
him past endurance. Up.-on-Sev. (shurfy). 

Shlsn — Shortening 209 

Shisn [shizn], poss. pron. 'hers.' S. Warw. Proviv, 
Shit, V. a. or n. To shut. Oxf. 

' And all the richesse of spiritualle science 
In hire were schit and cloaid eke also/ 

Lydgate, MS. Soe, ArUig. 134, f. 3 (in Hal. Did,). 

* Shit ' and * shut * are used indiscriminately in Warw. for 
' shoot ' = to discharge anything from a receptacle, e. g. 
'Shit them taters out o* the sack.' Shi'op. {shaet and 

Shive, sb, A slice. Common. 

* Demetrius. And easy it is 

Of a cut loaf to steal a shive.' — Tit. Andron. ii. i. 86. 

Shog, V. n. ' To shake, to make off.' — Hal. Oloss. Leic, 
Qlouc, N'hamp., Wore. 

' Laughter pucker our cheeks, make shoulders shog 
With chuckling lightness.' 

Marston, What you will, ▼. i (in Nares). 

^Nym. Will you shog off? I would have you solus.' — Hen. V. ii. i. 47. 

* A'ym. Shall we shog ? the king will be gone from Southampton.' 

Ibid. ii. 3. 48. 

Shommocki v. n. To walk ungainly. Staff. Olouc. Oloss. 
{= jog-trot). 

Shommocking, part. adj. Slovenly, slouching. * She's 
a slommocking piece.' ' Don't go slommocking along like 
that.' N'hamp. Cf. Slommocking and Strommocldng. 

ShommockSy sb. (i) The feet. 'Shift your shommocks.' 
Hal. Diet, says * shoes.' 

(2) A slipshod, untidy woman ; a slattern. N'hamp. 
{shornrtiacks), and elsewhere, as Craven. 

Shommocky, adj. Slovenly. HaL Diet. 

Shortening, sb. The dripping, lard, or butter which is put 
into pastry to make it light. Leic, N'hamp., and else- 
where, as East Anglia. 


210 Shoul — Shy 

Shouly a6. A shovel. Leic. (showl), Glouc. (shool or showl), 
SE. Wore, (shaoivl or shoot), N'hamp. and Up.-on-Sev. 
(skoivl), and elsewhere. Common. 

*■ I, said the owl, 
With my spade and shoul, 
ril dig his grave.* — Nursery Ballad of Cock Robin, 

Showndy V. a. Vide Shewnd. 

Shram, v. n. To shrink with cold. Glouc. (shrirn or erim). 
Hal. Diet, {shramm €d=^henumhed with cold. West). 

Shiik, Shiiky, Stik, sh. A tea-kettle ; sometimes called 
* Black Susan,' — the two first forms being diminutives of 
the name 'Susan.' SE. Wore, (shookey), and common. 
Vide Sukey. 

ShUd, pret of * shall.' This is an ancient pronunciation. 
Cf. Wiild. 

'And bycause the Comunes desiren that al that longed unto the 
Corouno the foiirty yere of Kyng Edward and sithe hath be departed 
shuldo bo resumed, to that extent that the Kyng myght better leve 
of his owne.* — Anstcer of King Henry IV to Petition qf Parliament. 

Shut, (i) part. adj. Eid, clear, quit. 

'We must not pray in one breath to find a thief, and in the next to 
got shut of him.* — Sir R. L'Estrange (cit. Latham). 

In Midland folk-speech, * shut on ' is most common. Leic, 
N'harap., Shrop., Glouc. and SE. Wore. (and 8het)^W.WoTC. 
{shut on). 

(2) 86. Deliverance, riddance. Midlands. * Good-night 
and good-shut:' jocular phrase of parting friends in 
Warw. Cf. Shet and Shit. 

Shuts, sh. pi. Stout rods. Hall. Gloss. 

Shy, {i) V. a. To throw, fling, hurl. 

(2) sb. A throw. Midlands, and elsewhere. * A cock- 
shy ' is a throw with careful aim : an expression derived 
from the old, barbarous sport of throwing at a live cock. 

Sich — Simples 


■ Tliis was as if thf great geologists . . . Iind invit«cl two rivnl tliuoriata 
to sottlo tho question of geological forniAtinn by picking up tliD stones 
and appealing to the test of a cockahy.'— Lonl Stmngford, Idlers and 

iPapire, p. 315 .in Dayies' Suppl. Eag. CIom.)- 
sh, indef. pron. Such, Midlands. Once commonly used 
by Spenser and other authors, 
' Wliijover ressejvGth 0011 of siclic Gliildron in nij- nsinc rosseyvntli 
me.'— Wycl., Mark ix. 
jk, «b. Sm-feit. 'I've ad my sick o' plums, this turn.' 
U.sed figuratively, too, as 'Jim's 'ad 'is sick o' sojerin' 
is, sh. Var. pron. of 'seeds.' Midlands. In Glouc. and 
Wore, the term ' sids ' is applied to growing clover. 
jh [si], V. n. To fade, deereaae, 'This pimple's begin- 
ning to sigh.' 
Sight, xb. (usually followed by 'of'). A great number, 
a great quantity. Midlands. 

t'...Thegr<'OtomanuB broughte on hjasyileB groat Byghle of Lawyers 
for hya counsaylo,' — Latimor, Sennrm, ij. p. 73 (Arbor's rnprinta), 
'Whore ia so groat a Htreogth of money, i, whero is so bugH a ayght 
of mony.* — Palsgrave, Acolastui, 1540 (in Hal. Dkt.). 
Idum, adv. Var. pron. of ' seldom.' SE. Wi/n: Oloss. 
Bile, 'ih. Var. pron. of ' soil.' SE. Wore. Gloss. 
SUl-greea, ab. Sengroen, tho housele«k, Senijiervivuni 
(ff'THiit. Glouc, Wore, Sbrop. [sinna-green). Wright, 
Diet. Ohsol. and J'rov. Evgl., has ' Silgreen. West.' 
[Tho] Simples [siin-plz], *'i. Foolishness, folly, ' I'll have 
you cut for the simples," is a common Midland folk-phrase. 
I Remarking on this, tlio Lek: Dial, says, ' The metaphor, 
I probably incorrectly, regards folly as a curable disease, 
I and suggests that the patient should be "cut," i, e, lanced, 
Ibo as to allow the "perilous stuff" to escape,' Ray has 
1 the proverb ' Go to Battersea to be out for the simples," 

212 Sin— Skag 

and remarks — *The origin of this proverb being for- 
gotten, people not over-burthened with wit are recom- 
mended to go to Battersea to be cut for the simples. 
In former times the London apothecaries used to make 
a summer excursion to Battersea^ to see the medicinal 
herbs, called simples, cut at the proper season, which 
the market-gardeners in the neighbourhood were dis- 
tinguished for cultivating.' 

Bin, p. and pp, of * see.' Saw, seen. Glouc, Leic Vide 

Sinks, sh. ? senses. Used only in the phrase * damn my 
sinks.* It is worth noting that * sinking ' occurs in the 
Rakes of Mallow : — 

' Beauing, belling, dancing, drinking, 
Breaking windows, cursing, sinking, 
Ever raking, never thinking, 
Live the rakes of Mallow.* 

I have seen * sinking' explained — where, I cannot for 
the moment think — as ' Damning your soul to Hell, and 
sinking it lower.' 

Si2t. Sixth. Common. 

' Trinepos, sixte sune. TnnepliA, sixte dohter.' 

Supp. to Ab, JElfri(?8 Vocah. loth or zith cent. 

(in Wright, Vocahs, i. 51). 

Sizes [si-ziz], 86. pL The assizes. Common. 

'Thei follow Sises and Sessions, Letos, Lawdays, and Hundredes, 
they shold seme the kyng, but thei seme them selues.' — Latimer's 
Sermons (To the Reader), p. 53, Arbor's reprints (quoted in Shrop, 


Skag, V. a. To tear, to split. Glouc. {skag or dcey). Used 
substantively also, as * What a skag (rent) you've got in 
your shirt.' Hal. Diet, has * Skag, any slight wound or 
rent.* Somerset. 

Skater — Skimping 213 

Sk&ter, sb. A fly which moves rapidly, in zigzag style, 
on the surface of still water: its tarsi and motions 
suggesting the skate-fitted extremities and movements 
of a skater on ice. 

Skelinton vd Skelington, sh, Var. pron. of 'skeleton.' 
Glouc, Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Skep, fib. A strong, coarse basket. A.-Sax. Cf. Kipe and 

• Skeppe, Sporta, corbes.' — Prompt. Parv. 

Skew-whiff, Skew-whift, Skew-whifted [sku-wif, &c.], adv. 
and ddj. Awry, askew, aslant ; slanting. ' The wind 
blowed the flagstaff skew- whiff.' * This is a skew-whifted 
load o' hay.' Common. Sometimes 'on the skew,' askew, 
is used ; as ' You've got your bonnet on on the skew.* 
The first form is often used substantively, as ' This thing 
is all on the skew- whiff.' 

Skillet [skil-it], ab. A metal pan with a long handle, for 
heating liquids. Glouc. 

* OOieOo, Let housewives make a skillet of my helm.' — Othello^ 1. 3. 374. 

This quotation seems to bear out the definition in Shrop. 
Woi'd-bh.^ *a pan similar to a preserving kettle, with 
a swivel-handle.' 

< Break all the wax, and in a kettle or skillet set it over a soft fire.' 
— Mortimer, Husbandry, 

Skim-Dick, sb. A cheese made of skim-milk. Glouc, 
Wore, Shrop. 

'Maily bread an' maily pies, 
Skim- Dick full o' eyes, 
Buttermilk astid o' beer, 
I*m sartin I shanna stop here/ 

An ill-fed servanfs plaint^ South Cheshire, 
Darlington, Folk-Speech qf South Cheshire. 

Skimping vd Skimpy, adj. Small, scanty, narrow, spare, 

214 Skinny— Slade 

as ^ A skimpy gown.' Shrop. {skimping and stimmdy)^ 
Leic, N'bamp., StaS (scTirnpy), 

Skinny, adj. Mean, miserly, stingy. Shrop , and elsewhere. 

Skip, 8b, Lq. Skep, q.T. GIooc. (dnp, skippd), SE. Wore. 
Up.-on-Sev. WordSj 'A shaDow basket made of oak-laths, 
with ronncfed bottoms and ends, and an opening at 
either end, by way of handles.' Sometimes called a 
' scuttle ' in Warw. In other counties, a leather-lined 
basket, nsed in spinning- mills, is called a 'skip,' I 

Skirmidge, fJj. Var. pron. of ' skirmish.' SE. Wore., and 

Slack, fib. (i) Small, refuse coaL Midlands, and elsewhere. 
( 2) Saucy talk. ' Give me none of your slack.' N liamp. 
(' slackjaw,' coarse language ; and in Warw., and else- 
where). Common. 

Slacken-twist, sb. A dawdler, slow-goer. 

Slade, bb. A tract of land which bears evidence of an 
ancient landslip (slide). Hence, the vale at its base; 
and in this sense it is used by Gower, Drayton, and 
others. The Leic. Difd. says, *A green road through 
a wood ; a riding ' ; and the N'hanip, Gloss, agrees. This 
definition is borne out, I find, by two references in Robin 
Hood uTid Guy of Gisbome : 

^ It liad been better of William a Trent 

To have been abed with sorrowe, 
Than to lie that day in the green wood slade 
To meet with little John's arrowe/ — 11. 77-80. 

See also L 56. Shrop. Word-bk. says, 'A patch of ground 
in a ploughed field too wet for grain, and therefore left 
as greensward. Cf. Slad, ante.' The Glouc. Gloss, says, 
' A sloping place or valley/ under Slad, Slade. 

Slan — Slep 215 

Slan, sb. The sloe, Prunvs spinosa. Shrop. (slon and 

' alaun), Oxf., Leic. {slaun), Glouc, N'hamp. (don), Wore. 

(dawn) J Leic. (slaun and don), and elsewhere. Slans, 

slons, slauns, are double plurals, says Shrop. Word-hk.^ 

giving the A.-Sax. «W, a sloe ; dan, sloes. 

Slang, adj. Long and narrow, as 'A slang kitchen,' 
'A slang field,' &c. Leic. (dang, sb. any long slip of 
ground), Shrop. (slang and din^, sb.), W. Wore, (ding or 
slinget, sb.), Hal. Diet, (slang or slanket, sb. West). 

Slanged [slangd], part. Slung, loosely and carelessly cast 

about. * Don't wear your muffler slanged round your 

neck like that.' ^Her was wearin' a loose grey jacket, 
slanged on anyhow.' 

Slashing-hook, sb. A sharp, hook-like blade, on a long 
handle, for cutting tall hedges. Leic. (slasher). Cf. 

Slat, sb. (i) A slate. 

'Sklat or slat stone.' — Prompt. Parv., MS. Harl. 221. 

'And thei wentin on the roof, and bi the sclattis {ether tyles, K marg.) 
tliei lecten hym down with the bed, in to the myddil, bifor Jhesus.' 
— Luke V. 19 (Wycl.). 

(2) A thin lath-like strip of wood. A good example is 
the slat of the Venetian blind. Shrop., Leic, and else- 
where. GlovA^. Gloss, has * Slat, to slit, split.' 

Sleepers, sb. pi. Fine, small rings of gold, first put into 
the ears after boring, and afterwards worn whenever 
the larger ear-rings, or 'droppers,' are inconvenient. 
Their use is to prevent the closing of the perforations 
in the lobes. 

Slep. Slept. Common. 

' Makyng her wymmen ek to taken kep. 
And wayt on hym anyghtos whan he slep.* 

Lydgato (circa 1420), The Storit qf Thebes 
(Skcat, S2)ec. Eng. Lit. 1871). 

216 Blether— Slom 

Slether [sleth-ur], v. n. and ab. To slide on the ice, to slip ; 

a slide. SE. Wore. 
Slidder, v. n. To slide on the ice. N'hamp., Staff., Leic. 

Not very common in Warw. 

Slinge [? sling], v. n. To go about idly. Hal. Oloss. 
I have heard ' slang about ' in this sense. 

Slippy, adj. Slippery. Leic, and common. 'Be slippy,' 
phr., hasten, look sharp. 

Slip-string, adj. Careless ; as ' Slip-string ways.' N*hamp. 

Slither [slith-ur], v. n. and sh. To slide on the ice, to slip ; 
a slide. Leic, Wore, Glouc, N'hamp. 

Slive, Sliver, {i) v. a. To slice. Common. 

^I slyye a gylowfloure or any other floure from his branche or 
stalke.* — Palsgrave. 

^Albany, She that herself will sliver and disbranch 
From her material sap, perforce must wither.' 

King Lear, iv. a. 34. 

* Third Witch, Slips of yew 

Sliver*d in the moon's eclipse.* — Macbeth, iv. i. 27. 

^Sliving, cutting away, avuisio.' 

Ang.'Lat. Lexic, 1440 (quoted in N'hamp. Gloss.). 

(2) 86. .A large slice; anything sliced or stripped off. 

* Queen. There, on the pendent boughs her coronet weeds 
Clambering to liang, an envious sliver broke, 
When down her weedy trophies and herself 
Fell in the weeping hrook,*— ^Hamlet, iv. 7. 173. 

Cf. Chaucer^s Troil. & Ores. iii. 1015 : 

* Alas ! that ho all whole or of him slivere 
Should have his refute in so digne a place.' 

Sliving, adj. 'Lazy, lubberly.' — Hal. Gloss. Leic, Qlouc. 
(sliver = to half-do work). 

Slom, adv. (lit. slam). Right, altogether. 

* He turned it slom over the road.' — S. Warto. Provin. 

Slommock— sung £17 

Slommock, i\ n. To wmlk in a slipefaod &shion. Common. 

Slommocking [alom-o-kin], part. adj. Slovenly and 
clumsy; slouching, trolloping. *What a slommocking 
wench that is ; she goes slommocking about, worse than 
any beggar on the road.' Common. Vk0Tc{8lummakiugy 
Cf. Bhoimnoeldng and Stzommocking. 

Slommocks, eb. A slattern. Common. 

Sloop, V. a. and 8&. To slope ; a slope. 

Slop vd Slop-jacket, #6. A short smock-frock ; or loose, open 
jacket. S, Warw. Provin. says, * gathered into a band at 
the waist.' A.-Sax. Midlands, and elsewhere, as Elast 
Anglia. In Warw. the term is applied, also, to a painter's 
or mechanic's overalls. Ainsworth, Thesaui'us^ has * A slop 
or trowser, subligar (short drawers for men and women), 
subligacvlum (a man's breeches or trowsers).' 

'His oyersloppe nis nat worth a myte.* 

Chaucer, G. 633 (Six text od. Skeat) 

(quoted in Shrop, Word'bkJ), 

*Ful8t. What said Master Dombledon about the satin for my short 
cloak and my slops?*— a Hen, IV, i. 9. 3a. 

^Don Pedro, As a German from the waist downward, all slops.' — 
Much AdOf ili. a. 35. 

Planche says the word has ' at various times been applied 
to three distinct articles of apparel — a jacket or cassock 
[A.-Sax. slop, btola], a shoe, and a pair of breeches.' 
' It has also indicated a night-gown ; and in Lane, 
a pocket.' — Draper's Diet 

Sloven. Divided. Hal. Gloss. Not known to mo. 

Sludge-guts, sb, Var. pron. of * slouch-guts.' A person 
distinguished by a pendulous abdomen. Lcic, Dial. 

Slug, (i) sb. A free fight in which misHiles are used. 
(2) V. a. To throw stones or other uiiKsileH. 

2 1 8 Small-beer — Snape 

Small-beer, phr. ' He does not think small-beer of him- 
self '= he thinks himself of great importance. N'hamp., 
and elsewhere. Cf. Shakespeare : 

^lago. To suckle fools and chronicle small-beer.' — OtheUo, ii. i. i6a 

Smart, adj. Considerable, in number or size. ' There was 
a smart lot o' folks at the cattle show.' ' This is a smart 
load to cany.' Glouc, Leic, N'hamp., Oxf., Wore 

Smartish, adj. and adv. Fairly well. *How are you?' 
' Smartish, thank you.' ' I'm getting on smartish now.* 

Smatoh, sh. A smack, taste, taint. Leic, Oxf., Hal. i)/cf. 
(taste, twang, flavour), W. Wore. (ta^k). 

Smellers, ab, A cat's whiskers. Common. 

Smoke-shop, sb. A public-house, tavern. Bi7'minghani, 
Hai^est Hortie, by Mr. Pratt, 1805, i. 272 (Warw. section). 
It is almost unnecessary to say that the ' smoke-room * 
now forms but one ' department ' of the modem tavern 

or hotel. 


Snag, vb. ' To trim twigs by cutting off the small shoots 
or branches. The woodmen talk of snagging-out, i. e. 
trimming the rods for making hurdles.' — Hal. Oloss. 

Snags, 8b. Snacks = ' shares.' 'Half is the usual prefix, 
e. g. ' Half-snags for me.' It is usual amongst boys to 
cry ' Half-snags, quarter bits, or some for your neighbours,* 
when one of the party lights in treasure-trove, lest the 
finder appropriate the whole. Leic. N'hamp, Gloss.^ 
Hal. DicL^ and other works, have * snacks.' 

Snape, (i) v. a. To snub, rebuke. 
(2) 8&. A snub, rebuke. 

^ Fabit. My lord, I will not undergo this sncap without reply.' — 
2 Hen. IVf ii. i. 137. 

Staff, (and sneaj^), Shrop., SE. Wore, {snam^vp). Hal. Diet. 
(' stiepe, s'iic(fp, to snub '), Line. 

Snead — Sobbing-wet 219 

Snead [sned], sb. The handle of a scythe. Hal. Gloss, has 
'sneid.' A.- Sax. snced. Shrop. [pron. sned], Glouc 
(snead or sned), Leic, SE. Wore, (siied)^ Up.-on-Sev. 
Common throughout Kngland, with the variants snathe, 
sned, snithe. It forms a portion of the charge on the 
shield of the Sneyd family, co. Staff. Evelyn applied 
the word to the straight handle of a Slashing-hook, q. v. 

* These hedges are tensile, — they are to be cut and kept in order with 
a sythe of four foot long, and very little fiilcated ; this is fixed on a long 
snecKl, or streight handle, and does wonderfully expedite the trimming 
of these and the like hedges.' — Syira, xiii, § a (in Nares'. 

Sneak [snek], sb. A ball bowled along the ground the full 
length of the ' pitch/ in the game of cricket. 

Sneaky-day, sb. A day of treacherous, variable weather. 
Cf. * Sneke, a cold in the head.' ' Sneke, pose, rime.' — 
Hal. Diet. The last reference is from Palsgrave (1530). 

Snift, V. 71. or a. To sniff. Leic, N'hamp., Wore. 

Snipe, sb, A mean, contemptible person. 

Snirp [snurp], ^6. A small, insignificant person. 

Snoffle [snofl], v. a. To snuffle, snort. SE. Wore. (=to 
speak with a nasal tone, or through the nose), Shrop. (=to 
speak through the nose), Leic. and N'hamp. {snaffle and 
snoffle = to snivel, snuffle, speak through the nose ; to 
sniff), Glouc. (snoffely = snuffling, from a cold in the 
head). HaL I>ict. 

Snug, sb. A pig. 

So, adv. Nearly, thereabouts. * It cost seven shillings or 
so.' Common. 

So vel So-and-so, adj. Enceinte. Glouc, and elsewhere. 

Sobbing- wet [sob-in], adj. Soaking- wet. Shrop., Staff., 
W. Wore, {soiqdny-vjet). 

220 Sock — Sough 

Sock, sh. Mire, filth, liquid manure. Shrop., SE. Wore., 
Up.-on-Sev. {ooch and sockcige). Hal. Diet 

Sock-hole, sb. A pit for BOck to drain into ; a cesspool. 
Shrop., Hal. Dict^ and common. 

Sog, adv. An object that strikes another with sufficient 
force to impress itself is said to ' hit sog.' Staff, {sogging^ 
heavy, sounding), Shrop. («ogr, sogger, a blow, a heavy 
blow), Staff, (a blow). Hal. Diet ' A blow. West.' 

Sogs, ab, pL Gooseberries. 

Soldier, sb. A minnow, in the breeding season, when the 
belly is red. The common English term is *pink': see 
Cmnpleat Angler^ ch. iv, p. 96, ed. 1653. 

Solid, adj. Grave, serious, sedate, steady, solemn. Common. 
' As solid as old times ' is a Midland folk-phrase. 

So long', ecccl. A parting phrase, which is not of long 
standing in Warw. I took it for an Americanism ; but 
I find it in Glouc. Gloss. ' equivalent to au revoir.' It is 
not thought lucky to say * good-bye,* which points to 
a long parting. 

Soople [soop'l], V. a. To make supple. As an adj. the 
word is almost unknown in Warw. 

* To make a thing which is hard and rough, soft ; to soften, to supple.' 
— HoUyband's Dictionaries 1593. 

Shrop., Leic. {v. a. and adj.), N'hamp. (souple). Hal. Diet 

Sorry, adj. Thin-witted, not up to much. ' He's a sorry 
fellow.' — S. Wamv. Provin. 

Sough vel Suflf [suf], sb. The mouth of a drain, guarded by 
a barred or pierced cover called a suff-grate. Common. 
The term is applied in some counties to a covered drain 
of any kind. Dryden, Poly, iv, used * saugh * for * a kind 
of trench.* 

Souring — Spill 



Soaring [sour-in], sb. An apple for winter use. It is some- 
what cone-shaped, of a yellowish- brown on one side, and 
streaked with red on the other. The fruit 13 grown in 
I OIouG, and Wore., but well known in Warw. markets. 
I [I'll be] Soysed ! cxcL 
Spadger [spa]-ur], sh. 
' spadguck, Bewdley.' 

Wore. Wds.> 

The sparrow. 
Osf. {spadgick). 

Spalt [spault], V. n. or a. To split off. Hal. Gloss. {Spall, 
epavl, or epawl, to splinter, is common in Warw. and 
Glouc.) N'hamp. (gpalt, to chip, to split), Glouc. {spavlt, 
pp. split, and apaul, to splinter), W. Wore, (epaul, to 
splinter), SE. Wore, {spavl, sb. a splinter), Up.-on Sev. 
(vfc. and ai.), Shrop. (fptiwl, to slice off; said of wood, 
a carpenter's term). Hal. Did. ' Spawl, a splinter. South.' 
Cf. Nares, s. v. 

, Betailles, rognurea. Spilla 
ill hewing and graving,' — 

' ^lls . . . c:liippiDgii of atoaea, anulat . 
or broken pleoaa of stoneB that come oil 

Bpanish Ash, isb. The lilac. Glouc. 

Sparrow-graas, ab, Var. pron. of ' asparagus.* Usually 

called ' grass,' without qualification, by dealers. Common. 

Spawl, V. n. or a. To splinter. Vule Bpalt. 

SpelBb, V. n. i.q. Bpawl, q.v. Of. 'Spel, a small chip, or 

splinter, ech Ulium.'— Coles. 

f Bpit^ Spifflng, Spifiy, ailj. Fine, gay, fii-st-rate, dapper. 

'Ain't this a spiffin' coat?' Lcic, N'hamp. (spiff). 
ISpUl, sb. A long, thin slip of wood ; or portion of paper 
twisted in spiral form, used to light a candle, or the like. 

'What to reserre their relicka many yeores, 
Tlieir ailier spurn, or npiU of broken spo«res.' 

Hall, S.,L iv. iii. 15. 

222 Spink — SpUt-in-the-ring 

Nares says, * The word has lately been revived, to express 
small slips of paper.' 

Spink, 86. The chaffinch. 'Probably called Spink from 
its alarm note.* — Shrop. Word-bk. England. Vide Pink, 

Spinney, ^6. A small plantation of trees, a coppice, or 
small wood. As Leic. Dial, points out, probably the 
equivalent of the Domesday ' spinetum.' Common. Cf. 
O. Fr. espinnye, 'a thorny plot, place full of briei-s.' — 

Spirt [spurt], (i) v. n. To sprout abnormally (said of 
grain). Shrop., W. Wore. («6. a sprout, or shoot). 

(2) v. a. To break off the shoots from potatoes when 
these ai*e not required for planting. 

Spiry [spir-e], adj, and adv. pec. use. Tall and weak. 
' Them's poor spiry things, them cabbages, they'll never 
heart.* * Your geraniums are growing spiry, they'll never 
make good plants.' Midlands. 

Spit, V. n. (i) To rain slightly. Common. 

(2) To burst slightly (said of roasting apples). 

(3) bb. Likeness, image. * The very spit of his father.' 
Glouc. (sputoi). 

Splatter-dash, v. a. To scatter liquids or semi-liquids far 
and wide. ' Don't splatter-dash the whitewash all over 
everythin'.* N*hamp. Gloss, (splatter-dashing, large, and 
wide spreading ; anything so full and large as to have an 
awkward appearance). 

Splawger [splau-jur], sb. A splay-footed person. Pro- 
nounced sploj-ur, near Warwick. 

Split-in-the-ring. A boys' game. A mark is made within 

"ing. Each player casts his spinning-top at this mark, 

Qpting to manage the cast so that the top may strike 

Splits — Spotted Dick 223 

fairly, and then spin without the ring; for, should the 
top remain within, it becomes the mark for the other 
players, and they attempt to split it with their own 

Splits. A game at marbles. One player holds one of his 
own marbles, plus a marble of his opponent, over the 
back of his own head, and then drops both — ^his object 
being to separate the marbles as far as possible ; for the 
opponent then shoots with his own marble at that of the 
first player, and wins it, if it be struck. 

Splodger [sploj-ur], sb. i.q. Splawger, q.v. 

Splother [sploth-ur], v. n. or a. To scatter saliva, or food 
from the mouth. . W. Wore, (to splash ; sb, a splashing 
noise). Of. Spluther. 

Splother-footed, adj. Splay-footed. Common. 

Spluther [spluth-ur], (i) sb. Uproar, confusion, fuss; 
nonsense, idle talk. Leic, SE. Wore, (splutter). 

(2) V. n. To talk inarticulately, from drink, fury, or 
having the mouth full ; also to make a fuss or uproar — 
much ado about nothing. Leic, Shrop. (splother), SE. 
Wore, (splutter), 

Spluthery, adj. Nonsensical ; blustering, as * spluthery 
talk.' Leic. 

Spoon, Spoony, sb. A simpleton, noodle. Leic, N'hamp. 
(spoony). Common. The adj. in Warw. is Spoony- 

Spot, Spottle, V. a. and n. To bespatter, splash : to rain 
slightly in large drops or * spots/ which are frequently 
termed 'summer-spots.' Common. Shrop. Word-bk. 

Spotted Dick, sb. Currant cake. NW. Warw. 

224 Sprack — Sqtiilt 

Spraok, culj. Vigorous, lively, alert, spry; shrewd, in- 
telligent. Common. Nares' OI088. says, ' Quick, alert ; 
pronounced " sprag " by Sir Hugh Evans, in the Merry 
Wives of Windsor^ in conformity with the dialect 
attributed to him.' 

^ Evans. Ho is a good sprag memory.' — Merry Wivt», iv. i. 85. 

Sprightle up ! excL Be lively, alert (sprightly). 

Spring o' the year, phr. The season of spring. Common. 

Sprunt, V. 71. To struggle. HaL OI08B. It seems to mean 
to start, or spring suddenly without leaving the ground, 
&c., entirely. N'hamp. {sfprunty ah, a sudden spring after 
leaping, when the forefeet reach the ground. * The horse 
gave such a sprunt '), Shrop. (sjyirent, eprunt, sb. a sudden 
start or spring). 

'See this sweet simpering babe. 
Sweet image of thyself; see, how it sprunts 
With joy at thy approach.' — Ben Jonson, The DecUis an Ass, 

Spud, V. n. To speed. ' He did spud along.' 

Spuddle, V, n. To dig lightly. Glouc. 

Spuds, Potatoes. Glouc, Wore., Shrop. (potato-sets). 

Spug, sb. The sparrow. 

Squale, v. n. Var. pron. of * squeal.* SE. Wore., and else- 

Squawk, v, n. To screech, clamour, squeal, squall, cry out : 
caw. Midlands. 

Squench, v. a. Var. pron. of * quench.' Midlands. 

'Fetche pitch and flaxe, and squench it.* 

First Part 0/ the ConUerUim^ p. 59 (in Hal. Did.). 

Sqtiilt, 8h. A speck, sore, or blemish on the skin. W. Wore. 
(a sore place), Up.-on-Sev. (a pimple), Glouc. (squilts, 
spots), SE. Wore, (pimple, or small eruption), Shrop. 

Squit — Stag-alone-y 225 

(a speck, a blemish : used with a negative form, e. g. * The 
child's never *ad a squilt on her'). 

Sqnit, sb. Nonsense. * Your talk's all squit/ 

Sqnitch, Squitch- grass, sb. (i) Couch-grass, and other 
grasses of similai* habit. W. Wore, Shrop., Glouc, Leic, 
SE. Wore. Vide Couch, Quitch, and Scutch. The term 
is loosely applied to garden-refuse in Warw. * They're 
bumin' squitch.' 

(2) A light, flexible stick, or rod. Common. 

Squob, V. a. To bui-st, to squash. ' What did you squob 
that plum for ? ' 

SquOze, p. and pp. of * squeeze.' Shrop. Common. . 

Staddle [stadl], sb. A wooden frame raised on low, broad- 
based stones — called * staddle-stones ' — to support a rick. 
N'hamp., Oxf., Wore., Glouc. ? common. Cf. Blck-staddle. 
Cf. A.-Sax. staJJoU sta^U, sta^d. 

Stag^alone-y [stag-&-lon'-e]. A boys' game. One boy is 
chosen stag, and runs after the other players, holding 
his clasped hands> palms together, in front of him, 
trying to tick any one he can. The first boy he touches 
joins hands with him, and they run together, and try 
to tick other players, and so form an ever-lengthening 
chain, the boys at each end of the chain ticking others 
with their disengaged hands, till all are caught — ^the 
one first caught becoming 'stag.' The other players 
may break the chain if they can, and ride the disengaged 
members back to den. The stages rhyme of warning, 
when starting from den, is 

'Stag alooe-y, 
My long pony, 
Kick the bucket over.* 

Cf. Bume and Jackson, Shrop, F6lk4ore^ ' Stag warning,' 


226 Stagger-bob — Stare 

p. 523, and my English Folk-rhyvies, pp. 391-a, for 

Stagger-bob, sb. A very young call Glouc, Wore, and 
Shrop. (staggering-bob^ a very young calf, slaughtered). 

Stall [stal], sb. A long, slender handle to a mop, broom, 
hayfork, and the like. Glouc. {stale and steel), Nliamp. 
(steal), Shrop. (and stele), Staff, (steall), Leic, SK Wore. 
(stale), Oxf. Common throughout England, slightly 
varied. A.-Sax. steel, a stalk, &c. 

* It hath a long stale or handle.' — Mortimer, Husbandry (quoted in 

Gloric. Gloss.). 

^A spearo staff, or the shaft and stale of a javeline.' — KomauUitor 
(in Nares). 

* Like a broad shak-fork with a slender steale.* — 6p. Hall's Satires, 
p. 77. 

^Steale or handell of a staffe, manche, harUd* — Palsgrave. 

* Stele ' is used in the Prompt, Parv, for the handle of 
a drinking or other vessel : 

'Stele, or stert of a vesselle, ansa.* 

Stale, (i) 86. Urine. 

(2) v. -n. To micturate. Leic, Wore ? common. 
Ainsworth, Tliesaurtis, has 'Stale, U7*inxi. To stale, 
urinavi reddere.^ 

Stand, V. a. To put, place. ^ Stand this glass on the 
window-ledge.' ? common. 

Stare, sb. The starling. 

* Stumusy a stare.' — MS. Antnd, 249, t 90. 

* Staare, a byrde, estmmieauxj — Palsg. (in HaL DieL), 

Wilbraham, Gloss, Clvesh,, 1826, says, * In iElfrie's 
Glossary we have Beacita vel Stumus, Steam. He has 
also Turdus, Staer.' Vide Blaokstare. 

starred — Stirrup-oil 227 

pp. Starved with cold. S. Wamv. Provin. 
8E. Wore. GI088. (stard). 

Start-naked [start-naidd], adj. Wholly naked, stark- 
naked. ' Stript start-naked ' is often used as a compound 
ddjective. * A thin cotton bed-gown ain't much good to 
a child in the winter : it might almost as well be stript 

Start-up, ah. The crocus. 

Starve, v. a. To chill through. * Don't go out in this cold 
wind, you'll starve yourself,' or *be starved to death.' 
In the Midlands, this word never means to perish of 

Stelch [stel-ch], ab. A layer, a row, a section of anything 
above the other parts. N'hamp. Gloss, (as much as 
a man can thatch without moving his ladder. The 
• first stelch in a roof is called a gSLhle-stdcK). Glouc. 
Gloss, {stulch, sb. a series of helms or haulms for 
thatching, Cotswold). Up.-on-Sev. Wds. {stdch or stUchy 
a reaper's breadth). 

Step-and-fetoh-it, sb. A person that drags one leg in 
walking. Leic. Dial, says, *A favourite nickname for 
a tall girl, quick and decisive in her movements.' 

Stick-and-a-rag, sb. An umbrella. Midlands. 

Sticking, 86. The neck or throat of beef. Leic. (stickings). 

Stiddy, adj. Var. pron. of ' steady.* 

Still, adj. Respectable, inoffensive. ' He's a still, quiet 
man. There's never nothing the matter with him.' — 
S. Warw. Provin. 

Stirmp-oil [stir-up-ile], sb. i. q. Starap-oil, q. v. Leic, 
N'hamp., and common. 

Q 2 

228 Stitchwhile — Stomach 

Stitohwhile, ab. A moment of time. ' It teks me every 
stitchwhile to keep them children's clothes tidy/ 

Stock, (i) t;. cr. To grub up; to dig up with a pointed 
implement. Shrop., Glouc, N'hamp. 

'Thy groYos and pleasant springs 
The painful labourer's hand shall stock, the roots to bom.' 

Drayton, Poly., Song xiy (quoted in OUmc CRobb,). 

(2) To peck. Glouc. (of a bird pulling up seed com), 
Wore, Shrop. l/p.-on-Sev. Wds. ( = to strike with 
a point). 

Stocky, odj. (1) Sturdy, short and thick-set. Ozf. Hal. 
Diet says, * West.' 

* They had no titles of honour amongst them, hut such as denoted 
some bodily strength or perfection ; as, such an one the tall, such an 
one tlie stocky/ — Addison, Spedatw, No. 433 (quoted in Qloue. OloasX 

(2) Impudent, saucy; restive. N'hamp., Leic Hal. 

Stodge, V. a. or n. To stuff, cram, fill to repletion ; as, ' To 
stodge the hodgo (belly)': or, ' To squeeze close together.' 
— Hal. Gloss. Midlands. ? common. 

Stodgefkil^ adj. Quite full, full to repletion. Part. adj. 
stodged. Midlands. ? common. 

Stodger, sb. A fat, * pot-bellied ' person. SE. Wore. - 

Stodgy, adj. Thick, clogging, as applied to foods: stout, 
* podgy,' * fed-up,' as applied to persons. Midlands. 
? common. 

Stomach, (1) v. a. To fancy, tolei'atc. *I can't stomach 
the master's ways.' Common. 

(2) sb. Courage, pride. Common. 

* K. Hen. That ho which hath no stomach to this fight, 
Let him dopart.' — Hen. K, iv. 3. 35. 

* Wlioso liath also a proud look and high stomach : I will not suffer 
him.' — Ps. ci. 7 (Prayer Book Versiion). 

Stomaehful— strap-oil 229 

' An undei^oing stomach ■=enduring courage, occurs in 
Hie Temp. i. 2. i^^y. Sw b.Ibo Ben. VIII, iv- z. ^4,-wheTe 
Wolscy \B called ' a mau of an unbounded stomach.' 
vmaohfia, {i) adj. High-spirited, proud; stubborn, 
obstinate. Common. 

stmnai-hful boy, put to schnol, the whole world could noL bring 
to pronounoo the first letter.' — Sir R, L'Estranga ^cit. Idtbam). 

{2) Prone to take offence, resentful. ' Don't you get 
out o' th' gaffer's good books; he's very stomaehful.' 
' Btdner, «A. A boy's marble of stone ; so called to distin- 

• guish it from the ' pot ' or day marble, and the ' alley ' of 
alabaster, &e. 
I atoo-&n, eb. Var. pron. of ' stone.' 

Stoop, V. a- To tilt or incline a barrel so that the contents 
may flow more readily. ' This barrel's gettin' low ; you'd 
better stoop it.' ' The baircl wants stooping.' Common, 
Stopleas, tib. i. q. Ditleea, q. v. TJp.-on-Sev. 
Stop-Bbawd, sh, A stopgap, actually and figuratively. ' It's 
I 00 use comin' to me to be your stop-shawd.' Glouo. 

^^H (tliard, a gap, and alojjshard), Up,-on-Sev. (s/MU-rf, sliord, 
^^H a gap), Hal. Dirt. (atopKhoril), Sumerset., and elsewhere. 
^^^^^tool, ab. A low stump of a tree, which sometimes springs 
^^^B forth anew ; or is occasionally hollowed out, and filled 
^^^B with soil, in which flowers, &c, are planted. Shrop. 
1^^^ (and stub), Clouc. (doui or ^ool), TJp.-on-Sev. (and etui>), 
W.'WoTQ. {stub). 
Btnp-oil, eb, A greenhorn is sent to a shop for a penny- 
worth of strap-oil or stirrup-oil, q. v., and sometimes 
gets a taste of a strap for his pains : hence strap-oil may 
signify a beating. Common, Vide Pigeon's Milk, In 

230 Strapper — Stuff 

eomitry phees tlie new hand on the fann is sent with 
a bag to fistcfa 'the nek-mould,' and is generally sent 
hack with a hearv load of stones^ 

Stn^iper, «&. A tall, stzoDglj-huilt person. Comnum. 
Birapp ing, adj. Great, tall, balky. Common. 

Strides, ^. (i) Tronsera. (2) A eooking utensil, somewhat 
horse-shoe shaped, hooked at the ends to dip tiie bars of 
the grate : the use of which is to support a dish, Dutch 
oven, or the like, containing food to be cooked. 

Strike, (i) r. a. or n. To plant a young shoot: to take 
root &x>m a shoot. 

(2) «6. A bushel measure [there is also a ' strike-basket,' 
which contains a bushel] : a busheL 

' Some men and women, rich and nobly borne, 
GmTe all tbej had for one poore strike of come.* 

Taylor, W>vr1ces, 1630, L 15 ^quoted in HaLDtd). 

It is supposed that ' strike,' a bushel, is so called from 

the custom of ^ striking ' off the measure of com evenly 

with the ' strickle,' a wooden implement for that purpose. 

Randle Holme caUs this a ' strickless,' and describes it as 

' a straight board, with a staff fixed in the side ' {Acad. 

Strip-Jack-naked. A game at cards. ' B^gar-my-neigh- 
bour.' Midlands. 

Stroddle, v. n. Var. pron. of ' straddle.' 

Strommock, v. n. To walk in a striding, ungraceful fashion. 
Strommooking, part, adj. Applied to slatternly females 
walking with long strides. N'hamp. 

Strommooks, eb, A great, mannish woman. 

Struv, p. and pp. of * strive.' Leic, N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Stuff, Stuff up, V. a. To make a person believe a lie. 

Stunkey— Sup 231 

Stunkey or Thiinkey [^Aunk-e], adj. * A term applied to 
arable land which is so saturated with wet as to be unfit 
for ploughing or sowing.' — Hal. OI088. 

Stupid, a6. Bacon. 

Sty, ah, * A painful and troublesome pimple or tumour on 
the eyelid, the charm for relieving which is rubbing the 
part nine times with a wedding-ring, or other piece of 
gold.' — HaL GI088. Common. 

* " I haye a sty here, Chilax." 
" I have no gold to cure it, not a penny. 
Not one cross, cayalier/' ' — Beaum. & Fletch., Mad Lover. 

N^hamp, Gloss, says, * It seems to be a corruption.' Aug.- 
Lot. Lexic,^ 1440, has * Styanye yn the eye.* 

Substanoe, sh. A tumour. Midlands. 

Suok, pi. Sacks. Lollipop, lollipops. ^ Suck-shop ' =a place 
where lollipops are sold. 

Sack in, v. a. To cheat, chouse, trick. Leic, N'hamp., 
SE. Wore, {sfwcked m= cheated : which, too, is in commo^^ 
use in the Midlands). 

Suddent, adv. Suddenly. S. Warw. Pravin. I have 
heard it only as a var. pron. of 'sudden,' e.g. * All of 
a suddent': ' A suddent shock.' 

Sukey [stLk-e], sb. A tea-kettle. N'hamp. Vide Shiik. 

Smnm&t, sb. Var. pron. of * somewhat.' Something. ' I've 
got summat for you to do.' Common. 

Summery vd Summered, part. adj. Tart (not sour) ; spoken 
of beer slightly * turned * owing to hot weather. Glouc. 
Cf. Shrop. Word'bk, sub voce. 

Stin, adv. Var. pron. of ' soon.' 

Sup, sb. A small quantity of drink. ' Gi'e us a sup 0' tay 
(tea).* Wore, Shrop., and elsewhere. 

"'^in TFiiL. if joa^ '^timnniii^ 

^Trirni'. •?- £. "T'3 i-IhiLa -ae srank cr ssem of 
a ar% 'i«>it:v izu^ craaDbdoiSL cy ^iie amBciur aciut of the 

flW!3IiftfC ID Tim A 'S* 

Aj'Ifki •frvra^ 1/ ^aaan. 'w^Mfcg •i^ur 

pr«Med Crom walking or ox^'-Hexenioii. ^ I wms wdly 
fWftteLelkd to death." said a Sczatford girl afto- a dirty 
walk/ — HaL GIovl Oxf, Gl^ti^ (sapplonait). f^awoickul 
fdf/wf and ^jyMkuliiny, 

Bw00tener [swet-nr], «&. 'A person engaged on bduJf of 
t^je neller to bid at a public sale or anction, without 
interiding to parchase, for the pnrjwee of clandestinely 
or mureptitionsly running op the price of the artidea.* — 

Nhamp. Gloiss. Common. 

Swaet'^oothf A. and phr. A person who is fond of sweet 
lliingH is said to lie a sweet-tooth, or to have a sweet 
U fifth, (yommon. 

Swep— Tabber 233 

Swop, />. and pp. of * sweep.' ' I swep the kitchen about 
ten minutes agoo, an* now it's as bad as ever, along 
o' you not wiping your boots.' Common. 

Swinge [swinj], v. a. To singe. Glouc., Wore. 

'The scorching flame sore swinged all his face/ 

Spenser, Faery Queenej bk. i, c. xi, st. zxvi. 
(quoted in SArop. WQird4)h), 

Swdrd, 86. The outside, or skin of bacon ; the rind, or 
'crackling* of pork. Common. Leic. {aoord), Shrop. 
(suitrd and ad'Urd)^ W. Wore, (aord), SE. Wore, (soard), 
Up.-on-Sev. (sward). 

* Sward or sworde of flesche, coriana,* — Prompt. Parv, 
'The sward of bacon, la peau de lard.* — Cotgrave. 

Syke [sik], sb. Bacon. Stratford-on-Avon, 

T. (i) Added to once, nice, sermon, vermin ; which become 
wunst, nicet, aamiunt^ vamiint 

(2) Omitted in preterites and participles ending in 
*pt,' as crep\ kep\ 8lep\ swep' = crept, kept, slept, 

(3) *T* or * double t* changes to *r' before some 
vowels, or ' h * mute. Oer out, gerrin on, lev on, gov at 
replace get on, getting on, let on (to divulge), got 
at, &c. 

Tft, sb. Var. pron. of * tea.' Oxf., SK Wore, NTiamp., and 

Tabber [tab-ur], v. n. To tap repeatedly, as with the 
fingers, on a door or window ; to drum. 

'Her maids shall lead her . . ., tabering upon their breasts.' — 
Nahum ii 7. 

'As hard as a taber (tabour)* is a Glouc folk-phrase. 
Pynson and Prompt. Parv. have * tabouryn, timpanisoj 
N'hamp., Glouc, Wore., Shrop., Leic. 

Tachin-end — Take mwmy 

Tm^tut-eDd^ A, Var. jvon. of * attBcliiiig-end.' The waxed, 
hempen thread used by cobblers for joiniiig or attaching 

Tack,(i)«i'. PaBtnnge hired for tempoiazy use. Common. 

(2) r. a. To take animals for pastimge. for hire ; to 
hire pastniage. Common. 

(3) A. Poor malt liquor, food* &e. C<Mnm<m. 

Tally, A. Var. pron. of * toflFy.' SE. Wore 

Tag, (1 ) r. a. To touch, as in the game of Tick, q. v. 

(2) «/>. The game of * tick.' A touch in the game. 
SE. Wore 

Tageons [taj-us]. wl). ' Tedious, troublesome. " The boy's 
not well, he's so tageous" (this points to the old pro- 
nunciation of tedious [taid'ius], Skeat).' — S. Wane, 

Tail-board, ^. The back end of a cart or wagon. It may 
be extended with chains so as to allow of extra freight, 
or allowed to fall below the body of the vehicle, for 
purposes of loading ; and, in some instances, it may be 
removed entirely. Midlands. 

Tail-wheat, 6/^. Inferior wheat left after winnowing. Shrop. 
Word'bk. says, ' The light lean grains which fall out of 
the tail-end of the winnowing machine.' Cf. Leic. Dial. 
for a careful paragraph. SE. Wore, (tail), XJp.-on-Sev. 
N'hamp., Oxf. (tailin-whate), Shrop. (tail-ends and 
tailivytf). Hal. Diet Common. 

'Taint [tant]. 'Tis not. N'hamp. ' 'Taint rainin', now.' 

Take after, phr. To resemble a parent or relative in 
feature or disposition. Common. 

Take away, sb. Appetite, eating-capacity. * That lad's 
got a pretty good take away.' Common. 

Take oflf— Tang 235 

Take off, phr. (i) To leap from a mark, as ' Take off, taw/ 

(2) To mimic. Common. 

Take on', phr. To grieve, lament. * Don't take on so.' 

l^ke to, phr. (i) To enter on ; take possession of, as * We 
shall take to the other house next week.' 

(a) To adopt. * I'm gooin' to tek to Sarah's little boy, 
now the father's dead.' 

(3) To show a liking for, as ' Did the baby take to the 
new nurse?' *To be taken to' or *took to'=to be 
taken aback, sm'prised, astonished. Common. 

Take up, phr. (1) To answer shortly and hastily. 

(2) To correct 

(3) To improve (said of the weather). * It looks stormy, 
but I think it'll take up later on.' 

(4) To take into legal custody. Common. 

Taken. Took. 'I taken the horse to be shod, isterday 
(yesterday).' Midlands, and elsewhere. 

T&-kettle-broth, eh. ' Broth made of bread, hot water, and 
an onion or two.' — S. Warw. Provin. SE. Wore, N'hamp. 
(bread, butter, pepper, and salt, with boiling water). 

Tan, V. a. To thrash, castigate, e. g. * 111 tan your hide.' 
But N*hamp. Gloss, calls attention to A.-Sax. tariy a 
switch, or twig. Common. 

Tancel [tan-sl], v. a. To beat, thrash, castigate. Shrop., 
Up.-on-Sev., Glouc. 

Tang, v.a. ( 1 ) To sound loudly, or sharply and repeatedly, 
as a harsh bell does. Midlands. 

*Malvdl. Be opposite with a kinsman, surly with servants; let thy 
tongue tang arguments of state/ — Twelfth Night, ii. 5. 64. 

'Tang' is used as a sb. in the Tempest, and means a 

236 Tank — Tater-trap 

twang or unpleasant iteration similar to that made by 
the clapper on inferior bell-metaL Midlands. 

^Stepk. For ahe had a toogae with a tang.' — Tempetif iL a. 53. 

(2} To make a ringing noise with a key, or some 
piece of metal, on a shovel, warming-pan, or the like, 
when bees are swarming. The sound is said to attract 
the insects to the hiva Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Tank, (1) v. a. To strike, knock. 

(2) sb. A blow, or knock. N'hamp., Leic, Staff. 

(3) V. n. To chatter, cank, gossip. 

Tantad'lin-tart, sb. (i) A nonentity. Children are some- 
times promised a tantadlin-tart, when there is no inten- 
tion to provide a delicacy of any kind. 

(2) A cow-clat ; merda, Hal. Diet, agrees, and assigns 
the term to Herefords. 

(3) A pasty, the true contents of which have been 
abstracted and replaced by some nasty compound. 
Glouc. GI088. {tarttadlin^ apple-dumpling). Leic. Dial. 
says, ' The composition of this delicacy varies considera- 
bly, but apples, onions, and fat bacon are amongst the 
most constant of its elements. Unwary inquirers into 
its constituents are apt to find themselves the victims of 
a curiously unsavoury joke.' 

Tap, V, a. To resole or heel boots and shoes. Shrop., Glouc 

Ta-ta, ab. A walk, or ramble, in baby-talk. When used 
as a parting phrase, it is accented on the second syllable. 

Tater-trap, sb. The mouth. Common. 

'Vlee away, black ie cap, 
Don't ye hurt measter's crap, 
While I vill my tatie-trap. 
And lie down and teak a nap.' 

Bird-8carer^8 rhyme^ Southern Counties 
^Noles A Queries^ and ser. vii. 313). 

Tater-ball — Teeny 237 

Tater-ball vd T&ter-apple^ sh. The ' fruit ' of the potato, 
which is round like a ball, and contains the seeda 
SE. Wore, (tater-ball). 

Taw [tau], sb. (i) The mark from which runners, leapers, 
or players in any game, start. Leic. Dial, says that 
* tatv = toe.' N'hamp. 

(2) A large, choice marble which is used by boys for 
shooting at other marbles. Common. 

Tazy-wazy, sb. i. q. Fao-wax, q. v. Shrop. 

Tear [ter], v. n. To rush, hurry, or run about violently, 
as 'Don't tear along so.' Leic, SE. Wore, N'hamp. 
(tare). Common. Vide Kip. 

Teart [te-ftt], adj. (i) Sharp, painful, smarting, as ' a teart 
wound.' A.-Sax. 

(2) Sharp, biting (said of cold weather). Midlands. 
Sour beer and cider are said to be ' teart ' in Glouc. 

Teal [tel], v. a. To * upend'; to place an object or objects 
in a vertical or slanting position. ' Teel this dish agen 
the sink, to drain.' Glouc. Gloss. * to pile up.' Hal. Diet. 
' To place anything in a leaning position against a wall. 

Teem [tem], v. n. or a. To pour: to pour out, empty. 
'Hark at the rain; it does teem.' 'This teapot don't 
teem well.' 

'Teem out the remainder of the ale into the tankard, and fill the 
glasses with small beer/ — Swift, Advice to Servants (in Gkuc CRoss.). 

Cf. 'Temyn, or maken empty, vacuoj evacuo* — Pnmpt. Parv, 

Teeming, paH. adj. 'The teeming rain,' or 'Is it 
raining ? ' ' Fairly teeming.' Midlands. 

Teeny, adj. Very small. Common intensives are ' teeny- 
tiny ' and ' teeny-weeny.' 

23* Teg- 

If.: j«f^. A lain-surm. ^r dmnderstonD, trittoici 

Tecxifale. a^ir. * Exeeasnrrjr. *- He's tetriUe fond iA the 


Twiiiy, r. <i- To destroy, injure. •They'Te been 

my c&bl^Lges/ — .S*. W'2 r»r. Pr^yrin GI<me. Gloe^. ' To annoy, 
U&a«. vex. torment. Coomion. To damage. SeUey, NK 
To break up the land fine, I&:>mK* W. Wore, (to tonnent, 
puzzle , irp.-on-Sev. (to astonish, annoy, trouble), SE. 
Wore. I to torment y, Shrop. ^to pain, to irritate). 

Terry. «'.(/. Sticky, smeary. Hal, Gfc**. 

Tether. *.*. n. or ri. To marrv. Hal. Gfoes, 

Tewer [tu-ur]. A A narrow passage. ' Which Mib. Hancox 
do you want: her as lives up the tewer T — & Warw, 
Frovin. Cf. Chewer. 

Tewing, ffart, oflj. Toiling, labouring. 2rhamp, Gloss, 
says, * The Wldlf MS., Luke xii. has, ^ Biholde je lilyes of 
ye feeld, how yei waxen, yei tueilyn not nei}^ spynnen."' 

Thaek [fAak], i*. a. or n, and 8^'. To thatch ; a thatch. 
Leic. Wore., and elsewhere. 

*The houises of these two tonnne<( be partly slatid, pftrtly thakkid.* — 
Inland, Itin. ii. 39. 

'That they would ever in houses of thack 
Their lives lead.* — Chaucer's Dream ^quoted in X'kamp. GUm.). 

'Thack and dvke 
Sternberg, Dial, & FoOdore o/N*/ump., 1851, p. 113. 

That, ( I ) adv. So. It is followed by * as,' where * so * would 
\}e followed by * that/ e. g. ' This lad's that idle as I can 
do nothing with him.' Midlands. 

That-away — This 239 

(2) intensive. * I've been gardening and that.' 

(3) ' Do yo' like opples V * I do that/ 

That-away, adv. In that direction; in that fashion or 
manner. Leic, and elsewhere. Cf. Thls-a way. 

That n vel That'ns, adv. That way, as of the manner of 
doing a thing. England. Cf. A-that*n. * That'n ' is used 
as an abbreviation of ' That one ' in most dialects, too. 

That there, jyr. That (pleonasm). 'That there whip's 
mine.' Midlands, and elsewhere. Cf. This here. 

The, Th*, def. art. or distin. adj. Is sometimes redundant, 
as * 111 buy th' both:' 'I prefer th' tother:' «He died a' 
th' Christmas:' 'I'm teaching him th' paper-hanging.' 
It is sometimes omitted, for emphasis, as ' Look at crows,' 
L e. the vast number of rooks. Midlands. 

The, adv. There. ' Ain't the a ruck o* trees in this park.' 
Hal. Diet. * = there, though. A.-Sax.' 

Theim [tham], posa. pron. Theirs. 'Whose cat's this?' 
' Theim next door.' 

Them, Them there, pron. Those. * Gi'e me them there 
nails.' Midlands, and elsewhere. 

There, adv. Var. pron. of * there.' Leic. 

There-and-then, plir. At once, immediately. ' He set to 
work there-and-then.' Common. 

Thick [<Aik], adj. Intimate. * As thick as thieves * is 

a common phrase. 
Thief [ttef ], sh. An imperfection in the wick which causes 

a candle to 'gutter' and waste. See Holme, Acad. 

Arraoryy bk. iii, ch. iii, p. 102: 

' Thief is when anything is in the burning part of the candle whicli 
makes it waste more than it would do/ 

This, adv. So. * About this high.' Cf. That. 

240 This-away — Three-straws 

This-away, adv. In this direction ; in this £Etshion. Leic. 
Cf. That-away. 

This here, pron. This (pleon.). Cf. That there. 

This*n, This'nsy adv. This way, as of the manner of doing 
a thing. Cf. That'n. ' This'n ' = this one in most dialects, 

Thomasing [tom-&-sing], paH, adj. Collecting alms and 
provisions on St. Thomas* Day, Dec. ai. Usually called 
*Gooin' a-thomasin',' or sometimes *Gooin' a-goodin'.' 
Midlands, and elsewhere. See Dyer, British Popular 
Customs, pp. 43 8-4 1 . For verses see my Eng. Folk-rhymes^ 
pp. 2:z8-.9. Cf. Coming. 

Thrall [^^raul], sb. A stand for barrels. Glouc, N'hamp., 
Leic. Hal. Diet 

Thrape vel Threap [^^rap] v. a. To thrash, castigate. Hal. 
• Diet. * North.' This may be a modem application of the 
ancient word : 

* 1 threpe a mator upon one, I beare one in hande that he hath doone 
or said a thing amysse.' — Palsg. f. 389 (in HaL Did). 

It is still used in Shrop. in this last sense, and the Shrop. 
Word-bk. gives early examples. 

Three-straws [^^re-strauz]. A game at pitchback. Three 
rows of earthy sand, &c., are placed in parallel lines about 
a foot and a half apart. Each player is careful not to step 
or descend upon these ' straws ' when pitching over the 
boy who makes the back, lest he himself should be forced 
to take the other s place. The one that makes the back 
has several positions, which he* takes up by turn, when 
the last player pitches and cries * Foot it': (1) Both feet 
outside the first straw; (2) A foot on each side of the 
first straw ; (3) Both feet inside ; (4) Both feet between 
the first two parallel lines; (5) Both feet before the 



second sUbw, &c. Whon tlio threo straws are passed, 
and the one ' down ' is told to ' foot it,' he does so bj 
placing one foot lengthwise against the other resting 
sideways, and then bringing the aide-long foot, still 
sideways, in advance, and, lastly, setting the now rear 
foot beside, but in front of its fellow ; and again makes 
the back. This goes on until the distance is so great that 
one leaper, less agile than his fellows, fails to reach the 
• back," ur steps over or on the last straw to do so, when 
he is ' down.' If tlie last player forget to cry ' Foot it ' at 
I any time in the play, he himself goes ' down.' X imagine 
that the rows are called ' straws ' because they ore etrewn 
or drau-ii. 

When the one 'down' has a foot on each side of the 
middle straw — a position which is called ' the fly ' — each 
leaper must clear his back and the three straws. Should 
one tread on the first or last straw, or start from the space 
between straws one and two, or alight between straws hro 
and three {this not always), he is ' down.' But, when the 
one that makes the back has advanced his position, each 
leaper is allowed to start from the space between the first 
and second straws. When the maker of the back has both 
feet over the third straw, it is allowable to leap from 
the apace between straws one and two, or two and three. 
\ Somctlines the one 'down' does not continue to foot it 
[ further, but returns, step by step, to his original position 
1 before the first straw, should no leaper blunder mean- 
while, when a new game is begun. 

The method adopted to determine which player shall 

make the back is to procure the same number of various 

lengths of straw, or blades of grass, as there are players. 

I Tliese are held by one player, usually with the visible 

I ends oven, and each player, in turn, selects any length ho 

• I •* 


rrtK"C' tier -ac^ U l Tn^viuns- .fame hafr b«t«]L pL&Tifd. 
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Tiddle — TiUer 243 

Tiddle, {i)v.a. To tond carefully ; to nurture tenderly. Oxf. , 
SE. Wore., Up.-on-Sev., Shrop., W. Wore, (to fuss, fidget ; 
V. n. [dc] to be carefully tended). Bailey, Diet, 1727, 
has ' Tiddle, to indulge or fondle, to make much of.* 
Ainsworth, Thesam^s^ has * To tiddle, or tidder, one, 
(dicui nimw indulgere,* &c. 

. (2) V, n. To micturate, used principally amongst 

Tiddling [tid-lin], sK A delicate child that needs and 
receives tender care ; a young lamb brought up by hand. 
Oxf. (tiddly, a lamb fed with the bottle), Qlouc, 

Tiddlywink [tid-le-wink'] , sh, A small public-house licensed 
for the sale of beer, cider, and tobacco. Glouc, Wore. 
' Tiddly * or * tiddley,* meaning ' a drink,* has passed into 
modem slang : witness the London street-song, * Come 
and have a tiddley round the corner.* Cf. Tiddle, v. n. 

Tiddy, adj. Tiny, babyish. SE. Wore, W. Wore, (small, 
tiny), Oxf. {tiddley, very small). ' Tiddy-iddy ' is another 
Warw. form. 

Tidy, adj. Well, tolerable: good, in all its idiomatic senses. 
Midlands. Shroj). Word-hk. gives suitable quotations 
from early authoi*s. 

' Tydy, prolms.' — Prompt. Parv. 

Tift, sb, A slight quarrel (tiff)- Shrop. 

Tight, adj. Neat, well-made. Hal. Oloss., and common. 

Tiller, sft. * The horse in the shafts, the wheeler.* — S, Wariv, 
Provin, A corniption of * thiller.' Glouc. {thiller and 
tiller^ also fillpv and thdl-horse), W. Wore, {thill-horse 
and thiller, also filler), Up.-on-Sev. and Shrop. {thiller), 
SE. Wore, {thiller and filler). 

R 2 

244 Tip-cat 

' Gf^. Thoa hast got more h^ir on thy chin, than Dobbin my thill- 
horse has on his tail.' — March, of Ven. ii. a. lox 

^Fand. Come yonr wayft^ come your ways; an yon draw backward, 
we'll put you i' the fills.' — Troil. A Ores. liL a. 44. 

*Thylle horse, teredus.' — Pnmpt. Pare. 

* Thiller, or Thil-horse, is the horse which is put under the ThiUs of 
the Cart to bear them up.' — Blount, GkasographiOy 1674, p. 646 (in Shrop. 


Tip-cat, 86. 'A play amongst boys, less used now than 
formerly. The cat, which is made of some very firm 
wood, pointed at both ends, resembles a small shuttle, 
but having the angles from the centre more acute, so 
that a smart and well-directed blow with a bat-formed 
stick shall cause it to rise from the ground, when the 
player endeavours by a second stroke to drive it as far 
as possible. This diversion has a considerable resem- 
blance to trap-ball, save that the cat in this game 
answers the double purpose of trap and ball.' — Hal. 

I may add to this, that when the striker has driven 
the cat to a distance, he gives the other player a chance 
to become batsman by allowing him a certain number 
of leaps from the cat towards the ring. Should the 
leaper succeed in reaching the ring by these leaps, he 
becomes batsman and the former holder must cast the 
cat. This reminds me that the game is not fully de- 
scribed above. A ring is scored in the ground, and one 
player casts the cat towards it from a certain mark. 
Should the cat fall in the ring, and remain there, the 
batsman is 'out,* i.e. must resign the bat. If the cat 
fall on the line of the ring, one tip and drive (called 
' one pen'uth,' pennyworth) only are allowed : if it fall 
entirely without the circumference * three pen*uth ' — 
three tips and three drives — are regular. The usual 

Tisiky — Toad-in-a-[the-]hole 245 

formula of the batsman — after the cat is cast — is ' Rise 
eat, turn cat, all the way along, and all outs wherever 
it goes,* which allows of his placing the cat in any 
favourable position for the tip, or taking it from any 
hollow or inconvenient place into which it may fall. 
Should the one who casts the cat cry ' No rise cat,' &c., 
this advantage is forbidden. The game, in some form, 
is of world-wide fame, I believe: and is said to be 
pictured amongst the mural decorations of the ancient 

Tisiky [tiz-e-ke], adj. Phthisical ; aflfected with a hacking 

Tisik, (i) V. n. To cough. 

(2) sb, A hacking cough. 
Tiaioking, part. adj. Midlands,' and elsewhere. 

Titivate [tit-e-vat], v. a. To make smart, or spruce ; to 
renovate (as of attire). Common. 

Titty, ab. A mother s breast or milk. Common. 

^MammiUe, tittas.' — Ang. Sax. Vocab. loth or nth cent, (in Wright's 
Voccibs. i. 283). 

* Creepy mouse, creepy mouse 
AU the way to titty-house.' 

Rhyme addressed to very young chUdren, ichUst inserting 
one finger beneath the neck-clothing. 

Titty-bottle, sb. An infant's feeding-bottle. Common. 

Titty-mog, eb. A child or other youngling frequently at 
the teat. * Lug-tit ' is another term. * Mog ' or * Moggy * 
is a pet name for a sucking calf. 

TizEy, sb. A sixpence. N'hamp. Hal. Diet. Wright, 
Diet. ObsoL and Pvov. Engl., gives this as a cant term. 

Toad-in-a-[the-]hole, sb. A piece of meat baked in a 
batter pudding. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

246 Toadstool — Tommy 

Toad-stool, sb. ' A fungus resembling and sometimes mis- 
taken for a mushroom. Shakespeare uses the term in 
a figurative sense/ — BLal. Gloss, N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

*Ajax [to Thersites, a deformed Grecian]. Toadstool, learn me the 
proclamation.' — Trml, A Cress, ii. i. aa. 

Tod, ah. A stomach disease of the rabbit, causing swelling. 
Leic. Dial, says, * constipation,' and calls it * tott.' Qlouc, 
SE. Wore. (tad). Hal. Diet says, * West.' Superabun- 
dance of vegetable food is said to cause it. 

Toe-bite, sb. A leech which inhabits stagnant ponds. 

Token, sb. *A death-sign. "I am certain summut has 
come to my son, for I saw his token last night ; it was 
a white dove flew out of the bed-curtains, and was gone 
in a minute." ' — S. Wat^w. Provin. It is almost un- 
necessary to say that Hhe white dove,' a specti-al har- 
binger of death, is believed in throughout England. 
Readers of Westwa'i^ Ho! will remember how Mr. 
Oxenham saw ' the white bird/ before embarking on his 
last and fateful voyage. Instances of this credulity 
might be multiplied. 

Toldrum, sb. Paltry finery. Leic, and elsewhere. 

Tom, 86. Anycockbird. S. Warw. Provin., SE, Wcxix. Gloss. 

Tom-and- Jerry, sb. A beerhouse. Glouc, SE. Wore, and 
elsewhere. Sometimes called * A Tom-and-Jerry house.' 

Tommy, sb. * Provisions given to workmen in manufac- 
turing districts, instead of money. The shops where the 
truck system is carried on are called tommy-shops.' — 
Nltamp. Gloss, Nowadays, * tommy' is used broadly 
for food of any description. SE. Wore, Glouc. Glots. 
(bread), Shrop. (and tummy, bread and cheese). 

To-morrow-day — Top-and-tail 247 

To-morrow-day, sb. To-morrow ; the morrow. Now used 
to children only, as 'You shall go a ta-ta with aunty 
to-morrow-day.* The Shrop, Woi^-bk gives an example 
of its common use in old times, from Bp. Percy's Folio 
MS. (ed. Hales and Fumivall) : 

'& when it was on the Morrow day 
Triamore was in good array 
armed k weU dight' — Sir Triamore, 1. 738. 

Took, (i) pp, of ' take.* Common. Cf. Taken. 

*An I shall be took bad an' die.' 

Adam Bede^ c. 1 (quoted in Leic, DialX 

(2) p, and pp. pec, of ' take.* Blighted, infected. * The 
frost took the blossoms last night.' * The blight has took 
the fruit trees.' N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Took to, phr. Taken aback. Qlouc, Leic. Dial, (called 
to account, reprimanded, punished), and elsewhere. Cf. 
Taken to. 

Toosey-megs vd Toosey-pegs [tli-se], 86. pi, A child's 
teeth. Cf. Meg. 

Toot, V, n. * To pry or search curiously and impertinently 
into another person's concerns.' — Hal. Gloss, Leic. 
N'havip, Gloss, remarks that * Florio renders both 
Guatuera and OsolonentOy " a spying, prying, tooting.** * 

* Marking, spying, looking, tooting, watching, like subtile, crafty, and 
sleight fellowes.' — Latimer, .Sermon, fol. 38 (in Nares'. 

The glossarist remarks that 'tout' became the more 
common form. It maintains to this day in Qlouc. and 
Warw., ' toot * being seldom heard. 

Top-and-tail, v, a. To chop off the roots and green tops of 
turnips, &o. Shrop, Word-bk. (and top-aivd-but). Wore., 
Glouc. The term is used, too, to express the action of 
nipping or cutting off the stalks and *oyes* of goose- 

• berries. 

248 Torril — Tram 

Torril [tor-il], «t. A weak, worn-out, or dilapidated^ 
sorry-looking man, beast, or thing. Staffl, Wore, Shrop. 
Hal. Diet * a worthless woman or horse.' 

Tot, (i) 86. A small drinking-cup of earthenware, holding 
from about a quarter to half a pint. Leic. (tott), Glouc., 
SE. and W. Wore, Shrop., Staff, (a small quantity), 
N'hamp. HaL Dkt, assigns the word to Warw. 
(2) V, a. To pour, as * Tot out the beer.' 

Tote, 86. The whole. HaL GI088. Common. N*havip. 
Gloss, points out that it b often used pleonastically, as 

* The whole tote of 'em.' 

Tother [tuth-ur], adj. Other, the other. 

*No man may seme tweyn lordis, for eithir ho schal hate the toon, 
and loue the tother ; ethir he shal susteyno the toon, and diapiso the 
tothir.'— Matt. v. 24, Wycl. Version, 1388 (quoted in Shrop. Word-hk.). 

*The tone of them was Adier younge, 
The tother was Kyng Estmere ; 
The were as bolde men in their deeds. 
As any were farr and neare.' 

King Estmere^ v. 2 ^Porcy, Reliques). 

' I saw the old squire tother day, ho bears his age 
well.' Chaucer frequently writes * the tothir,' and * that 

Totterdy, adj. Tottering, unsteady, infirm. Glouc., Wore. 

Touched [tuchd], part, adj. Slightly disordered in in- 
tellect ; in a state between eccentricity and lunacy. 

* He's a bit touched.' N'hamp., Leic, and elsewhere. 

Toucher [tuch-ur], sb. * As near as a toucher = as near as 
possible. Common. Leic. Dial, says, 'The metaphor 
probably being from the game of bowls.' 

Towel [tou-il], V. a. To beat, castigate. Midlands. 
Tram, sb. A woodcu stand for casks. Glouc, Wore 

Transmogrify — Trinamanoose 249 

Tran8mog^rify,i;.a. To transform, metamorphose. Common. 
Transmogrified, part, adj. 

Trap, 86. A two-wheeled, one-horse vehicle on springs. 

Trapes [traps], {i) v, n. To trail or trudge about through 
mire, or even dust : to leave muddy or wet footprints on 
the floor (and in SE. Wore.) : to trudge aimlessly, 
(a) ab, A slattern. 

A dirty walk : a useless, heavy journey. 

Trapesing, part. Rambling about through the dirt. Glouc. 
(h\ 71.), Shrop. (v. n.), N'hamp. {part.), W. Wore. (v. n. to 
tread in, to tramp), Oxf. (v. n.)^ Stafll (y. n.), Leic. (sb. and 
V. n.)i Hal. Diet, (* sb, a slattern ; v. n. to wander ; part 
slow, listless. North '), and elsewhere. 

Traps, sb. pi. Effects — household furniture, working tools, 
or small articles. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Tree-pot, sb. A flower-pot. * Trees,' shrubs, flowers for 
pots. * Tree ' is sometimes pronounced * tra.' Midlands. 
Chaucer writes ' treys.' 

* First on the wall was painted a forrest 
Wyth knotty-knarry-barroin treys old.* 

The KnighVs Tale. 

Trig, 86. 'A narrow path.'— Hal. Gloss. Shrop, Wonl-bk. 
has ' Trig, a small gutter.' 

Trim, v. a. To chastise, as 'I'll trim your jacket.' In 
Shrop. ' trim,' to chide ; chastise. 

Trimming. A castigation. Common. 

Trinamanoose [trin-S.-man-oos], 8&. A nonentity: a thing 
forbidden. Also a delusive phrase used as an answer to 
a child that asks a question relating to some object, the 
nature or true name of which is unfit for him to learn. 
' Layos (? lay holds) for meddlers ' is another like phrase : 

250 Tringle — Turf 

so is * A whim-wham [pron. wim-wom] for a mustard- 
mill/ Cf. Tantadlln-tart. 

Tringle [tringl], v, a. To trundle (as a mop). SK Wore., 
Shrop. (triruUe). 

Trinklements [trink-le-mente], tsh. Odds and ends ; mis- 
cellaneous small belongings. Shi-op. {tranklenients). 

Trollop, Trollops, sb. A slattern. Staff, Shrop., Leic, 
and elsewhere. 

Trolloping, jtxir^. adj. Walking through dirt and mire, as 
a slattern does ; trudging. Sometimes * Trollopsing.' 

Trollymog, v, n. To walk about heavily and aimlessly. 
Staff., near Lichfield. 

Trollymogging, piirt. adj, ; as ' Don't let's go troUy- 
mogging about any longer.' 

Truck, sb. Intercourse, dealing. ' Y5* 'ave no truck wi' 
Jack ; he's no good to anybody.* Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Truff, bb, Var. pron. of ' trough.* Leic, Shrop., N*hamp. 

Tug-mutton, sb. A youngster. Hal. Diet. ' a great glutton.' 

Tump, sb. pec. use. A small, irritating, but non-pustular 
excrescence on the skin, caused by over-heated blood. 
Usually called a ' heat-tump.' Variants are * heat-bump/ 
'heat-hump,' and * heat- lump.* In the plural usually 
spoken of as ' summer-spots.' 

Tunkey [tunk-e], adj. Short and thick of build. Cf. 

Tunkey-pig, sb. ' A short, thick, small pig of the Chinese 
breed ; probably a corruption of Tonquin pig.'— N*kam]}. 
Gloss, Leic, Glouc, SE. Wore, (ti^nkey). 

Turf, sh. A green sod or piece of turf cut from a common 
or wayside to put into a lark's cage, or for insertion into 

Turk — Tweedletoe 25 1 

a garden bank or lawn. Glossed * cespes ' in most early 
dictionaries. The plural is * turfs.' In some counties 
' turfe ' or ' turves ' are pieces of peat for fueL Vide 
Shrop. Word'bk. for a careful article. 

Turk, phr. * To work like a Turk'= to labour diligently, 
to toil. Common. A hard taskmaster is called a * Turk * ; 
so is an unruly, troublesome, or exacting child. 

Tnrmit, sb. Var. pron. of * turnip.' Oxf. {turviut), 
Shrop., W. Wore, Glouc. (tmifnit and tumiut)^ and 

Turn, bb. Season. * There won't be many damsons this 
turn.' Glouc, Hal. Diet, (year or time), Leic, N'hamp. 

Tnrn-again-gentleman, sh. The tiger-lily, Liliuni marktgoin , 
or Turk's-cap lily. Glouc, Wore, Shrop. Sometimes 
called ' Turn-cap lily.' 

Turnover, sb. Apple-puff; * a piece of paste rolled out, and 
turned over to the opposite edge, with apple between.' — 
N^hamp, Gloss, Common. 

Tussock, sb, A tuft of coarse grass. Common. 

* Tliere shuld not any suche tussockes nor tufts be sene, as there be ; 
nor suche laying out of the heero.' — A Moste Faithfull Sermon preached 
before the Kung, dc, by Master Hugh Latimer, sign. C. v., 1550 (cit. Latham. 

TuBsocky, adj. Overgrown with * tussocks.* Common. 

Tuth, sb. Var. pron. of ' tooth.' Common. 

Tuthre [ttith-re or tuth-re]. Two or three. 'Gi'e ua 
a tuthree nuts.' Shrop., Staff., and elsewhere. 

Tutty, adj. Short tempered, touchy, apt to take offence. 
N'hamp., Leic. Hal. Diet. 

Tweedletoe [twe-dl-to], sb. A person that places one foot 
over the other in walking. One that goes * five over 
five,' as the folks say. Cf. Hal. Diet. ' tweedle, to twist. 
Devon.' . 

252 TweUt — Two-double 

Twelft. Twelfth. 'The tuelft day, sal stemes falle.* — 
Homilies in Ver^ (circa 133c), Spec Early Eng. viiL A, 
1. 137 (Morris) (quoted in Skrop.'Woi^i-bk.). 

Twet. r. n. To sweat. ^Fm like Tommy Daddle-'em, 
I twet.' — Waric. folk-phrase. 

Twit, r. n. To tell tales, blab. Glouc The word 
is used substantively, too ; as ' Tou are a twit.' 
? common. 

Twitch vd Twitchd, «6. and i\ a. ' A tenn used to describe 
the confinement of an unruly horse by means of a thin 
cord put over the upper lip, and twisted powerfully, so as 
to hold the head tight whilst any operation is performed 
upon the animaL The same word serves also to explain 
a certain mode of punishing dogs who intrude upon 
a person's premises, which is effected by tying an old tin 
kettle, or any similar metallic substance, to the dog's tail, 
and turning him loose. This fails not, by its annoyance, 
as the animal runs away, to make him cry out, and so 
bring a troop of hostile curs upon him.' — Hal. Glotstf. 
N'hamp. Gloss, says, * A stout stick with a strong loop of 
string or leather at the end * ; and Leic. DiaL adds, * The 
loop ... is twisted tight, after which the stick is secured. 
The twitch is sometimes used when driving a kicking 
horse, the stick being made fast to the headstall.' Mid- 
lands, and elsewhere, as West of England. 

Twizzle [twizl], v, a. To intertwine or interweave; as 
* Twisted and twizzled.' Leic. and N'hamp. (to twist or 
turn rapidly ; and 86. a twist, turn), Hal. Diet (' to roll and 
twist. Suffolk '), aud elsewhere. 

Two-double, acZj. (i) Twofold, double. 

(2) Bowed in figure; as * Two-double with the 
rheumatics.' Midlands. 

Two-folks — Unaccountable 253 

Two-folks, phr. At variance. * We shall be two-folks if 

you are rude/ SE. Wore, and elsewhere. 
Two-meal-cheese, ah. Cheese with two * meals * [vide Meal] 

of milk in it, the night's skimmed milk plus the morning's 

new milk. Glouc, N'hamp. HaL Diet, 

U. The sound of u in * bull ' replaces that of u in ' tub/ in 
such words as much, crutch, hutch, which become mitch, 
crUtch, hutch, Cf. Wiinderful. 

The sound of u in * tube ' sometimes replaces that of 
00 in ' fool.* Coot (water-fowl), fool, moon, school, spoon, 
become cilty ful, mun^ skilly spun. But goose becomes 
gooz in * goose-oil.' 

Udder-mucking, adj. Untidy, slovenly, dirty, muddling ; 
as * An udder-mucking job.' 

UU[ta]. Will. 

* Hero lies John Bull. 
If you don't hit him hard, I uU.* — Wano, game-rhyme. 

A boy, laden with the clothes of his companions, crouches 
down, and is buffeted by the other players, imtil he names 
one who strikes him, when this one goes down in turn. 
It is called * Baiting the bull,' and resembles a sport called 
* Baste the bear,' mentioned by Strutt, Sports and Pas- 
times, 1833, p. 387. Shrop. {wull), N'hamp., SE. W^orc. 
{ool), and elsewhere. 

WnU for * will ' is an ancient form, e. g. 

* Pour out the Wine without Restraint or Stay ; 
Pour not by Cups, but by the Belly-full, 
Pour out to all that wuU.' — Spenser, Epiihdlamvm. 

Um, sh. Var. pron. of * home.' Cf. Wum. 

Unacoount'able, adj. and adv. Unusual ; uncommonly, 
surprisingly. 'Unaccountable weather.' 'He did that 
job unaccountable well.' Leic, N'hamp., Staff., Up.-on- 
Sev. (and onaccountable). 

254 Unbeknownt — Unked 

Unbeknownty Unbeknownsd [un-be-no'nty nn-be-no'nzd], 
adj. and adv. Unknown ; without any one's knowledge. 
* He is quite unbeknownt to me.' ' I slipp'd out of the 
house unbeknownsd.' Leic, Shrop. {unbekruncnst and 
unknotvnd)^ Nliamp. and HaL Diet, (unheknovm), SE. 
Wore, (unbeknawna). 

'Especiallj if God did stir up the same secret instinct in thee to 
sympathize with another in praying for saeh thing unbeknown <»ie 
to another/ — ^T. Goodwin, WcrkSj iii. 37a. 

Uncom mon, adv. Elxtremely, very ; as ' He rides uncom- 
mon welL* Glouc., Shrop. (oncommon). 

Undeni able, adj. ExceUent, good ; as ' Undeniable butter.* 
W. Wore., Shrop. (ondeniable, adv. very, extremely; and 
in Warw., too). 

Undercunstum'ble, v. a. or 72. To understand, comprehend : 
used facetiously. Leic, N'hamp., and elsewhere. 

Underminded [un-der-mind'-id], adj. Underhand, mean, 
treacherous ; as ' An underminded trick.* Leic, Glouc, 
and elsewhere. 

Ungain', adj. Awkward, inconvenient ; intractable. 
W. Wore, Shrop. (and ongain). 

Unked [unk-id. Ungked. — S. Warw. Provin.], adj. (1) 
Uncouth ; as ' He's an unked fellow.* 

(z) Lonely, forlorn, duU, dreary, melancholy, solitary ; 
as ' It's [I'm] very unked here, with no company.* 

(3) Weird, uncanny. * I don*t like crossin* th' heath 
late at night ; it*s a very unked place.' 

(4) Strange ; as ' Kip away from the dog ; he knows 
you're unked.' 

(5) Ghastly, terrible; as 'The chaff-machine laid hold 
on his fingers, an' his hand's an unked sight.* 

Hal. Gli)Sii. (unked, melancholy), Shrop. (unked and 

Unkind — Urchin 255 

uiiJcet, dreary, lonely ; awkward, uncouth), N*hamp. 
(unkkl, dreary, lonely), Glouc. {unkard, unkety and linker, 
uncouth ; lonely ; unhappy ; uncanny), SE. Wore {unkid, 
lonely), Leic. {unkecl, unkid, unkit, forlorn, dreary), 
W. Wore, and Up.-on-Sev. {unkedy awkward, lonely, 
misemble), and common, slightly varied. 

Unkind^ adj, Ungenial, unthriving, said of land, plants, 
and beasts. W. Wore. Cf. Kind. 

UnXuck'y* ctdj. * Always in trouble and mischief.'— S. Wanv. 
Promn. Shrop. (and onlibcky). 

Up and told, phr, ' Perhaps " upped," i. e. got up and told. 
This singular phrase, simply meaning to relate, is, by the 
formation of " up " into a verb, equally used in the first 
and third person.* — Hal. GI088. 'He up and told the 
truth.* N*hamp., and elsewhere. 

Upsedown [up-se-doun'], adv. Upside down. Midlands, 
and elsewhere. 

' Vpsedowno, evenus, atibverausy iransr>ersu8.* — Prompt. Parv. 

Upset, sb. A quarrel ; disturbance. Midlands. 

Upsides [up-sfdz], adj. Even, quits. *I*11 be upsides with 
you yet, for all your cleverness.* Common. 

Urchin, ^6. The hedgehog. In all the early dictionaries. 
Shakespeare uses ' urchins * for * hobgoblins * in Merry Wives, 
iv, 4. 51, and other places. So does Harsnet, Declara- 
lion of Popish Impostures, 1603, p. 14. But in Tit, 
Andron, ' urchins * means * hedgehogs * most likely : 

* Tamora. Ton thousand swelling toads, as many urchins, 
Would make such fearful and confused cries.' — ii. 3. 100. 

'Like sharpo urchins his hero was growo.* 

Chaucer, Rom, qf Rose, 
*Somo like snailes, some did like spydors show, 
And some like ugly urchins, thick and short.' 

Fiury Queent'j II. xi. 13. 

Ur^e. r. '/. • To provoke. "^ Tb«t ocmait -io mge me go." ' — 

,'3j We. 'We're 'avin* soisie fine weather, ain't os?' 
SE. Wore. 

Use to could, phf. Usai tr, be able. ^ I can't ran as I use 
to cooU.' Leic. and elsewhere. Vide Coold. 

Vally. «i. Var. pron. of " Talue/ CommoD. Cf. Value. 

Value, «i. /^:. * Amoant both in measure and quantity. 
Thofi we saT The Talae of five load, or The value of 
three feet deep.' — Hal. GIj^. 

Vargia [var-jis and var-jiz], A. Var. pron. of 'veguice.' 
The joice of crab-apples. N'hamp. [i-argi^). Shrop., Glouc. 
{vargezy, SE. Wore (varges), Oxf. {vaiyfiz). 

Varment, A, Var. pron. of 'vermin.' Often applied to 
a mischievous or obnoxious lad, as 'Be off, you young 
varment.' Common. 

ViUrsal, adj. * Universal. So corrupted yet it is used by 
our great poet, and the most frequent application of the 
word as a provincialism is precisely with the same 
adjunct — the varsal tvorld.' — Hal. GI088, Common. 

^ Nurse. She IooIls as pale as any clout in the venal world.' 

Rem. & Jul ii. 4. aao. 

Vast, hh, A great number : a great quantity ; as * A vast of 
people/ ' A vast of timber.' Leic, Shrop. 

Vaz out, V. n. To fray, as ' This cloth is beginning to vaz 
out/ Glouc. 

Ventursome [ven-tur-sum], adj. Var. pron. of * venture- 
soine.' Aflventnrous, daring, intrepid ; as * He's sich a 

Vilet — WaU-eyed 257 

ventursome lad, al'ys roaming or climbin*, or somethink.' 

Vilet vel Voilet [vi-lit, voil-et], sb. Var. pron. of * violet.' 
Glouc, Wore. Cf. Filets. 

Vittle [vitl], sb. Provisions, victuals. Common. 

'And Both to sayn, vitaille gret plentee 
They han hir yeuen/ 

Chauceff B. 443 (Six-text ed. Skeat) 
(quoted in Shrop, Word'bk.), 

W. Added to home and oats, which become vmm and 

Omitted in always, woman, wood, wool, won't, would 
[when not pronounced wtild], wouldn't, which become 
aVya or al*us [auliz, aulus], 'onian [iiman], *ood [tld], 
^ool [til], *ont [tint, when not pronounced wtint], 'ood 
[tid], 'oodnt [tidn't]. 

Omitted, also, in words compounded with *ward,' as 
backwards, for^cul, ok'ard, um'ada = backwards, forward, 
awkwai'd, homewards. 

Wagoner's Words. *Gee-wup, war-wup,' Go on, but in- 
cline towards me. * Come-e-ba-yah,' Come back here. 

Walk-the-moon. A boys' game. One player is blindfolded, 
and stands astride. The other players cast their caps 
between his legs, from the front, and one cries 'Walk 
the moon!' He walks at pleasure, until he treads on 
a cap, when the others buffet its owner, who afterwards 
becomes * Walker/ 

Wall-eyed [waul-id', waur-id], adj. Having an eye, the 
iris of which is streaked, parti-coloured, or lighter in hue 
than the other. Although the eye is somewhat stony in 
appearance, vision is not affected, it is said ; but animals 


258 WaUop 

exhibiting this peculiarity are believed to be treacherous 
and unreliable. In persons, 'wall-eyed' is more parti- 
cularly applied to those who show au undue proportion 
of the white of the eye, the iris being much turned 
towards the outer comer of the socket. 

Shakespeare's use of the word is somewhat ambiguous ; 
but I am of opinion that he meant to convey a sense of 
' treacherous ' or * evil,' in addition to that of remarkable 
expression or aspect. 

^Sali^mry. This is the bloodiest shame [murder of Arthur], 
Tlie wildest savagery, the vilest stroke, 
That ever wall-eyed wrath or staring rage 
Presented to the tears of soft remorse.' 

King John^ iv. 3. 47. 

* Lucius [speaking to Aaron, a Moor]. Say, wall-eyed slave, 
whither wouldst thou convey 
This growing image of thy fiend-like face/ 

Tit. Andron, v. i. 44. 

Ainswoi*th, Thesatti^s, glosses the term * glaucovmte 
lahorans^ ; and there can be no doubt that the word has 
been used of an eye afflicted with glducoma, which is an 
opacity of the vitreous humour — the eye becoming of 
a Mue or sea-green colour. Spenser uses irhaUy for 
' green ' : 

•And next to him rode lustful IxK*hery 
Up(»ii a boarded Goat, wIioho ni^ed hair 
And whally Eyes (the sign of .Tea lousy) 
Was like tlie Person self, whom he did bear.* 

Faery Quttne, bk. i, c. iv, st. xxiv. 

' Whaule-eyed, yhxvrialus.' — Huloet. 

* Glaucoma, a disease in the eye, &c. Some tliinke it to be a whal eie.' 
— A. Fleming, NameniL p. 428. 

' Baret, Ah\ (1580) renders **jv borse with a wall eye" hy yhiuci^tius.* — 

Wallop [wol-up], r. a. To beat, thrash, castigate: to boil 
violently with a l>ubl)linsj souiul. 

Walloper — Wantey 259 

* BouiUer une onde, to boyle a while or but for one bubble, or a wallop 
or two.' — Cotgrave. 

From this last sense comes the 8&. Fot-walloper, a plain 
dumpling. Common. In Leic. Dial. ' to gallop ' ; and 
sh, *any rapid pace or movement.' These agree in 
measure with Jamieson's definitions. * He went wallop ' 
= he fell down all of a heap, in Waiw. 

Walloper [wol-up-ur], sh. Anything huge of its kind. 

Walloping, {\) part. adj. Huge, bulky, powerful: boiling 

(2) hIk a flogging. Common. 

Wallow [wol-6], adj. Tasteless, insipid. W. Wore, {ival- 
lowish, nauseous), Up.-on-Sev. (ivallushy wallow). Hal. 
Diet, says, ' Flat, insipid. North ; and nauseous, Herefords.' 

* " Wallowish, a. Insipid." — Coles* Did. *' Piapor crudus, fastidious.'' — 
Skinner. ** As unwelcome to any true conceit as sluttish morsels, or 
wallowish [nauseous is here meant, I tliink] to a nice stomnck." — 
Overbury's Character 22, of a I>unce * (in Nares). 

Wangle, v. n. *To totter or go unsteady.' — Hal. DUt 
Leic. {vxtngling), Shrop. {waiikle, adj. feeble, tottering, 
unsteady. This last appears to be the better form). 

Wanny, adj, * 111 and pale.' — S. Wariv. Provin. 

Wantey, sh. * The bellyband of a cart * (sic). — Hal. Oloss. 
*The primitive meaning of this word was, a surcingle, 
for securing a wallet or other burden on a packhorae. 
Tusser, in enumerating husbandry -furniture, gives "A 
panel and wanty, a packsaddle and pad " ; the name is 
still preserved in the hempen cor<l or leather strap which 
passes under the horse, and is secured to both shafts, 
to prevent the cart rising up, when heavily laden.' — 
N'hamp. Gloss. Shrop. (wanty), and elsewhere. I have 
not heard the word in folk-speech. 

s 2 

260 Waps— Weeny 

Wsps [wops]. The waap. A.-Sflix. »fa/^. Common. 

Warm [wdrm]^ v. a. To flog. CommcHL ' Til warm yer ' 
or ' ve.' 

Wa'mita [wdr-nnts]. eh. Tar. pron. of 'walnots.' Mid- 

WarwickahiTe-weedy «6. The ehn. 

Waa, pee, use. Lit. ' was away,' as ' I never was from home 
afore/ Leie. 

Water-croaooa [cre-siz], dp. pi. Yar. pron. of ' water-cresses/ 
Leic. Common. 

Wattle-and-dab [woU]. 'A mode of hoilcUng with a 
closely- wrought hurdle smeared (or ' dahbed ') over with 
clay and chopped straw.' — Hal. Gloss. A.-Sax. uxiid, 
a hurdle. N'hamp., Glouc, Shrop., SE Wore. 

Way, phr. * To be in a way '=to be grieved, disappointed, 
vexed, or angry. Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Waywind [wa-wlnd]. *The bindweed, or minor convol- 
vulus.' — S. Warw. Provin. N'hamp., Glouc. and Up.-on- 
Sev. {wavewind). Cf. Bedwind. 

We. Our. * Let's *ave we teas.' Leic, N'hamp. Some- 
times * we n.' Leic. 

Weds-and-forfeits. * This designation of a youthful amuse- 
ment, better known under the name of forfeits only, is 
still in URC, although the principal word is fast giving 
way.' — Hal. Did. 

* Wedde, or thynge leyyd yn plegge, vadium^ piffnus.' — Prompt. Farv. 

i>hrop. Word'hk., in which quotations are given to show 
its earlier use in the nobler sense of * gage.' 

Weeny, adj. Very small. Sometimes compounded with 
* teeny,' as * a teeny-weeny little thing.' Leic , Oxf., and 
elsewhere. Cf. Teeny. 

Weep —Wench 261 

Weep, V. n. To exude (as a sore). Wore, and elsewhere. 
Cf. Shrop. Word-hk, * Weeping-through.' 

Wee-wo [we-wo], adj. Ill-halanced, shaky, swaying, un- 
steady; more on one side than the other. 'This is 
a wee-wo cart.' Shrop. 

Weigh-jolt [wa-j6lt], 86. A seesaw. Glouc. Hal. Diet. 
says, * Wilts.' 

Weight [wat], v, a. pec, use. To weigh. * Just weight this 
basket in your hand, and see how heavy you think 
it is.' 

Well! intery. A common initial expletive. In Warw. 
when a person says ^well' in a surprised, questioning, 
or dubious manner, it is customary to reply, 'That's 
what David said to Nell : ' or * What's the good of a 
well without a bucket?' 

Welly, adv. (i) Var. pron. of * well-nigh.' Common. 
(2) Very. Hal. Diet says, * North.' 

Welt, V. a. To flog. * Welting,' a flogging. Common. 

Wench, sb. A girl ; a female servant. It has never borne, 
in country places at least, a reproachful sense. 

'And he holdinge the hond of the wenche, seith to hir, ^'Tabita 
cumy," that is interpretid or ezpownid "Wenche, to thee I seie, riae 
thou." ' — Wycl. Mark v. (quoted in Shrop. Word-hk.). 

Prospero says, *Well demanded, wench,' to Miranda, 
Tempestj i. 2. 139, and uses the same word to her 1. 409, 
and again 1. 476. Queen Katharine says to one of her 
women : 

* Take thy lute, wench : my soul grows sad with troubles.* 

K. Hen. VIII, iii, i. i. 

Other instances might be noted in Shakespeare. 

* The farmer s wench (female servant) has bin here, an' 
brought the eggs.' ' Wenche, asaecla [it was originally 

262 Wep— Wetchered 

a word of oommon gender, says Dr. Morris] a&ra, 
aneilla,' — PixmipL Part, Midlands, and elsewhere. 

Wep, pret. of weep. 

'But ooolj for the feere Urns ache ciTede, 
And wep that it was pit^ for to heere.' 

Chaoeer, The Kmigktis Talt, 1. 1487, ed. Morris. 

' Dr. Morris notes wep as an obwHeU strong form, Hiift. 
Eng, AccUlencf, p. 157.' — Shrop. Word-lik. 

Were [wli]. Was. 'I were gooin' to fiitch th' cows up/ 
' He were a quick runner/ Is this the plural for the 
singular, or an abbreviated form of ' was ' ? Leic. Dial. 
and X'hamp. Gloss, have * war.' CI Wom't. 

Ware, odv. Var. pron. of ' where,' as * Were are yer gooin'?' 

Werrit [rhjTnes ' merit '], v. a. and n. Var. pron. of * worry.' 
To tease, vex, trouble. G1oucl« Shrop., Wore., Leic. The 
word is used substantively, too, as * What a werrit you 
are.' Cf. Worrit, 

Werry [rhjTnes * merry '], v. a. and n. Var. pron. of * worry.' 
To tear, to mangle : and, to harass, tease, trouble. This 
is an old form, not a modem corruption. Cf. Werrit. 

* He was ware of a wyld bore, 
Wold have werrred a man.' 

Tki Boy and the ManOe^ L 156 (Percy, Bdi^iius^. 

Wetchered [wcch-ud and woch-ud], pari. adj. Wet 
through; e.g. 'Don't stand out in the rain without 
a coat, you'll be wetchered in five minutes.' In North 
Warw. it is pronounced * wech-urd ' ; south in the shire, 
' woch-urd.' Most of the glossarists r^ard the word as 
a corruption of * wetshod,' but I have never heard it used 
in this sense. Mrs. Frances, S. Warw. Provin., gives 
'wetshaly wet through' as its meanings, however. In 
Sharp's Dissertation on the Pageants at Coventry. 
'wachid' is glossed 'weary,' merely. But Professor 

We ver— What's what 263 

Skeat authorizes the glosa 'wetshod.* See his remarks 
on * wete-shodde,' Langland*s Piers the PlowTnan, Text B 
(Early Eng. Text. Soc. pp. 328, 395). SE. Wore. {waU 
cheredj having wet feet), Leic. (watchet, var. pron. of 
*wetshod*), Oxf. (watcherd, wet in the feet), S. Wa7*^v. 
Provin. (watcheredy wetshod, wet through), N*hamp. 
(watchered or vmtchet, wetshod), Glouc. (watvhei\l^ waU 
chet^witahety wetshod), Staff. (wetched, we6-footed : possibly 
a misprint), Shrop. {wetchet^ wet in the feet, wetshod). 
Hal. Diet, (watched y var. dials.). 

Wever [wev-ur], adv. Abbrev. of ' however.' 

Whack [wak], v. a. (i) To divide, share. * Whak this 
opple among yer.' 

(2) To thrash, castigate. Common. 

(3) 8h, (i) A blow. 

(4) A sufficiency, fair share, bellyful. Common. 

Whacker [wak-ur], sh. Anything large of its kind. 

Whacking [wak-in], (i) adj. Huge. 

(2) 86. A thrashing, flogging. Common. 

Whamp, a&. A young child. Hal. Glosa, Not known to me. 

Whap, V. a. Vide Wop. 

What for, phr. A punishment, correction, chastisement. 
*Wait till I get anigh yer. Til give yer what for.' 

What's what, phr. That which is right and proper : it is 
usually enforced with a beating. * I'll let you know 
what's what. Common. 

'I know what's what, I know on which 8idi> 
My broad's buttered.* 

Ford, The Liidi/s Trial, ii. i (quoted in y'hafnji. Glosa.). 

264 Wherewithal —Whim-wham 

Wherewithal, bb. Money, Means (q. v.). ' I'd begin cattle- 
dealing, if I'd got the wherewithal.' HaL Diet has 
• wherewith/ 

Whifbting [wif-e-tin], part. adj. Veering, wavering, fluc- 
tuating (of visible exhalations) ; causing smoke or the 
like to wave or fluctuate, as 'Don't go whiffeting the 
smoke about like that.' Cf. Whiffle. 

Whiffle [wifl], v. n. (i) To veer, to shift; to blow in- 
constantly (said of the wind). 

(2) To move about, as if stirred by a light wind 
(spoken of a curtain, or the like): to drive or whirl 
before the wind (as snow). 

Whiffling, part. adj. i. q. Whiffeting, q. v. 
While [wil], pt^ep. and conj. Until. 

* Macbeth, We will keep ourself 

Till supper time alone: while then, God be with you!' 

Macbeth^ iii. i. 43. 

^Northumb. Bead o'er this paper while the glass doth come.' 

K. Rictiard II j iv. i. 269. 

The word is not common in Warw. folk-speech. Further 
north it is frequently used : e. g. 

^Sip, sap, say; sip, sap, say, 
Lig in a nettle-bed. 
While May-day/ 

WhistU'inaker's nominy (West Riding). 

Said during the beating of the wetted bark of the moun- 
tain-ash, with a clasp-knife handle. The wetting is to 
make the bark slip off easily, to form the case of the 
whistle. Easther and Lees, Dial. AlmondbuiT/ and 
Hvddersfidd (Eng. Dial. Soc). 

Whim-wham vd Wim-wam [wim-wom], sh. Any queer 
contrivance or odd device : anything the real name or 
nature of which should be withheld from a child. ' What's 

Whingel —Whip-stitch 265 

that, dad t A wim-wom for a mustard mill, lad.* N'hamp. 
(a bird-boy's crackers for frightening birds from fruit or 
com), Leic, Shrop. (a turnstile), W. Wore, (a new-fangled 

*They'U pull ye all to pieces for your whim-whams, 
Your garters and your gloves.' 

Beaum. and Fletch., LiitU J/tie/ (quoted in Glouc Gloss,), 

Whingel [win-jl], v, n. To whimper, murmur, whine. Leic, 
Glouc. {whinnel), Hal. Diet. * whinge, whine, sob. North.' 
Whingelling, part, adj. Whimpering, whining. 

Whlnnook [win-uk], v. n. To whimper, to cry fretfully or 
querulously, as a young child does, to whine. Leic. 
{winnick, applied to the squeaking of mice and bats), 
Shrop., N'hamp., Wore, Glouc, and elsewhere. 

Whinnocking, paH. adj. Whimpering, &c. 

Whiny-piny [wi-ne-pi-ne], adj. Fretful, peevish, querulous. 
' Don't go on in that whiny-piny way, child.' N'hamp. 
Hal. Diet. 

Whippet [wip-it]. sb. A small, swift dog of a cross breed 
(? greyhound and terrier). Shrop., Oloue. Gloss, (of the 
lurcher kind), W. Wore,, Hal. Diet, (of a greyhound 
and spaniel). Taylor, Workes, 1630, has 'whippet^ house 
dogge.' See Nares * Whappet ' and * Whippet.' 

Whip-stitch, phr, 'Every whip-stitch ' = every now-and- 
then. Doubtless from * whip-stitch,' v. n. {i) to sew 
carelessly, with long stitches : (2) to half plough, or 
rafter land. Glouc. 

* In making of velvet breeches . . there is required silke lace, cloth of 
golde, of silver, and such costly stuffe, to welt, guard, whip-stitch, edge, 
face, and draw out.'— Greene, Quip/or Upstart Courtier: Harl. Misc. v. 404 
(in Davies' Suppl. Engl, Gloss.), 

Wright, Diet. Ohsol. and Prov. Engl,, has * Whipswhile, 
a short period of time. Somerset.' 

¥1^ iif^ smiC'arnBL. ^ 

W¥c4<i face €me A pant as ^csen^ock. ^Jmsr f uajer nttk^!^ 
a. bflMik. T^ xb=r p«)aj»r» {xfie& oT%r. xht last crying 
'fVxiC h.' Tbfr <x«r -'Sj^va' Uboi fJboes kk nght foot 
at r%it a&^3» v> Lk Lf^ aad ttii^ ib^ left in 
a/iTaij«3i^ o( tL& ri^Ls. ^icvrnj^ an^i. lafdr, the right 
*:'^j^ %iA {ATfclkrl to tLe jrfL So the ganK- goes on 
ntAll on^ {.lajer e&BiiM k^ the distance, when he is 
Vfff>A Uj make the back. But he does not commence 
at tiih fim place again, hot takes the lagt po^iti^m of the 
one ' oown ' before him : and now the plaTeis mav hop 
Uf na^h the back. When another pUver £uls. he goes 
^dowD,' and a stride is added to the hop. and, finally, 
a bopy £»tride, and jump are allowed. The player that 
fniln now begins at taw again, and the game goes on 

ad lih. 

Whtaie, nh. Var. pron. of ' home.' Vide Wun. 

Whopstraw [wop-straa], «6. A country down. Often 
cj/irrifK/unded with 'Johnny,' as 'Johnny Whopetraw.' 
' Wlii[ifitraw ' is another form. ' Johnny Raw ' is common, 

Why! f'.rr1. ShakcHpearc frequently uses this expletive. 

Widow!s-lock —Winder 267 

*Iago. You have not boon abed, then? 
Cos. Why, no ; tlio day had broke 
Before we parted/ — OtheUo^ iii. i. 33. 

* Quince. Ninus' tomb, man. Why, you must not speak that yet.' — if id. 
A'^«. Dr, iii. i. 103. 

Widow'fl-lock, s6. A small lock or fringe growing apart 
from the hair above the forehead. Credulous persons 
believe that a girl so distinguished will become a widow 
soon after marriage. 

Will, «6. Var. pron. of *whitf.* *I'll jist 'ave a wift o' 
bacca.* Midlands. 

Wig, «i. A cake, or bun. Hal. Oloss. 

*Wygge, eschaudi \echaude]* — Palsgrave. 

It is of oblong form, and should contain carraways. 
Shrop., Up.-on-Sev., and elsewhere. Ainsworth, The- 
saurus, glosses * wig * thus : * libum, collyra' We should 
now say * cake-bread ,' where Provipt Parv. says 
* bunne brede.' Dyer, Brit. Pop, Customs^ p. 426, states 
that * wigs ' are mentioned as allowable at the collation 
in Lent, by a Catholic writer nearly two centuries ago. 

*They wore Ught and spongy, and something like very light ginger- 
bread.'— J6td. 

Wik, sb. Var. pron. of * week.* Common. * Wike,* * wyke ' 
=week, are used by Wycliffe in Gen. xxiv. 28 and Mark 
xvi. 2. 

Wilful, adj. pec. Willing, hai'dworking. S. Wanv. Provin. 

Will-gill [wil-jil], sh. A person with rudimentary male 
sexual organs, and of effeminate appearance (dimin. of 
William and Gillian). Glouc, Wore, Shrop. Common. 
(It is in Ainsworth*s Thesaurus.) 

Winder, sh. Var. pron. of * window.' Common. 

* Knowing they were of doubtful gender, 
And that they came in at a windore.' — Hudib. i. 11. 213. 

Winder-rags —Wizen-faced 

inslicu. From tbe supposed 

It is almost unnecessai^ to say that 'ow' becomes 'er' 
in many cases, e. g. meller. feller, vieader, for mellow, 
Mlow, meadow, 

Winder-rags, eb. /il. Fragments, Bhreds. ' The puppy's 
ripped the tablecluth all to winder-ra^' ' Jim-rags * 
and ' Doll-iBga ' are synonymous terms. Common. 

Winding-sheet, eb. An imperfection in a burning candle 
caused by some small obstacle, such as a hair, in the 
tallow, which causes th^ to curl or wind into a rough 
resemblance to drapery. It is supposed to foretoken 
a death in the family. Common. 

Wires, »i. /il. The runners of strawbwTy-plants. Common. 

Withy, ab. A wHlow, osier, or othei' growth of the genus 


Eiigli^li, Sallow. Wjlliic. and 

A'withy-b€d,'a willow plantation; osier-holt. Common. 
A.-Sax. xiiihirf, v:iththe. ' Withifs,' ' withthis ' = willuwB, 
willow-bands, are used by Wychfi'e in Lev. xxiii. 40 ; 
Pb. cxxxvi, 2 ; Isaiah xv. 7 ; Judith vi. 9. 
Wizen-faced, ailj, Fale and pinched of countenance: 
withered. ' These are wizened apples.' Common. Hoi. 
Gloae. has'wizzeneil, shrivelled.' Leic {loiiened), N'hamp., 
S. Wai-w. Provin. (dried up. withered), Olouc {when, 
V. n. to grow wizened). Common. A -Sax. ivisnitin 
[arescere), Stratmann, Dirt. 

'The story is conncclf'd with ft dingy wiien-faped porirsit in Rn ovftl 
tramo.'—IiigeliMry LcginiU, i, 50 (.in Cent. liirt.). 

'Ttiere entered ud old taan, venerabln at Urst tiiglit, but, on nennr 
»□ and wizened.' — tCeade, aaiOsr and llearOi, ch. Itii. in Dbvich' 
11^. 'IJujis.'i. 

Wole —Worrit 269 

Wdle, adj, Var. pron. of ' whole.' Cf, Wiill. 

WooUy-beap, sh. The caterpillar of the Tiger-moth. 

Woom, pron, Var. pron. of * whom ' (in reading : never 
heard in speech). 

Wop, (i) V. a. To strike, beat, thrash. Common. 

*To my rig-ti-rag, I tell you true, 
She wops me till I'm black and blue, 
And if I say I'm a ruin'd man, 
She wops mo o'er the head with the frying-pan.' — Old Song, 

(2) sb. A blow, a heavy stroke: also a heavy fall. 

Wopper, ab. Anything huge of its kind. 

Wopping, part. adj. Huge, bulky, * strapping,' * thump- 
ing.' Common. 

Word of a sort, phr. A reproof, a rebuke, a scolding. 
' Wait till I see my Knabs (q. v.), I'll give him a word of 
a sort.' Shrop., and elsewhere. 

Work, sh. A fuss, disturbance. ' There'll be nice work 
over this broken window.' Sometimes * A nice piece of 

Work-brittle, adj. Industrious ; earnest or intent on work ; 
inclined to work. * I hope you feel work-brittle ; there's 
plenty to do to-day.' N'hamp., Oxf., Shrop. {wa)*k'bratUe), 
and elsewhere. 

Worn't [sound of 'or']. Was not, were not. 'I worn't 
theere above an hour.' ' You worn't at church to-day.' 
Leic. Hal. Die/. ' Var. dials.' Cf. Were. 

Worrit [same sound as in 'worry'], v. a. or n. i. q. 
Werrit, q. v. Leic, N'hamp., and elsewhere. But this 
form of the word would not be used for ' to mangle, 

270 Worser — Wull 

Worser [wur-sur], ailj, Worae. Common. 

^^PuctHe. Changed to a worser Hhapc thou canst not be.' 

I Hen, Vlf V. 3. 36. 

* O I throw away the worsor half of it.* — Hamlet, iii. 4. 157. 

^ Let not my worser spirit tempt me again.' 

King Lear, iv. 6. 223. 

* Our worser genius.' — Tempest, iy. i. 27. 

Wotchered [woch-urd], i. q. Wetohered, q. v. 

Wouking, part. adj. Yelping ; as ' A wouking little cur.* 

Wraoket [rack-it], sh. Consequence, result: usually. of an 
unpleasant nature. ' If you will go to the wake after what 
your father said, you must stand the wracket.' Common. 

Wratch, sh. Var. pron. of ' wretch.' Applied, in the old 
sense, to one in need, or worthy of pity and affection. 
* I set a deal o* store by Lucy, poor wratch.' This is the 
S. Warw., Shrop., and Up.-on-Sev. pronunciation. It is 
not common in other parts of Warw., but ' wretch ' is used 
as defined above. W. Wore, Glouc. 

^Othello [speaking of Dosd.i. Excel lent wrotch ! Perdition cat^.h my 

But I do love thoe !' Othello^ iii. 3. 90. 

Wrizbuns, sh. pi. Var. pron. of ' wristbands ' (of a shirt). 
Wrostle [rosl], v. n, Var. pron. of ' wrestle.' Common. 
Wrote, pvft. for pubt pnvt. written. Common. 

• Lucius. Thanks, royal sir. 

My emperor luith wrote ; I must from hence.' — Cyinb. iii. 5. t. 

Wuld, prft. of 'will,' &c. Var. pron. of 'would.' Cf. 


'A knyte Jx^r was in England ; by norje lier biside 
A yimg cbild ho Inuld*' bi liis wyf : as God wolde it sliolde bitide.' 

yi)> 0.1/0/7/ SfufHit JVuMfXj. Soc. Trans. 1858). 

Wtill, (f(fj. Var. pron. of ' wliolo.' ' W Tilly '= wholly. 
Loic, N'hamp.. and elsewlnTo. 

Wum — Yale 271 

Wnrn, sb. Var. pron. of * home.* W. Wore, Glouc, Shrop. 

* Whome ' in S. Wa'nv. Provin, This is an old form. 
Shrop. {wham, whoine), Cf. Um. 

*And yf thou wylt not so do, 
Whome with iho^ then wyll y goo.* 

MS, Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 210 (quoted in Hal. Did,), 

Wtbaderftil, adj. Var. pron. of * wonderful.' 

WuB, Wusser, mlj. or adv. Var. pron. of * worse, worser.' 
Leic, N*hamp., and common. A boaster is called a 

* wonderful .wusser * in Wai*w. 

WtinU Var. pron. of ' won't.* Will not. * I wtint tek less 
than three shilling for this fowl.' 

WutB [rhymes ' cute '], sh, pi. Var. pron. of * oats.' Glouc, 

Y. Added to ale, ears, earn, 'ead (head), 'erbs (herbs), which 
become yale, years, yarn, yed, yarha. 

^E before a vowel at the beginning of words, as 
Eadweard, Eoforwic, was cleai-ly sounded like t/, or the 
High-Dutch j. Thus we still write York ; and YeJvmnl 
is found in Shakespeare : 

[^ Foist. Hear ye, Yedward ; if I tarry at home and go not, I'U hang 
you for going.' — i Hen. IV, i. a. 148.] 

and earl is in Scotland sounded yeii, like the Danish 
jarU — tShrop. Word-hk. (quoting Freeman's Old English 
Hit<t<ny, p. xviii.). 

Erdington, in Warw., is still called Yenton or Yerton 
l)y the old inhabitants ; and Miss Jackson gives Yerton 
as the place pronunciation of Eardington in Shrop. 

Tale. sh. Var. pron. of *ale.' Shrop. {yaa'l, yedl*), Staff. 
(yell). 'Ale' is not often heard in Glouc; the folks say 
' best beer.' 

272 YaUer— Yent 

Yaller [yal-&], aclj. Var. pron. of * yellow.* Oxf., Leic. 
(yaller) Shrop. (yallow [pron. yala]), and elsewhere. 

' Theise cooodrilles ben serpentes, ^alowe and rayed aboren, and han 
four feet, and schorte thyes and grete nay lea, as clees or talouns/-^ 
Mandeville, Travels, 1356, p. 198 i^in Hal. IHcL). 

Yammep, v. n. To whine or whimper, as a child does. 
Staff. (= to complain). Hal. Diet says, *To grumble, 
fret. North. Also to make a loud, disagreeable noise.' 

Yap [rhymes * cap '], v. n. To yelp snappishly, as a cur 
does. Leic, N'hamp. {yapping, yelping). Hal. Dirt. 
says, ' To bark, yell ; yappee, y^lp- Devons.' 

Yappering, part adj. Chattering, answering elders in 
a saucy way. Glouc. [yapper, yopper, to talk, mouth). 

Yarbs, «6. pi. Var. pron. of * herbs.' Leic, Glouc, SE. 
Wore, Shrop. 

^Some skill in yarbs, as she caUed her simples.* — Kingsley, Westtcard 
Ho! ch. V (in Da vies* Suppl, Engl. Oloss.), 

Yam, V, a. To eai-n. 

'When rain is a let to thy doings abrode, 
set threshers a threshing to laie on good lode ; 
Thresh cleano ye must bid them, though losser they yarn, 
and looking to thriue haue an eie to thy bame.* 

Tusser, Husbandrie. 

Yaup, V. n. [? var. pron. of ' gape.'] To yawn audibly ; to 
talk noisily, to bawl. Leic. (yorp. yawp), Staff., N'harap. 
(yaukivg or yavping). 

Yawnups [yau-nups], sb. A stupid, ignorant, uncouth 
person. Oxf., Glouc, and elsewhere. 

Yed, d). Var. pron. of 'head.* Leic, Shrop. (and 
Yeddvt, Edward), Glouc. (or yvd), Staff. (= the head; 
Yethard = Edward). 

Yent. Am not, is not. * I yent ready.' * He yent willin' to 
work.' More common in S. Warw. Glouc (or yunt). 
Cf. Ain't. 

Yer — Yowk 273 

Yep [rhymes *her']. You, your, you are. Leic, and else- 
where. In NW. Warw. it is very vulgarly sounded in 
certain combinations ; e. g. * I ain't gooin' to school this 
mornin'/ * Yes, yer are.' 

Yia, adv. Var. pron. of *yes.* Walker, Bict,^ gives this 
pronunciation as the accepted one of his time. 

Yit, adv. Var. pron. of ' yet.' 

^He nevere yit no vileinye ne sayde 
In al his lyf, unto no maner wight.' 

Chaucer, The Prologuej i. 70, ed. Morris 
(quoted in Shrop. Wmrd-bk.), 

Yd, pron. Var. pron. of * you.' Common. 

Yon, adv. and adj. Yonder. S. Warw. Provin.j and 

You'm. You am [for *are']. 'You'm a bad lad.' 

Youm, pron. Yours. Common. * Yor n * is another Warw. 
form. So is ' Yors.' 

Yowe [yo], ab. Var. pron. of * ewe.' A.-Sax. eowu. 

Yowk [youk], v. n. To yelp, as a dog does. Leic. (and 
yowt), N'hamp. (yowkin, yelping), Hal. Diet (*West'), 
and Shrop. {yo^vp, to yelp). 

Yowking, part. adj. Yelping. 



The following sayings were gathered after my Folk- 
phrases of Four Counties (Eng. Dial Soc. No. 73) was 

A fool above the shoulders, e. g. ' If you expect me to do 
a day's work for a shilling, you must think Tm a fool 
above the shoulders.' 

A fool's a monkey's master. Said to one who calls 
another ' a fool.' 

A nice name to go to bed with (ironical), e. g. 'Just 
fancy, to christen the poor child Pharaoh : that's a nice 
name to go to bed with.' 

As deep as Gkurry. Glouc. Hazlitt, English Proverbs^ 1882, 
has 'As deep as Garrick,' and remarks, 'I found this 
current in Cornwall, where Garrick's name can scarcely 
have been very familiar : Mr. Pavin Phillips (Notes and 
Quei^ieSy and ser., ii. 307) states that it is well known at 
Haverfordwest, where, however, they make Garratt out 
of Oarrick,' 

As false as God's true. 

As fierce (mettlesome) as a four^year-old (horse). 

As fit as a fiddle. 

T 2 


As ftill as a blow'd monse. 

As much sense as a sucking duck. 

As right as a ribbon. 

Come to my arms, My bundle of charms. Said, jocularly, 
to a woman. 

Dress'd up like an old yowe (ewe) lamb foshion. Spoken 
of an elderly woman dressed in girlish attire. 

Fire and water ; good servants, but bad masters. 

He's such an old thief, he'd rob Jesus Christ of his 

Jimmy Johnson squeeze me. This saying, which was 
common between fifty and sixty years ago, occurs in an 
old song called (?) ' The Brummagem Lad.' Was the song 
founded on the phrase, or was the phrase borrowed from 
the song ? 

'I came up to London to see the Queen, 
And all the grand sights I "was willin*, 
But, when I came to look over my cash, 
I found I'd took two bad shillin'. 

But a Brummagem Lad 

Is not to be had ; 
If ho is, Jimmy Johnson squeeze me.' — (desunt oa/tera.) 

Like a toad out of a tree — thump ! 
Iiive and learn, and die and forget it all. 
Long-look'd-for, come at last. 

March, the month to open the windows and let the fleas 
fly out. Glouc. 


OfE, like a jug handle. 

Sold again, and got the money. A dealer's phrase, when 
a bargain is closed, and the money is paid. It is used 
figuratively, too, when a person is 'sold' or choused. 
* To sell one a pen orth ' is to tell a fanciful tale, with 
intent to deceive. 

That cobs (caps) Dolly, and Dolly cobb'd the devil. 
Vide Cob in Olosaary, 

That's kill'd my pig. i. e. I am dealt the finishing stroke. 
Some say, ' That's settled my hash.' 

To blow one's bags out. To eat a hearty meal. 

To keep one to his cake and milk. i. e. To keep the * one ' 
in question within bounds, or to any firm rule. 

To look like Death on a mopstick. 

To put the cat amongst the pigeons, i. e. To cause discord. 

To sup sorrow by spoonfuls. Heard in such phrases as 
relate to matrimonial intentions, e. g. ' Ah ! if she 
marries that fellow, she'll sup sori'ow by spoonfuls.' 

To win the whistle, i. e. Nothing at all. 

Too fat to turn or spin. 

When apples grow on orange trees. A variant of this 
common phrase concludes an old song which I do not 
remember to have seen in any printed collection. Here 
and there it is not unlike — though elsewhere manifestly 
inferior to — *Waly, Waly, love be bonny,' in Percy's 
Relique8, and the Orpheus Caledonius, 


'There is a house m yonder town, 
Where my love goes and sits him down ; 
He takes a strange girl on his knee, 
O don't you think that's grief to mo? 



griei^ O grief, Fll tell you why, 
Because ahe's got more gold than I. 

Bat her gold will waste, and her beauty blast ; 
Poor girl, shell come like me at last. 

For when my apron-strings were low, 
He follow'd me thro' finost and snow; 
Bat now they are ap to my chin, 
He passes by and says nothing {sk). 


1 wish, I wish, but 'tis all in vain, 
I wish I was a maid again ; 

A maid again I ne'er shall be, 

Till an apple grows on an orange tree.' 

A modem version of this song, set to a sprightly air, and 
entitled *The best of friends must part,' or * There is 
a tavern in the town,' was popular in England and 
America a year or so ago. 

When fools are bom, they mnst be reared. 

Years and years, and donkeys' years (? ears). This is 
a figurative expression for 'a very long tima' As the 
death of a donkey is supposed to be a most rare event, 
its 'years' may serve as an illustration of duration. 
But ' ears ' (and the ears of a donkey are long) is often 
pronounced years, whilst * years ' is as often pronounced 
ears. Such is human perversity. The reader must 
kindly take his own view of the equivoque. 

You'd make a parson swear. There are other variants of 
this phrase. ' He'd make a parson swear,' ' It's enough 
to make a parson swear,' &c. : said to, or of, any irritating 
person or circumstance. 

You're dreaming : put your hand out, and feel if you're 
in bed. Said to one who expresses a mistaken iin- 


You're Irish, and the top of your head's poison. 

Tou've been in the knife-box. i. e. Your wit is sharper. 
Some say * You've been down the pig-market ' : meaning 
that the person to whom the phrase is addressed might 
well have spent his time, recently, amongst the dealers, 
who are generally shrewd of wit, &c. 

You've got a soft place in your head. Said to a noodle. 
'He's got a soft place in his head' was the burden of 
a comic song, forty or fifty yeai's ago. 

You would try to make me believe that black's white, 
and white's no colour at all. 






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